Uct egs 4034z spring, 2008 January 6 – February 15, 2008 Raymond Hopkins and Jasper Slingsby, Instructors

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UCT EGS 4034Z Spring, 2008

January 6 – February 15, 2008
Raymond Hopkins and Jasper Slingsby, Instructors

Globalization and the Environment

This seminar introduces arguments about key issues affecting our world--both broadly and in Africa, and in South Africa particularly. Entitled Globalization and the Environment, the seminar gives attention to economic/social/political and physical processes which are increasingly world-wide in scope, reaching more deeply into local contexts with effects that are rapidly changing physical and social situations. We will give attention to the selected effects of these processes on elements of the South African environment.

The seminar is taught by Raymond Hopkins [political scientist] and Jasper Slingsby [geographer/botanist]. Seminar activity will be intense since you will be doing one credit of work in just over one month. The seminar teaching involves lectures, discussions, case studies, papers, and field trips. This breadth of pedagogical styles is designed to help you learn with the engagement and collegiality appropriate to interdisciplinary inquiry. Fundamentally, we want you to emerge more fully knowledgeable about the reasoning and concerns that animate current debates about environmental issues, with special emphasis on comparisons from Africa with local effects in the Cape Town area of global processes. Key concerns include climate change, interdependence, inequality, and resource sustainability. By focusing on the intersection of global forces and changes [often harmful] in environmental realities, the seminar aims to provide a platform for subsequent work this spring, both in courses at UCT and a field work project.

The syllabus below specifies readings linked to particular topics and the schedule for planned events [trips, lectures, seminar and case discussions]. Circumstances may alter some of the specifics. Material for reading will be on the VULA site, in books you are provided, or in handouts. Some sessions will consist of lectures by experts delving into particularly relevant topics given by guest UCT faculty. Two UCT students are enrolled in the seminar to enhance our learning, to reciprocate opportunities among our schools, and to advance their graduate program of study.

Reading: Reading assignments and discussion questions are on the syllabus. Most readings will be available on VULA. Any changes will be announced as they occur during the seminar and altered on the VULA site. VULA is accessible 24 hours a day from your laptop.

Three books—by Mandela, Beinart and Meredith--to be read by January 5 you already have in hand. Note that questions for discussion and specific portions of these books will be on the syllabus for first week’s meetings. Other readings for the first week and after will be posted by mid-December; some items may be handed out in hard copy form in Capetown. Assigned readings should be explored in advance of the meeting at which they are to be discussed; they also may be perused as background material for a lecture. Do not print copies of readings before arriving in Capetown. It is possible that a CD with PDF files of most of the readings will also be made available.

Discussion: A broad purpose of this seminar is to facilitate critical thinking and analysis about the goals, trends, causal links and alternatives facing people regarding the globalization process and valued elements of the environment. Achieving this entails broad participation by seminar members, engaging each other in dialog, a serious weighing of controversial issues and a willingness to take and defend positions on issues. Individual interventions in discussions and as questions in a lecture, therefore, are most important contributions. In addition recall that each student brings to this seminar five or more semesters of college work—often with strong grounding in one or more social or hard science. Hence, we expect students to draw upon their accumulated knowledge of topics as well as specific assigned readings meant to remind and refocus attention [as well as to convey new information].

Papers: There will be three short papers used for seminar discussions, one essay among six options due in early February and one longer paper written as prospectus for field project study/research. For the first three papers essays will answer one of the topic questions posed and should be based on selective aspects of the proposed and assigned readings as well as other materials. The essay will be a longer paper based on one question chosen, and requires students to do independent literature research to support their argument. The longer prospectus paper, due after an oral presentation of it, will propose the framework and strategy for preparing a field study project that investigates a problem. Ideally this paper will assist in your field project undertaken as the second non-elective course of your study abroad program. It will be due in mid-February.

