Ubuntu: Curating the Archive

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Ubuntu bibliography:

* This database, generated by the Thinking Africa project Ubuntu: Curating the Archive, is a work in progress. It is in the nature of the topic that an exhaustive or definitive list of Ubuntu related texts is not possible. That said, we will keep updating this list (both in terms of works that are relevant but not yet included and changes that may occur, such as internet links). In addition, if there is peer-reviewed text that you think should be included in this list please email L.Praeg@ru.ac.za with a copy or the necessary reference.

  1. Adofe, L., 2004, “Personal Identity in African Metaphysics”, In Brown, L. M (ed). African Philosophy: New and traditional perspective, New York: Oxford University Press.

  2. Alger, C.,1996, “Reflections on Peace Research Traditions”, International Journal of Peace Studies, 1(1): 1-5, Africa Institute and Cape Town.

  3. Allen, J., 1999., Balancing Justice and Social Unity: Political Theory and the Idea of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission” , the University of Toronto Law Journal, 49 (3): 315-353.

  4. Anderson, A. M., 2003., “Restorative Justice, the African philosophy of Ubuntu and the Diversion of Criminal Prosecution”.

  5. Arthur, J., 1996, “Crime and Penal Policy in the Socialist African Republic of Tanzania, International journal Offender There Comp Criminal, 40: 157.

  6. Babu, A. M., 1981, Book Reviews: African Socialism or Socialist Africa?, London: Zed Press

  7. Badesin, S. G., 2004, "An Outline of a theory of Destiny”, Brown, L. M (ed). African Philosophy: New and traditional perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.

  8. Ball, J., 1994 “The Ritual of the Necklace” Available from http://www.csvr.org.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1632%3Athe-ritual-of-the-necklace&Itemid=2 (Accessed 9 November 2012).

  9. Ballard, R., 2007. Book Review: Nigel C. Gibson (ed._ (2006) Challenging hegemony: Social Movements and the Quest for a New Humanism in Post Apartheid South Africa. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 42: 573.

  10. Bamford, R., 2007, “Nietzsche and Ubuntu”, South African Journal of Philosophy, 26(1), 85-97.

  11. Bangura, A.K., 2009, “Federalism, Economic Development, Science and Technology for a United States of Africa: An Ubuntu-Clustering Approach”, The Journal of Pan African Studies, 3 (2): 33-70.

  12. Barben, T., 2006, “Umntu Ngumntu Ngabantu (‘A person is a person because of other person’): the ethos of the pre-colonial Xhosa-speaking people as presented in fact and young adult fiction, Quarterly Bulletin of the National Library of South Africa, 60 (1/2), 4-20.

  13. Barret, P., 2008, “The Quest for Ubuntu in a Coming-of-Age South Africa - Questions Arising from Dietrich Bonhoeffer's Latter Ideas”, Religion & Theology, 15 (1/2): 8-27.

  14. Bekker, T., 2006. “The Re-emergence of Ubuntu: A critical analysis”, SAPL, 333-344

  15. Beets, P. and Le Grange, L. 2005. “Africanising” assessment practices: Does the notion of Ubuntu hold any promise?” SAJHE 19 (Special Issue):1197-1207.

  16. Bennett, T., 2011, “Ubuntu and African Equity” Potchefstroom Electronic Law Jounral/ Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad, 14, 4 30-61.

  17. Berg-Schlosser, D. 1984 African Political System: Typology and Performance., Comparative Political Studies, 17: 12.

  18. Bewaji, J.A.I. and Ramose, M.B., 2003, “The Bewaji, Van Binsbergen and Ramose debate on Ubuntu”, South African Journal of Philosophy, 22(4), 378-415.

  19. Biko, S., 1998, “Some African Cultural Concepts”, P.H. Coetzee & A.P.J. Roux (eds.), The African Philosophy Reader (London: Routledge).

  20. Biko, S., 2002, “Black Consciousness and the quest for a true humanity”, Philosophy from Africa. Coertze, R., and Roux, A., 2002 eds., Cape Town: Oxford University Press.

  21. Blankenberg, N.,1999, “In search of a real freedom: Ubuntu and the media”, Critical Arts, 13: 2, 42 — 65, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02560049985310121

  22. Bohler-Muller, N., 2005, The story of an African value: Focus: ten years After, SA Publiekreg = SA Public Law, 20 (2): 266-280.

