Unification. Hint at the Argument

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German Nationalism 1815-1850

  • Intro

Set the Scene

  • 1806 Napoleon - 400 states to 39.

  • 1815 defeat of Napoleon - creation of the German Confederation (Bund).

  • In Germany Nationalism expressed as a desire for unification.

Hint at the Argument

  • Many reasons why nationalism grew/failed. Pick one or two and mention them. If there’s one in the question mention that one but SAVE THE REST TILL YOUR CONCLUSION.

  • Background

  • Factors against unification Kleindeutschland/Grossdeutschland arguments.

  • Factors in favour of Unification.

  • French Wars

  • (Explanation of Cultural Nationalism.)

  • The Carlsbad Decrees.


F. McKichan ‘These people were talkers and dreamers with no real plan of action.’

  • Economic Nationalism

  • The Zollverein – What was it, how did it work?

  • Importance/significance of the Zollverein.


AJP Taylor – points out that in 1866 Austro-Prussian War, southern states, member s of the Zollverein, fought on the AUSTRIAN side.

  • Political Nationalism

  • Background to the 1848 Revolutions.

  • Events in Berlin in 1848.

  • Concessions made by Frederick William IV to the Revolutionaries.

  • Events in Austria/why the Austrians couldn’t intervene in the violence in the other German states.

  • The Frankfurt Parliament – why was it set up/what did it decide?

  • Offer of the crown to FWIV/failure of the Frankfurt Parliament.


  • Creation of the Erfurt Union.

  • Humiliation of Olmutz.



Unification grew/failed for a number of reasons……….. (SAY WHAT THEY WERE AND WHAT WAS MOST IMPORTANT!!!)

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