Case Studies and Discussion: Cases refer to learning modules that focus on particular real world situations. For these you will read modest background material and then attempt to interpret and draw lessons from the case through focused discussion. For cases and other discussions students in the class may be asked to take leadership roles of various types—preparing response papers, acting as discussants for a paper, playing a role to act out the issues in a case. Such responsibilities will be assigned in the days prior to a meeting, will reflect your preferences, and can be amended better to suit interests. Leadership in the class setting by students is central to the active-learning goals and will help you appreciate skills such as question formation, framing of issues, and management of interventions within a complex group. Students as well as faculty may facilitate discussions in various ways including encouraging mastery of assigned readings in the allotted time; introducing readings; circulating extra material; preparing brief summary papers; encouraging responses to questions on the syllabus in an expeditious yet thorough manner; and tactfully encouraging those who have not spoken to contribute. The seminar instructors will oversee and intervene in class discussion, adding information as well as their perspectives on complex issues, and having final responsibility for coverage of important issues.

Final Exam: Before the final paper is due you will be examined over the materials and ideas covered in the instructional and field experience portions of the course. Questions from which a written final exam will be composed will be available for review in advance. It will consist of a three hour written exam (with the option of a fourth hour) requiring answers to 6 short and 4 longer more integrative questions.

Assessment: A final grade will be based on the two instructors’ appraisal of your work in roughly the following way:

Discussion quality……………………………………..10%

Case study participation……………………………….10%

Short Papers ..…………………………………………20%

Final Exam ……………………….………………..… 35%

Prospectus [paper & presentation] for EGS 4029X…25% (20% paper, 5% presentation).

Introduction and Orientation:

Context, Globalization, and Climate Change: with Attention to South Africa, Cape Town and OUrselves
6 Jan 2008 (Sunday)
First session: Orientation to the Seminar [Evening 6-10 pm] Discussion of syllabus, first papers submitted and discussed, short autobiographies of participants. Pizza, etc. at the break.
Write a one page paper [250-275 words] and post it for this meeting on Vula under Resources, Seminar Papers, Paper One. In preparing for this “seminar” in Meredith pay most attention to chapters 1, 7, 8, 10, 14, 16, 18, 22, 24, 29, 34-35 and read Mandela and Beinart with an eye to their comments on the geographical and legal structures that shaped South Africa’s history and environment.
Select any one of the following four questions for your paper:
1. Do leaders make a difference in historical outcomes in Africa? If so why are so many of the problems faced—high population growth, poverty, environmental degradation, violence—prevalent across the continent? If not, why do Beinart and Meredith focus on the role of particular leaders and their actions?
2. Did globalization assist Mandela to reach his political goals?
3. Was Mandela an environmentalist?

4. What is the most important environmental problem facing South Africa?

7 Jan (Monday) Orientation to Cape Town region: Cape Point, and Southern Peninsula, (meet at EGS Dept at 8:30am)

This trip led by Mike Meadows will provide a spatial and historical overview of the Cape Peninsula. It introduces the natural environment of the region and addresses the impact of geology, biogeography and climate on agriculture and settlement in the region.

8 Jan (Tuesday) Campus Orientation, Intro Lecture and City Tour
Lecture: Globalization: Process, Impact and Relevance. 9:00-10:15, RH). This lecture will discuss the concept of globalization and various problems it poses for our environment—from soil, water, plants, and animals to human geography using the changes in food supply as an example. The long term process of this phenomenon, dating back at least to the 19th Century and its connections to environmental history will be emphasized.

Core Readings

        Saskia Sassen, Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages (2006), Chapter one.

Kwame Appiah, “Globalization” (NYT Mag. 2005).

Francis Fukuyama, State-Building, Chapter one (2004), chapter one.

Joseph Stiglitz, Making Globalization Work, Ch 1 (2006) chapter one.

Moises Naim_Five.Globalization.Wars_FP'03.

10:45-3:30 Political-Historical Tour of Capetown’s Center City

Jane Battersby-Lennard will introduce the history of the city from pre-colonial times to the present. Through this, the economic, environmental and spatial impacts of various phases of development will be introduced. Particular attention will be given to colonialism, apartheid and the current phase on international investment. Lunch in the city.

9 January Wednesday
Lecture: Globalization and Development: International Institutions and Practices (RH), 9:00-10:00) This lecture will focus on globalization as a contemporary phenomenon, the role of the IMF, WB, WTO, CBD and other agencies. Challenges to development in South Africa since 1994 will be raised.