  23. Bongmba, E., 2006, “Reflections On Thabo Mbeki’s African Renaissance”, Journal of Southern African Studies, 30, 2: 291-361.

  24. Bozzoli, B. 1998 Public ritual and private transition: the truth commission in Alexandra township, South Africa, 1996’ in African Studies, 57 (2), pp167-195.

  25. Brack, G.; Hill, M. B.; Edwards, D.; Grootboom, N., Lassiter, P. S. “Adler and Ubunuty: Using Adlerian Principles in the New South Africa”, Journal of Individual Psychology, 59 (3): 316-326.

  26. Brock-Utne, Birgit. 2003. The Language Question in Africa in the Light of Globalisation, Social Justice and Democracy.” International Journal of Peace Studies, Vol. 8, No.2. 67-87.

  27. Brock-Utne, Birgit. 2001. Indigenous Conflict Resolution in Africa.” Paper presented at the weekend seminar on indigenous solutions to conflicts, 23-24 February, University of Oslo.

  28. Brock-Utne, B., 2000a, Whose Education for All? The Recolonization of the African Mind, London: Falmer Press.

  29. Brock-Utne, B., 2000b, “Transforming African Universities Using Indigenous Perspectives and Local Experience.” In G.R Teasdale and Z. Ma Rhea, eds., Local Knowledge and Wisdom in Higher Education. New York: Pergamon Press.

  30. Broodryk, J., 2005, Ubuntu management philosophy: exporting ancient African wisdom into the global world. Randburg: Knowres Publishing.

  31. Broodryk, J., 2006,Ubuntu African Life Coping Mechanism: Theory and Practice.” Paper delivered at the CCEAM Conference 12-17 October 2006.

  32. Bruinsma, F. and Nelken, D., 2007, Explorations in Legal Cultures, Reed Business: BV.

  33. Burke, F., 1964, “Tanganyika: the search for Ujamma” in: Friedland, W and Roseberg, C (eds.), African Socialism, London: Stanford University Press.

  34. Canick, H., 2011, “Light Truth, Education: history in European Humanism”, Taiwan Journal of East Asian Studies, 8 (2):

  35. Chabal, P., The Politics of Suffering and Smiling, London: University KwaZulu-Natal Press.

  36. Chansoeg, 2008, “Bringing together Ubuntu and Sangsaeng: A Journey towards life-giving Civilisation: Transforming theology and the ecumenism of the 21st century”, International review of Mission, 97 (384-385): 129-134.

  37. Chattopadhyaya, U., 2011 “Contemporary Challenges to Historical Studies: In Search of A “Humanistic History” in An Era of Global Crisis”, Taiwan Journal of East Asian Studies, 8 (2):

  38. Chitando, E., 2008, “Religious Ethics, HIV and AIDS and Masculinities in Southern Africa”, Persons in community: African Ethics in Global Culture. Nicholson, R., ed., Scottsville, South Africa: University of KwaZulu Natal Press.

  39. Christians, C.G., 2004, “Ubuntu and communitarianism in media ethics”, Ecquid Novi. Vol. 25. No. 2.

  40. Chivaura, V., Hunhu/Ubuntu: A substantial approach to endogenous development, bio-cultrual diversity and protection of the environment in Africa. Endogenous Development and Biocultural Diversity. [Online] http://www.biocultrual diversity.net/Downloads/Papers%20participant/Chivaura.pdf, Accessed 18 May 2011.

  41. Cilliers, A., 2000, “The Truth and Reconciliation”, World Law South Africa. http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/World/sacor1.htm Accessed 27 April 2010.

  42. Cilliers, J., 2008, “In Search of meaning between Ubuntu and Into: Perspectives on preaching in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Paper delivered at the 8th international conference of Societas Homiletica held in Copenhagen, Denmark, 19-25 July 2008 [online], http://academic.sun.ac.za/tsv/Profiles/Profile_documents/Johan_Cilliers_IN_SEARCH-OF_MEANING-BETWEEN-UBUNTU_AND_INTO.pdf, accessed 18 May 2011.

  43. Coertze, R. D., 2001, “Ubuntu and nation building in South Africa”, South African Journal of Ethnol, 24(4): 113-118.

  44. Comoroff, J., 2011, “Populism and the late liberalism: A special Affinity?” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 637: 99.