Registration at IAPO and UCT, library tour, practical issues of UCT life and computer use (10:15-2:45)
Seminar Two: How shall we assess Globalization? Especially what should we study in South Africa Since 1994 (3:30-5:30) Seven students will write short papers (750 words) on one of the four questions below. Use core readings for this week, along with other relevant literature you know to write papers addressing the topics below.

Paper Topics

1. How should we define globalization?  What construction of this process best serves the intellectual goals of our seminar?
2.    What are the causes (drivers) of globalization. Cite succinctly some evidence.
3. Are the consequences of globalization a net benefit or cost?  For whom/what?

4. Is globalization reversible? 

Papers should be 750 words [ (+/-) 75 words].  Half of the students in the seminar~i.e. 7--should choose one of the above topics (limit 2/3 per question).

Additional Suggested Radings for week one:

*Archer, Sean. 2003. “Technology and Ecology in the Karoo: A Century of Windmills, Wire and Changing Farming Practice.” In: Dovers, S., R. Edgecombe and B. Guest (eds). South Africa’s Environmental History : Cases & Comparisons. Cape Town: David Phip Publishers. Pp. 112-137.

*Hart, G. 2002. Disabling Globalization: Places of Power in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press.

*Peet, R. 2002. “Neoliberalism in South Africa.” In: Logan, B.I. (ed.) Globalization, the Third World State and Poverty-Alleviation in The Twenty-First Century. Hampshire, UK: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.

10 January (Thursday)
Lecture: Millenium Development Goals [MDG]s, Public Goods, their Provision, and issues of globalization including equity, growth, multiple values and policy processes. 9;15-10:30 am, RH).

January 11 (Friday)
9 AM: Case Study One: The IPCC and its role in policy formation. Read the introduction and some background on IPCC, and on issues that it poses for South Africa as well as the other states of the world. (8-9:30 p.m.)

10:30-3:30 trip to top of Table Mountain—orientation and lunch.

Seminar 3: Discussion of seven papers on the four topics posted on the assignment page. 3:30-5:30.
Seminar 3: Discussion: 3:30-5:30. Globalization, Development and the Environment: Causal Puzzles. Seven students write on one of the four topics below, max of two per topic.

  1. What agencies are significant in globalisation, especially for the impacts on the environment?

        2. Does globalization cause inequality?  If yes, must it?  If not, is there a causal path from inequality [cheap labor attracts FDI, for example] to globalization at work?  Or is this their correlation merely coincidental?

  1. Are nation-states incapable of dealing with the bad effects of globalization?  If not, what should they do?

       4. What world regimes best address/solve failures to supply demanded levels of global public goods [such as environmental protection]? How can these be enhanced?  

  In addition to core readings, use readings from next week as relevant and also search the web for books and articles on issues such as the resource curse. Paul Collier, Robert Bates, and others writing on Africa have published widely on these issues. Be sure you know the concept of regime as used in national and international settings: i.e. “a set of principles, norms, rules and practices around which expectations converge for governing an issue area or jurisdiction.” (Modified from Hopkins, in Krasner (1983).


Except for dinner in the park and Shakespeare play
14 January {Monday) Globalization, Development, and Agriculture: Environmental Impacts and Policy Analysis
This week focuses on development, its relation to agriculture and the relation of both to environmental concerns.   Development is applauded generally, but perceived to carry some negative consequences, especially when it occurs in tandem with and/or thanks to globalization. 
Lecture: Globalization and Development: Links and ways to assess trade-offs among these processes. Food Security as an example for issues such as “Entitlements” is introduced 9:00-10:15 a.m.) (RH) .

For the week there is a large list of readings attached.   These will be explicated as to their prioriy for reading and/or background during class meeetings.  

 Basic ideas about development about development, the role of the state in this change, and the importance of agriculture are highlighted.  Rural development and agriculture will be explored especially with regard to links with the challenges of environmental soil, water, and plant losses and food security.  Globalization links to current agriculture activities in South Africa will be enhanced by visits to farms and to wineries.  These will complement our broad framing of issues around uses of resources and and links of productivity/growth to world markets and to impacts of these activites upon and from climate change.

  See directions for topics for papers [3rd paper] based on two sets of questions elsewhere under Seminar paper assignments for Seminar #4 on Friday [18th] and Monday [21st]..

Core resources for assigned questions

  • Diamond_Guns__Germs__and_Steel.pdf (2 MB)

  • hopkins_'85.foodsecure.pdf (2 MB)

  • hopkins_Africa.crisis_and_challenge.pdf (185 KB)

  • Green Rev background Pringle_FoodCh3.pdf (598 KB)

  • WB.2008.WDR.Agric.Summary.pdf (1 MB)

  • Africa biotech_Pringle_FoodCh10.pdf (628 KB)

  • moseleyDollars&Sense.pdf (468 KB)

  • zimmerman.land reform2000.pdf (195 KB)

  • Global gov.food_Ag.pdf (20 KB)

  • dissertation.land eqity.wine.reform.pdf (512 KB)

  • 2006.land reform,news.review .pdf (16 KB)

  • Sen_development_as_freedom_ch1,2.pdf (366 KB)

  • sen_development_as_freedom_ch7.pdf (227 KB)

  • fukuyama_state_building1.pdf (353 KB)

  • Rotberg_States.pdf (995 KB)

  • SciAmSeptJeff.Sachs.05.pdf (1 MB)

  • Weinstein, et. al.Ethnicity and PGs.pdf (202 KB)

  • weaver_World Bank Hypocrisy.pdf (158 KB)

  • 2007.FAO.Stats.AG.pdf (878 KB)

  • gpg.2002.pdf (177 KB)

  • Green Rev background Pringle_FoodCh3.pdf (598 KB)

  • N. stern_global and envir.2001..pdf (159 KB)

  • Sen and Easterly_FA.doc (47 KB)

January 15 (Tuesday) Field trip to visit commercial fruit farm near Grabouw/Elgin and Genadendal to visit smallholder farmers. Or other trip that will allow for seeing farm contrasts and links to economic markets.
January 16 (Wednesday)
Lecture: Development and Agriculture (9:15- 10:300
Background readings for this lecture include, Raymond Hopkins,1985; Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom ch. 1, 2001) and UNDP 2007/08 HDR, ch. 9 on Africa
Case Study Two: Malawi and Environmental Shocks to Food Security and Development (11:30-1:00)

Other Suggested Readings for week two:

* Logan, B.I. and W.G. Moseley. 2004. “African Environment and Development: An Introduction.” In: Moseley, W.G. and B.I. Logan. (eds). African Environment and Development: Rhetoric, Programs, Realities. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing Limited. Pp. 1-14.
*Bryant, R.L. 1997. “Beyond the impasse: the power of political ecology in Third World environmental research.” Area. 29(1): 5-19.
*Robbins, P. 2004. Political Ecology: A Critical Introduction. Malden, MA. Chapter 1.
*Maddox, G. 2003. “‘Degradation narratives’ and ‘population time bombs’: Myths and realities about African environments.” In: Dovers, S., R. Edgecombe and B. Guest (eds). South Africa’s Environmental History : Cases & Comparisons. Cape Town: David Philip Publishers. Pp. 250-258.

*Mather, C. 2002. “The Changing Face of Land Reform in Post-Apartheid South Africa.” Geography. 87(4): 345-354.

*Zimmerman, F.J. 2000. “Barriers to Participation of the Poor in South Africa’s Land Redistribution.World Development. 28(8): 1439-1460.
*Hall, R., K. Kleinbooi and N. Mvambo. 2001. “What land reform has meant and could mean to farm workers in South Africa.”
*Moseley, W.G. 2006. “Post-Apartheid Vineyards: Land and Economic Justice in South Africa's Wine Country.” Dollars & Sense. Jan/Feb issue.
Hart, G. 2002. Disabling Globalization: Places of Power in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press.
17 January (Thursday) Field Trip to four wineries. This is an all day (field) trip to Stellenbosch-Paarl. We will have a wine specialist lecture us, we will see various stages of grape growing to wine making and we will explore options for ownership, marketing and strategy of growing [e.g. organic, use of co-op]. Some of the wineries were ones visited last year and include one or two worker co-owned vineyards (Bouwland near Stellenbosch and New Beginnings near Paarl. Read Moseley’s essay on wine and other material of interest as background. Through visiting a number of wine estates (white owned and worker co-owned), students will explore how the wine industry links South Africa to the global economy, and what strategies would best serve values of S Africa and of those in this industry. Look for possible negative externalities as well as equitable growth possibilities. Ask questions about soil, water, labor sustainability as well as quality and international market potential.