  45. Cornell, D., 2004. “A call for a nuanced constitutional jurisprudence : ubuntu, dignity, and reconciliation : post-apartheid fragments : law, politics and critique”. SA Publiekreg = SA Public Law : Public law in transformation : Special Edition 3, 19, 666-675.

  46. Cornell, D. 2008. “uBuntu, Pluralism and the Responsibility of Legal academics to the new South Africa”. (Inaugural lecture), Department of Private Law. Faculty of Law.

  47. Cornell, D., and Muvangua, N., 2011 Ubuntu and the Law: African Ideals and Postapartheid Jurisprudence, New York: Fordham University Press

  48. Cornell, D., and van Marle, K, 2005, “Exploring Ubuntu: Tentative Reflections”. African Human Rights Law Journal 5. Vol 5, No 2

  49. Corwin, E. S., 1929, “The ‘Higher Law’ Background of the American Constitutional Law”, Harvard Law Review, 42 (3): 365-409.

  50. Coughlan, S. 2006. “All you need is Ubuntu”. BBC News Magazine, http://www.woven.ca/assets/Articles/ArticleBBC_Ubuntu_09-28-06.pdf

  51. Creff, K., 2004. “Exploring Ubuntu and the African Renaissance: A Conceptual Study of Servant Leadership from an African Perspective”. Servant Leadership Research Roundtable,


  1. Danaher, J., 2010. “Music that will bring back the dead? Resurrection, Reconciliation, and Restorative Justice in Post-Apartheid South Africa”. Journal of Religious Ethics, 38(1), 115-141.

  2. Davis, D. & le Roux, M. 2009, Precedent & Possibility. Cape Town, South Africa: Double Storey Books. The Use of Law in South Africa

  3. Devish, I., 2011, “Doing Justice to Existence: Jean-Luc Nancy and the ‘The Size of Humanity’, Law and Critique, Volume 22(1): 1-13.

  4. Diagne, S. B., “Keeping Africanity Open”, Public Culture, 14 (3): 621-623.

  5. Diop, C. A., 1974, The African Origin of Civilisation: Myth and Reality, Lawrence Hill Books, Chicago, Illinois.

  6. Diop, C. A., 1987, Precolonial black Africa : a comparative study of the political and social systems of Europe and Black Africa, from antiquity to the formation of modern state, by Cheikh Anta Diop ; translated from the French by Harold J. Salemson, New York: Lawrence Hill Books.

  7. Dirlik, A., 2002, “Historical Colonialism in Contemporary Perspective”. Public Culture, 14 (3): 611-615.

  8. Dube, M., 2009, “I am because we are: Giving Primacy to African Indigenous Values in HIV/AIDS prevention”. African Ethics: An Anthology of Comparative and Applied Ethics, Murove, M., ed. Scottsville, South Africa: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.

  9. Dupret, B., 2007, “Legal Pluralism, Plurality of Laws, and legal Practices:Theories,Critiques and Praxiological RE-Specification”, European Journal of Legal Studies, 1: 1-26.

  10. Du Toit, C., 2003. “Technology with a human face: African and western profiles”. South African Journal of Philosophy, 22(2), 173-183.

  11. Elechi, O., Sherifs, V. C., Morris and Schauvere, 2010, “Restoring Justice (Ubuntu): An African Perspective” International Criminal Justice Review, 20: 73.

  12. Enslin, P. and Kai Horsthemke, 2004.”Can Ubuntu Provide a Model for Citizenship Education in African Democracies?, Comparative Education”, 40(4) 4, Special Issue 29. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4134626

  13. Eze, M. O. 2008. “What is African Communitarianism? Against Consensus as a regulative ideal In South African Journal of Philosophy. 27 (4): 387.

  14. Eze, M. O., 2011, “The Politics of Being Human being in Soweto: Identity as a social capital ‘Everything not forbidden is compulsory’ (T. H. White), Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 29 (3): 299-313.