18 January (Friday)

9- 11 am Fourth Seminar—on Development and its Impacts issues.

Write on one of the four topics/questions below. 

1. Have IGOs for development , and the World Bank in particuar, done a "good" job in their task [s] with respect to Africa?  Using examples as you are able, assess their provision of advice and financial resources to SubSaharan Africa and especially South Africa in the last 20 years [i.e. post the era of ISI].  Is conditionality still a good idea?  Why?

2. What changes has South Africa made in its development strategies since 1994?   Are these wise?  Successful?  For whom?

3. Should development be defined as GDP or GNI per capita?  Or as "freedom?"   Consider Sen's arguments about development and suggest what implications you see for  allowing globalization to affect countries as fully as possible.

4. What are solutions to challenges to development from factors such as "the resource curse" and domestic violence?  
11:30 Field study course expectations (MM). Basic framework for this one credit of study beginning formally in mid February is explained with examples from last year’s student projects.
11:45-1:15 Case Study Three Land Reform in Centropico


21 January (Monday)
Fifth Seminar: South African development problems related to food, agriculture, environmental outcomes and rural based development.

Topics/Questions for papers:

1.  How does agricultural growth affect the environment?  Pick one or two practices in agriculture, focus on a region of Africa or South Africa, and clarify what positive and negative impacts that occur as a result.  What does your analysis tell us about desirable policy?

2. Should land be owned? By whom and with what rights?  Does South Africa need land reform?

3. Because rain fed agriculture is vulnerable to large swings in production and most Africans spend a high portion of their income on food, many are food insecure according to various studies.   What should be done to protect such people, including South Africans, from food insecurity?  Consider among options reviewed food aid, conditional cash transfers and government marketing boards [to guarantee a stable stock of reserves [or imports]. 

4. "Wine is a wonderful product.  It allows perishable food to be stored for years, and more cheaply than grain crops, it improves with age [usually] and commands higher prices, it is very nutritional and healthy if consumed in moderation.  Wine should become South Africa's signature export, and it can and should set world standards for its wine by using environmentally sound, worker protecting, and income enhancing strategies."   Do you agree?  Why or why not?  What strategies would you recommend for wine producers and for the Govt of Western Cape and of South Africa?

22 January (Tuesday) Lecture: to be filled in………….

23-28 January (Wed- Mon)

Cederberg and Nieuwoudtville Field Trip MM, RH, JS, TZ

Prof. Meadows, along with your instructors will lead several overnight days in the Cederberg and Nieuwoudtville areas. The Cederberg leg will include a hike in the mountains with instruction on the geomorphology and biogeography of the region. Issues of conservation, land degradation and tourism will be discussed. The Nieuwoudtville leg will include a lecture on ecological, social and conservation issues surrounding Red Bush Tea (Rooibos) farming, a visit to a Rooibos farm for a harvesting and fermenting demonstration, exploration of the Nieuwoudtville surrounds (incl. rock art, glacial scratches), and introduction to the mapping assignment.

29 January (Tuesday) Lecture: Dr Ed February (senior lecturer in the UCT Botany department. The talk will elaborate on the history of human settlement and utilization of the Cederberg region, including the history of conservation action and the changes driven by human interest in the region which is historically extensive. Dr. February has extensive experience with this area and with outdoor activities since the 1970s.
Discussion 1: The environmental limits to globalisation.

Readings: Ehrenfeld 2005

31 January (Thursday) Lecture: The role of scientists, and some conservation related science relevant to fynbos JS
Discussion 2: The importance of biodiversity and ecosystem function and the benefits to society.

Readings: Heal 2003, Loreau et al. 2001

1 Feb (Friday) Lecture: Western Cape Policy on CC and Biodiversity.

Dennis Laidler (Deputy Director: Biodiversity Management and Climate Change in the Western Cape Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning).

Mr. Laidler will talk about local government's climate change strategy. He highlights the crucial areas, in terms of basic human needs, for development in the Western Cape province, and neatly outlines the disparity between political, economic and conservation incentives and goals.

This session should provide a good background for the next couple of lectures which provide examples of the ways in which conservation goals have been and are being achieved by marketing them in such a way that they are politically and economically attractive.