  15. Ezo, M. O., “Humanism as History in Contemporary Africa”, Taiwan Journal of East Asian Studies, 8 (2):

  16. Eze, M. O., and Rusen, J., 2011, “Introduction: Humanism in World History”, Taiwan Journal of East Asian Studies, 8 (2):

  17. Farland, D. 2007. African Institutions and Moral Theory” South African Journal of Philosophy, 26(4): 356-363.

  18. Farquarson, D., 2009, “Inaugural ubuntu conference. Conference proceedings: Peer-revied academic abstracts, papers and posters”. Accessed: 18th March 2011. http://www.leadershipcentre.co.za/index2.php?option=com_doc,am&task+doc_view&gid=219&itemid=22

  19. Farred, G., 2003, “Repressions of the Modernist Unconscious: A Critique of the ‘African Renaissance”, Postmodernism, Postcoloniality, and African Studies, Ed. A Muguban: Africa World Press.

  20. Farred, G., 2003, “The African Renaissance at the crossroads of Postcolonialty and postmodernity”, Countours: A Journal of the African Diaspora

  21. Forster, D. 2006, “Validation of individual consciousness in Strong artificial intelligence: An African theological contribution”, Pretoria: Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Africa / UNISA, an extensive and detailed discussion of Ubuntu in chapters 5-6.

  22. Foster, D. 2006. “Identity in relationship: The ethics of ubuntu as an answer to the impasse of individual consciousness”, (Paper presented at the South African science and religion Forum - Published in the book The impact of knowledge systems on human development in Africa. du Toit, CW (ed), Pretoria, Research institute for Religion and Theology (University of South Africa) 2007:245-289).Pretoria: UNISA.

  23. Fortes, M & Evans-Pritchard, E. E [1940]: African Political Systems, International African Institute/Oxford University Press, London, New York and Toronto.

  24. Forster, D., 2006a Self validatation consciousness in strong artificial intterllgence: An African theological contribution, Pretoria: Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Africa/ UNISA, an extensive and detailed discussion of Ubuntu in Chapters 5-6.

  25. Forster, D., 2006, Identity in relationship: the ethics of uubuntu as an answer to the impasse of individual consciousness, (Paper presented at the South African science and religion forum- published in the book, The impact of knowledge systems on human development in Africa, du Toit, CW (ed), Pretoria, Research institute for Religion and Theology (University of South Africa) 2007” 245-289: Pretoria: UNISA.

  26. Fraser, N., 2008, “Abnormal Justice”, Critical Inquiry, 34 (3): 393-422.

  27. Friedland, W., 1964, “Basic Social Trends” in Friedland, W and Roseberg, C (eds), African Socialism, London: Oxford University.

  28. Friedman, M., 1989, Feminism and Moral Friendship: Dislocation the Community, Ethics, 99 (2): 275-290.

  29. Gade, C., 2011, “The Historical Development of the Written Discourses on Ubuntu”, Department of Philosophy and History of Ideas, Aarhus University.

  30. Gade, Christian B.N. 2012. "What is Ubuntu? Different Interpretations among South Africans of African Descent". South African Journal of Philosophy 31(3): 484-503.

  31. Gbadegesin, S., 2002, Enyan: The Yoruba concept of a Person; in Philosophy and Public Affairs, Coetzee, R., and Roux, A., 2002, (ed)., Cape Town: Oxford University Press

  32. Gianan, N.A. 2010. “Valuing the emergence of Ubuntu Philosophy”, Cultura. International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology. Vol. 7, No. 1

  33. Gibson, J.L. 2005. The Truth About Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa”. In International Political Science Review. 26. (4): 341-361.

  34. Gilroy, P., 2002, “Toward a Critique of Consumer Imperialism”, Public Culture, 14 (3): 589-591.

  35. Gluckman, M,. 1964 “Natural Justice in Africa Natural Law Forum 9: 25-44 in Csaba Varga (ed) (1992) Comparative Legal Cultures. Dartmouth: England.

  36. Goldberg, D., 1993. Modernity, Race, and Morality”. Cultural Critique, 24, 193-227.

  37. Gordon, L., 2008, An Introduction to Africana Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

  38. Graybill, L. 2002. “Review: Assessing South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission”. Canadian Journal of African Studies. Vol. 36, no.2.

  39. Griffiths, S. 2004. “The Spirit of 'Ubuntu' Full”, Communication World. 21 (4): 46

  40. Guttmann, A., 1985, “Communitarian Critics of Liberalism” Philosophy and Public Affairs, 14 (3): 308-322.

  41. Guyer, J. I., 2002, “Contemplating Uncertainty”, Public Culture, 14 (3): 599-602.

  42. Gyekye, K. 1998. Person and Community in African Thought in P.H. Coetzee & A.P.J. Roux (eds.), The African Philosophy Reader, London: Routledge, 317-336.

  43. Haegert, S., 2000, “An African Ethic for Nursing?”, Nursing Ethics, 7 (6): 492- 502.

  44. Hanks, T. L., 2007, “The Ubuntu Paradigm: Psychology’s Next Force?”, Journal Of humanistic Psychology, 48 (1): 116-138.

  45. Hart, P., 1991, “Irving L. Janis’ Victims of Group Think” Political Pyschology, 12, (2): 247-278.

  46. Haws, C.G., 2009, “Suffering, hope and forgiveness: the ubuntu theology of Desmond Tutu”, Scottish Journal of Theology, 62(4): 477-489.

  47. Helgestad, A.H., 2009. “Ubuntu Management Scrutinizing Black and White Stereotypes in Contemporary South African Management Discourse”, Department of Management, Politics and Philosophy: Copenhagen Business School

  48. Heller A., 1988, General Ethics, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

  49. Husemeyer, L. 1997. Watchdogs or hypocrites? : The amazing debate on South African liberals and liberalism. Johannesburg: Friedrich-Naumann-Stiftung.

  50. Jarvis, M., 2009. Ubuntu Christianity. South Africa: Fact and Publications.

  51. Jules-Rossetta, 2002, “Afro-Pessimism’s Many Guises”, Public Culture, 14 (3): 603-605.

  52. Jewsiecki, B., 2002, “The Subject in Africa: In Foucault’s Footsteps”, translated by Gage, J. C., Public Culture, 14 (3): 593-598.

  53. Kamwangamalu, N.M., 1999, “Ubuntu in South Africa: a Sociolinguistic Perspective to a Pan-African Concept”, Critical Arts: A South-North Journal of Cultural & Media Studies, 13(2), 24-41.

  54. Karsten, L., and Illa, H., 2005, “Ubuntu as Key African Management Concept: Contextual Background and Practical insights for knowledge application”, Journal of Mangerial Psychology, 22 (7): 607-620.

  55. Keep, H. And Midgley, R. 2007, The Emerging Role of Ubuntu-botho in Developing a Consensual South African Legal Culture’, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Law and Society Association Berlin, Germany http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p175788_index.html.

  56. Keevy, I., “Ubuntu versus the Core Values of the South African Constitution”, Department of Constitutional Law and Philosophy of Law, University of the Free State: Bloemfontein.

  57. Kemahlioglu, O., “Jobs in Politicians’ backyards: Party leadership competition and patronage”.

  58. Khoza, R., 1994, “The need for an Afrocentric approach to management”, In Christie, P., Lessem, R. and Mbigi, L. (Eds). African Management Philosophies, Concepts and Applications. Randburg: Knowledge Resources, 117–124.

  59. Kochalumchuvattil, T., 2010, “The crisis of identity in Africa: A call for Subjectivity”, Kritike, 4 (1): 108-122.

  60. Kopytoff, I., 1964, ‘Socialism and Traditional African Studies’, in W Friedland and C.G Rosberg(eds) African Socialism.: Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

  61. Kozlarek, O., “The Humanist Turn in the Social and Cutlrual Sciences and the Commitment to Criticism”, Taiwan Journal of East Asian Studies, 8 (2): 8 (2).

  62. Krause, I. J, 2002, Review Essay Beyond Capitalism?, Political Theory,

  63. Kroeze, I. J. 2002. “Doing things with values II: The case of ubuntu”. Stellenbosch Law Review, 2 (26).

  64. Krog, A. 2008. “This thing called Reconciliation: Forgiveness as part of an interconnectedness-towards-wholeness”, In South African Journal of Philosophy, 27 (4) : 353.

  65. Kymlicka, W., 2002, Contemporary political philosophy: An Introduction, New York: Oxford Claredon Press

  66. Lamont, C., 1965. The philosophy of Humanism, New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing

  67. Lanek, Richard. 1999. Integrating Indigenous Approaches with National and International Mechanisms for Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation”, Paper presented at the All-Africa Conference on African Principles of Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation, 8-12 November, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  68. Lang, B. 2009."Reconciliation: Not Retribution, not Justice, Perhaps not even Forgiveness”, The Monist, 92 (4): 604-619. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=5&hid=9&sid=9be9d653-9178-4141-a8eb-80266d69a84e%40sessionmgr12

  69. Lee, R., 2007. “Cultural studies, complexity studies and the transformation of the structures of knowledge”, International Journal of Cultural Studies 10 (1): 11

  70. Leebaw, B., 2003, Legitimation or Judgment? South Africa's Restorative Approach to Transitional Justice”, Polity Vol. 36, No.1 Palgrave Macmillan Journals: 23-51

  71. LenkaBula, P., 2008, “Beyond Anthropocentricity - Botho/Ubuntu and the Quest for Economic and Ecological Justice in Africa”, Religion & Theology, 15 (3/4): 375-394.