Discussion 3: Valuation of ecosystem services and biodiversity.

Readings: Costanza et al. 1997, Balmford et al. 2002, Costanza 2000

4 February (Monday)

Field trip led by Jasper Slingsby and Timothy Aston

The field trip will involve visiting Palmiet dam near Cape Town and a seep sight in indigenous mountain fynbos where Tim will tell us about his research into the potential impacts of tapping the Table Mountain Aquifer system on indigenous fynbos species. It serve the dual function of providing greater insight into issues relating to the City of Cape Town’s fresh water and energy supplies, and gives students better insight into the ecology of the local vegetation.

5 February (Tuesday) Lecture Working for Water and associated programmes: Dr Guy Preston (Chairperson of the Working for Water programme and former chairperson of the Global Invasive Species Programme).

Guy will talk on the Working for Water and Working on Fire programmes (which uses reconstruction and development programme [RDP] money to finance massive alien invasive plant clearing initiatives throughout the country - achieving the goals of increased employment, reduced fire severity, increased water runoff from catchment areas, and a reduction of the impact of alien invasives on indigenous biodiversity) and the Working on Woodlands program, which is similar to the other two programs but focuses on restoration of degraded areas in the Sub-Tropical Thicket biome which has the added benefit of carbon sequestration, allowing the program to improve its funding by selling carbon credits.

Discussion 4: Threats to natural ecosystems.

Readings: Cole and Landres 1996, Bright 1999, Perrings et al. 2005

6 February (Wednesday ) Lecture on the Namaqualand Restoration Initiative (NRI): Dr Peter Carrick (Director of the NRI).

Pete will talk about environmental degradation in the Namaqualand region as the result of diamond mining, and will tell us about the work done by the NRI to create socioeconomic upliftment of local communities and achieve restoration and conservation goals by providing local community members with the skills and the means to set up their own restoration companies.

Discussion 5: Poverty, inequality and environmental quality.

Readings: Rabbinge and Bindraban 2004, Adams et al. 2004, Boyce 2004

7 February (Thursday)

Discussion 6: Approaches for improving environmental quality and sustainability.

Readings: Lund-Thomsen 2005, Cowling et al. in press, Berkes 2004

8 or 11 February (1:30-5:30 PM)

Final Exam ???
Weekend Free

12 February (Monday) Presentations of Prospectus paper. Ppt or overhead for data available, etc. Lecture and other topic
13 February (Tuesday) to 15 February for completion of prospectus [final paper]. Paper will be due ……….
Make final preparations for UCT opening and attend orientations for other incoming students that are relevant and not uselessly redundant.

Although the seminar ‘s work is concluded with the presentation of your prospectus for a field work study project, and submission of the this as a full paper, this is likely to be work with which you will continue [and amend as desired]. There will be occasional seminars and events to help you link your individual field work to the seminar and to the common interests and work of the entire class throughout the semester.

Additional resources for assignment

  • Diamond_Guns__Germs__and_Steel.pdf (2 MB)

  • hopkins_'85.foodsecure.pdf (2 MB)

  • hopkins_Africa.crisis_and_challenge.pdf (185 KB)

  • Green Rev background Pringle_FoodCh3.pdf (598 KB)

  • WB.2008.WDR.Agric.Summary.pdf (1 MB)

  • Africa biotech_Pringle_FoodCh10.pdf (628 KB)

  • moseleyDollars&Sense.pdf (468 KB)

  • zimmerman.land reform2000.pdf (195 KB)

  • Global gov.food_Ag.pdf (20 KB)

  • dissertation.land eqity.wine.reform.pdf (512 KB)

  • 2006.land reform,news.review .pdf (16 KB)

  • Sen_development_as_freedom_ch1,2.pdf (366 KB)

  • sen_development_as_freedom_ch7.pdf (227 KB)

  • fukuyama_state_building1.pdf (353 KB)

  • Rotberg_States.pdf (995 KB)

  • SciAmSeptJeff.Sachs.05.pdf (1 MB)

  • Weinstein, et. al.Ethnicity and PGs.pdf (202 KB)

  • weaver_World Bank Hypocrisy.pdf (158 KB)

  • 2007.FAO.Stats.AG.pdf (878 KB)

  • gpg.2002.pdf (177 KB)

  • Green Rev background Pringle_FoodCh3.pdf (598 KB)

  • N. stern_global and envir.2001..pdf (159 KB)

  • Sen and Easterly_FA.doc (47 KB)

On Wednesday, Jan 23 we leave for a five day trip.  On Jan. 21-22 we will have one seminar on topics relating development and the environment to current issues, esp. in  Africa and in South  Africa as possible.

Additional resources for discussion

  • Jones.Globalization.inequality.pdf (261 KB)

  • GoverningtheForests.pdf (834 KB)

  • Envir.globalization.'04.pdf (140 KB)

  • meadows&hoffman.pdf (369 KB)

  • Biodiversity and Constraints.pdf (2 MB)

  • water.land.hartebeespoort dam2006.editorial .pdf (14 KB)

Handout/Program for Field Trip:
Field excursion: The West Coast, Cederberg and Nieuwoudville
The theme of the field excursion is ‘environmental change in the Sandveld, Swartland and Cederberg regions of the Western Cape’. We will examine evidence for natural and human-induced environmental change. There are several elements to the excursion:

  • Environmental change in the Greater Cape Town area – the examples of Swartland and Sandveld – species rich communities fragmented by agriculture.

  • Eland’s Bay Cave and the Verlorenvlei, among the most important late Quaternary fossil sites in the Western Cape and an area where post-colonial disturbance of the landscape has been considerably more important than is immediately apparent.

  • The Cederberg. One of the most dramatic landscapes in the Western Cape, the Cederberg is the home to the endemic cedar Widdringtonia cederbergensis. Aspects under consideration here will include late Quaternary climate change (wetland sediments and hyraxium) and its relationship to biodiversity, conservation and management of the cedars, fire management and mismanagement. We will also meet with a key field researcher working with the Cape Leopard Trust who is working on leopard conservation in conjunction with landowners.


Wednesday 23rd January 2008. 08h30 depart Rondebosch for drive northwards through the wheatlands and winelands of the Swartland and Sandvel to Eskom Nuclear Power Station where we will be hosted by Visitor Centre staff. Packed lunch (provided by yourselves!) during the visit. Travel thereafter to Eland’s Bay Cave and overnight at Eland’s Bay Hotel, evening meal and breakfast the following day provided.

Thursday 24th January 2008. Depart Eland’s Bay via Verlorenvlei; possible site visit at Lambertsbaai (includes birdwatching), via Clanwilliam (where we will provision) for arrival at Kromrivier, Cederberg. Overnight at Kromrivier chalets. Self-catering.

Friday 24th January 2008. Activities associated with conservation and tourism in the Cederberg including hike to view endemic cedars and cedar seedling scheme. Overnight at Kromrivier chalets. Self-catering.

Saturday 25th January 2008. Transfer to Nieuwoudville via Clanwilliam (more provisioning). Thereafter follow Nieuwoudt itinerary below.

Swartland and Sandveld
Meadows, ME 2003: Soil erosion in the Swartland, Western Cape Province, South Africa: implications of past and present policy and practice. Environmental Science and Policy 6: 17-28.
Newton, IP & Knight, RS 2005: The use of a 60 year series of aerial photographs to assess local agricultural transformations of West Coast Renosterveld, an endangered South African vegetation type. South African Geographical Journal 87: 18-27.

Elands Bay Cave and Verlorenvlei
Baxter, AJ & Meadows, ME 1999: Evidence for Holocene sea level change at Verlorenvlei, Western Cape, South Africa. Quaternary International 56: 65-79.
Parkington, JEP, Cartwright, C, Cowling, RM, Meadows, ME & Baxter, A 2000: Palaeovegetation at the last glacial maximum in the western Cape, South Africa: wood charcoal and pollen evidence from Elands Bay Cave. South African Journal of Science 96: 543-546.
Mustart, P, Juritz, J, Makua, C, van der Merwe, SW & Wessels, N 1995: Restoration of the Clanwilliam Cedar Widdringtonia cedarbergensis: the importance of monitoring seedlings planted in the Cederberg, South Africa. Biological Conservation 72: 73-76.
Martins, Q & Martins, N 2006: Leopards of the Cape: conservation and conservation concerns. International Journal of Environmental Studies 63: 579-585.