  72. Lenz, I., 2012, “Humanism in the Perspective of Gender Studies”, Taiwan Journal of East Asian Studies, 8 (2):

  73. Letseka, M., 2011, “In Defence of Ubuntu”, www.springerlink.com/index/N8116302330L7815, Accessed March 2012.

  74. Lewis, B., 2010, “Forging an Understanding of Black Humanity Through Relationship: An Ubuntu Perspective”, Black Theology: An International Journal, 8 (1): 69-85.

  75. Louw, D. J. 1998, “Ubuntu: An African Assessment of the Religious Other”, Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy.

  76. Louw, D, J., 2001, “Ubuntu and the Challenges of Multiculturalism in Post-Apartheid South Africa”, African Journal of Philosophy, Quest, XV(1-2).

  77. Lutz, D. W., 2009, African Ubuntu Philosophy and Global Management”, in the Journal of Business Ethics 84 (3).

  78. Lutz, M. and Lux, K., 1988, Humanistic economics: The New Challenge, Newyourk: The Bootstrap Press.

  79. Mafeje, A., 2000, “Africanity: an ontological combat” in CODESRIA Bulletin, No. 1: 66-71.

  80. MacKay, R. A., 1923, “Coke- Parliamentary Sovereignty or the Supremacy of Law?”, Michegan Law Review, 22: 215-247,

  81. Mafeje, A., 1992, African Philosophical Projections and Prospects for the Indigenisation of Political and Intellectual Discourse”, Seminar Paper Series, No. 7. Harare: Sapes Books.

  82. Makhudu, N., 1993, “Cultivating a Climate of Co-operation through Ubuntu”, Enterprise Magazine, 48: 40-42.

  83. Mangaliso, M.P. & Damane, M.B., 1993, “Building Competitive Advantage from "Ubuntu": Management Lessons from South Africa”, [and Executive Commentary]. Academy of Management. http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/4165756?seq=1

  84. Mangaliso, M. deBuntu. 2006. Prophecies and protests: Ubuntu in global management. Amsterdam : Rozenberg

  85. Mapadimeng, M.S., 2009, “Culture versus Religion: A Theoretical Analysis of the Role of Indigenous African Culture of Ubuntu in Social Change and Economic Development in the Post-Apartheid South African Society”, Politics and Religion • POLITOLOGIE DES RELIGIONS. Vol. III. No. 1.

  86. Marx, C., 2002, Ubu and Ubuntu: on the dialectics of apartheid and nation building’, In Politikon ,29. (1): 49-69.

  87. Marx, C., 1997, “History comes full circle: Nkrumah, Kenyatta , Mandela über Nation and Ethnizität in Afrika”, Historische Zeitschrift, 265 (2): 373-393.

  88. Masoga, M.A., 1999, Towards sacrificial-cleansing ritual in South Africa: an indigenous African view of Truth and reconciliation”, Alternation 6(1): 213-224.

  89. Masolo, D. A., 1994, African Philosophy in Search of Identity, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indianapolis, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

  90. Matustik, M., 1995, “Derrida and Habermas on the: Aporia of the politics of identiy and difference: towards Radical Democratic Multiculturalism”, Constellations, 1( 3), 383-398.

  91. Mazrui, A., 1978, Political Values and the Educated Class in Africa, Berkeley London: University of California Press Heinemann.

  92. Mazrui, A., 1994, “The Impact of Global Changes on Academic Freedom in Africa: A Preliminary Assessment”, In Mamadou Diouf and Mahmood Mamdani, eds., Academic Freedom in Africa. Dakar: CODESRIA Book Series.

  93. Masrui, A., 1999, “Identity politics and the nation-state under siege: Towards a theory of reverse evolution”, Social Dynamics A Journal of African Studies, 25 (2): 5-25.

  94. Mbembe, A., 2002, “African Modes of Self-Writing”, In Public Culture, 14(1): 239-273.

  95. Mbigi, L.,1995, Ubuntu: the spirit of African Transformation Management, Randburg: South Africa.

  96. Mbigi, L. 1997, Ubuntu: the African Dream in Management, Randburg: Knowledge Resources.

  97. Mbigi, L., 2000, In search of the African business renaissance: an African Cultural perspective, Randburg: Knowledge Resources

  98. Mbigi, L., 2004, The spirit of African leadership, Randburg: Knowledge Resources

  99. Mbigi, L. and Maree, J., 2005, Ubuntu: the spirit of African transformation Management, Randburg: Knowledge Resources.

  100. McAllister, P., 2009, “Ubuntu- Beyond Belief in Southern Africa”, Sites: New Series. 6 (1).

  101. McDonald, D.A., 2010, “Ubuntu Bashing: the Marketization of ‘African Values’ in South Africa”, Review of African Political Economy. 37 (124): 139-152.

  102. Mdluli, P., 1987, “Ubuntu-Botho: Inkatha’s People’s Education”, Transformation 0258-7696, 5: 60.

  103. Meister, A., 1969, “Ambitions and Risks of Cooperative Socialism in East Africa: Kenya Uganda, Tanzania”, Journal of Asian and African Studies, 4 (4): 241.

  104. Menkiti, I.A., 1984, “Person and Community in African Traditional Thought” In (ed.). Wright, R.A. African Philosophy: An Introduction Third Edition, University Press of America: Boston Way.

  105. Menkiti, I. A. 2004. “Physical and Metaphysical Understanding”. in Brown, L. M (ed). African Philosophy: New and traditional perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.

  106. Metz, T. 2007 Ubuntu as a Moral Theory: Reply to Four Critics”, South African Journal of Philosophy, 26 (4): 369-387.

  107. Metz, T., 2009, “An African Moral Theory in Politics: Nepotism, Preferential Hiring and other Partiality”, African Ethics An Anthology of Comparative and Applied Ethics, MKurove, M ed, Scottsville South Africa: University of KwaZulu Natal Press.

  108. Mhkize, N., 2008, “Ubuntu and Harmony: An African Approach to Morality and Ethics”, Persons in community: African Ethics in a Global culture, Nicholson, R., ed Scottsville South Africa: University of KwaZulu Natal Press.

  109. Mnyaka, M. and Motlhabi, M., 2005, The African Concept of Ubuntu/botho and its socio-moral significance, Black Theology: an International Journal, 3 (2): 215-237.

  110. Mnyaka, M.M.N., 2003, “Xenophobia as a Response to Foreigners in Post-Apartheid South Africa and Post-Exilic Israel: A Comparative Critique in the Light of the Gospel and Ubuntu Ethical Principles”, Theological Ethics: University of South Africa

  111. Mnyaka, M. M. N., 2003, “De-linking Ubuntu: towards a unique South African Jurisprudence”, Obiter, 31 (1): 134-145.

  112. Mqeke, R., 2009, “Guidelines for determining the constitutional injunction to apply customary law in the new South Africa”, South Africa Law Journal, 126 (4): 689-694.

  113. Mokgoro, J. 1998, “Ubuntu and the Law in South Africa”, Potchefstroom Electronic Journal http://www.puk.ac.za/fukulteite/regte/per/issue98v1.html. Accessed 10 May 2010.

  114. Mokgoro, J. Y. 2009, “Ubuntu, the constitution and the rights of non-citizens”. http://www.puk.ac.za/fakulteite/regte/per/issue98vl1.html Accessed 19 May 2010

  115. Morrison, D., 1964, Book Reviews on African Socialism By Leopold Sedar Senghor, Race Class, 6 (2): 171-172.

  116. Mosley, A., 2004, “Witchcraft, science and the paranormal in contemporary African Philosophy”, Brown, L. M. (ed) African Philosophy: New and traditional perspective, New York: Oxford University Press.

  117. Motha, S., “ Archiving colonial sovereignty: From Ubuntu to a Jurisprudence of sacrifice”, Public Law, 22: 297-327.

  118. Msila, V. 2005, The Education Exodus: the Flight from Township Schools”, Africa Education Review, 2(2): 173–188.

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