Itinerary for Nieuwoudtville leg of field trip:

SUNDAY 27 January 2008
6.30 Meet at Indigo Gallery (Our office on the Main Road in Nieuwoudtville)

6.30 Introduction to Ecology & Tourism & PGIS

7.30 Departure for Papkuilsfontein Guest Farm (30 km South of Nieuwoudtville)

8.00 Meeting with the farming family & discussion of mental map

9.00 GPS measurements of identified sites

13.00 Departure for Guesthouse (as you arranged)

13.30 Lunch (can you arrange for Lunch Packs through your guest house please?)
16.00 Rooibos Tea, Ecology and the Heiveld Co-operative (15 min movie)

16.30 Presentation on the Ecology of Rooibos, sustainable harvesting and fair Trade

17.30 Discussion of potential mid- term projects for collaboration

18.00 Closure for the day

MONDAY 28 January 2008
6.00 Departure to Melkkraal (36 km South of Nieuwoudtville)

6.30 Meet a member of the Community Group at the Gate

6.40 Hike to explore Rooibos, medicinal plants and rock art

8.00 Farm Breakfast at Rietjieshuis

9.00 Rooibos Harvesting Demonstration

11.00 Departure to Nieuwoudtville and Cape Town

Overview and structure of the readings/discussion series 29 Jan – 7 Feb 2008:
Jasper Slingsby

EGS 4034Z

Discussion 1: The environmental limits to globalisation. Tues 29 Jan

Readings: Ehrenfeld 2005

This introductory discussion is to highlight the broader environmental issues faced by the globe, and to put them in the context of globalisation and development. Is globalisation sustainable?
Discussion 2: The importance of biodiversity and ecosystem function and the benefits to society. Thurs 31 Jan

Readings: Heal 2003, Loreau et al. 2001

This discussion has 2 main objectives: a) to establish an overview of the benefits society accrues from intact, functioning ecosystems and biodiversity; and b) to highlight that biodiversity and ecosystem function are separate entities and concepts and are treated as such by policy makers, but also to highlight their interdependence and to warn against ignoring one when dealing with the other.
Discussion 3: Valuation of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Fri 1 Feb

Readings: Costanza et al. 1997, Balmford et al. 2002, Costanza 2000

Here we explore studies that estimate the monetary value of global ecosystem services and protected areas respectively. The point of these studies is to highlight the value of natural ecosystems to the global economy. The third reading (Costanza 2000) makes a theoretical and philosophical analysis of the way in which society places value on ecosystem services and makes economic decisions and suggests ways in which we need to alter this system if we wish to have an efficient economy which incorporates the goals of social fairness and ecological sustainability.
Discussion 4: Threats to natural ecosystems. Tues 5 Feb

Readings: Cole and Landres 1996, Bright 1999, Perrings et al. 2005

This section first takes a look at the role of protected areas, and the threats to these areas, and then looks more closely at the threat of invasive alien species and the role globalisation has played in creating / exacerbating this global threat to biodiversity and ecosystem function. It also explores options for curbing the negative influence of globalisation on the invasive alien problem.
Discussion 5: Poverty, inequality and environmental quality. Wed 6 Feb

Readings: Rabbinge and Bindraban 2004, Adams et al. 2004, Boyce 2004

This section explores the relationship between environmental degradation and poverty or socioeconomic inequality and outlines alternate approaches for conservation and/or efforts to improve environmental quality. Boyce (2004) also explores the relationship between the global North and global South and potential environmental quality outcomes given different policy options, and relates possible options for global environmental governance.
Discussion 6: Approaches for improving environmental quality and sustainability.

Thurs 7 Feb

Readings: Lund-Thomsen 2005, Cowling et al. in press, Berkes 2004

The objective of this section is to look at potential approaches for improving environmental quality, sustainability and conservation efforts. We examine the concept of corporate responsibility in South Africa, efforts that can be made by the commercial/corporate sector, and incentives for doing so. We examine a conceptual model/manual for implementing conservation initiatives to sustain the benefits from ecosystem services, with particular emphasis on the steps required and the roles of the various stakeholders throughout the process. Finally we examine an analysis of the pros and cons of community-based conservation efforts and the factors which aid or impede these efforts.

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