U. S. History Final Exam Review Fall 2009



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U.S. History Final Exam Review Fall 2009
1. Define and give characteristics of the Gilded Age.

2. Define and give characteristics of the Progressive Era.

3. Identify:


  • 15th Amendment

  • 16th Amendment

  • Business cycle

  • 17th Amendment

  • 18th Amendment

  • 19th Amendment

  • Laissez-faire

  • Nativism

  • Social Darwinism

  • Jim Crow

  • Poll Tax

  • Grandfather clause

  • Referendum

  • Recall

  • Initiative

  • Economies of scale

  • Land speculators

  • Vertical consolidation

  • Horizontal consolidation

  • Trust, monopoly, cartel

  • Boomers, Sooners

  • Graft, vice, corruption

  • Bessemer Process




4. How did the growth of railroads effect the development of the West?

5. What was the Morrill Land Grant? How did it encourage westward expansion?

6. What was the Homestead Act? How did it encourage westward expansion?

7. Define Manifest Destiny. How did this encourage westward expansion?

8. Identify the transcontinental railway. How did the U.S. government encourage the building of the TCRR?

9. What made possible the American industrial growth of the late 1880’s?

10. What revolutionized American communications in the late 1880’s?

11. Critics of powerful industrialists referred to them as _____.

12. The goal of the Sherman Antitrust Act was to do what?

13. According to the theory of social Darwinism, the government should do what?

14. How did industrial growth affect the distribution of wealth in the United States?

16. During the late 1800s, children often worked in factories. Why?

17. How did Andrew Carnegie gain control of the steel industry?

18. Employers used what types of tactics in their attempts to crush labor strikes?

19. As a results of the Pullman Strikes, for the next 30 years the government did what?

20. Between 1860-1900 14 million immigrants came to the United States. why?

21. Children had to work in the factories in the 1880's. why?

22. Labor unions were created in the 1800's because why?

23. What was a major incentive in the settling of the West?

                    24. What drew many new immigrants to the West?

                    25. Describe the lifestyle of homesteaders? 26.Many agreements between Native Americans and the federal government fell apart why?

                    26. The Interstate Commerce Act was passed to do what?

                   27. The challenges and hardships of settling the Great Plains led settlers to do what?

                   28. Most African American Exodusters migrated west for what reason?

                   29. One way the government sought to change Native Americans was by doing what to them?

                   30. Frederick Jackson Turner’s thesis held that the frontier meant what?

                   31. As American settlers moved west in search of land, what happened to many Native American nations?  

                  32. What were the major beliefs of the Republican Party during the Gilded Age? The Democratic Party?

The Populist Party?

                   33. Why did farmers favor inflation?

                   34. William Jennings Bryan lost the election of 1896 because he could not do what?

                   35. During the late 1800s, the port of entry for the majority of immigrants was where?

                   36. What attracted many Asians to the United States in the late 1800s?

                   37. Why did many immigrants support city political machines?

                   37. The Pendleton Civil Service Act was passed to do what?

                  38. In the 1890s, immigration patterns shifted dramatically, with most immigrants now coming from which areas?

                   39. The main objective of the nativists was to do what?

                   40. Prohibitionists and purity crusaders both worked to do what?

                   41. The Interstate Commerce Act outlawed the railroads’ practice of what?

                   42. How were Asians regarded by many white Americans?

                   43. What contributed to the migration from farms to cities in the late 1800s?

                   44. What contributes to the growth of cities?

                   45. What powerful position did William Marcy Tweed hold?

                   46. The Niagara Movement called for what?

                   47. During the early 1900s, The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was an example of how African Americans could do what?

                   48. In the case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court ruled what?

                   50. W.E.B. Du Bois argued that African Americans should educate themselves for what reason?

51. How did Booker T. Washington’s differ from W.E.B. DuBois?

                   51. How did immigrants regard public education?

                   52. What were all the popular forms of entertainment in the late 1800s?

                   53. Why was the NAACP founded?

        54. An event that led to the Spanish-American War was what?

        55. What was the Open Door Policy? Why was it important to the United States?

        56. The central message of the Roosevelt Corollary was what?

         57. The United States followed a policy of expansionism in the late 1800s because why?

        58. Alfred T. Mahan argued that to protect its trade, the United States must build up its what?

        59. William R. Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer used sensational stories in their newspapers to do what?

         60. To support their view, anti-imperialists argued what?

        61. Under imperialism, the stronger nation attempts to do what?

        62. In 1898, the American government declared war on Spain to win the independence of what country?

        63. The first action of the Spanish-American War took place where?

        64. As a result of the peace treaty with Spain, the United States gained what territories?

         65. The United States wanted to build a canal across Panama for what reason?

        66. The United States acquired control of the Canal Zone by doing what?

        67. President Roosevelt threatened to use the United States Navy ("The Big Stick") to accomplish what?

        68. President Taft was known for a foreign policy based on what principle?

        69. Imperialists like Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge argued that the United States needed to do what 2 things?

        70. The efforts of Florence Kelley convinced many states to abolish what?

        71. President Wilson established the Federal Reserve System for what purpose?

        72. Which belief was held by most Progressives regarding the government?

        73. Which was a major contributing factor in Woodrow Wilson’s winning the presidency in 1912?

        74. In 1906, Upton Sinclair’s novel entitled The Jungle exposed dangerous workplace conditions where?

        75. Journalists known as muckrakers worked at doing what?

        76. Mother Jones is best known for organizing unions where?

        77. When the United Mine Workers called a strike in 1902, President Roosevelt did what?

        78. Roosevelt vigorously enforced what Act?

        79. As a measure to prevent bank failures, President Wilson helped create what?

        80. The anti-suffrage movement argued that if women could vote, then what would happen to them?

        81. The battle for women’s suffrage ended with the ratification of which amendment? 19th

        82. The woman who led NAWSA to victory was whom? Carrie Chapman Catt

      84. What were some facts of African Americans during World War I? Mainly used for manual or menial labor. They were segregated in the United States military. However, they fought side by side with the French military in Europe. Also, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) demanded that blacks be able to become officers. After that, 600 blacks became officers.

        85. What role did the federal government play in the economy during WWI?

        86. The incident that triggered World War I was what event? World War I started with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austria- Hungarian throne, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914 by a member of the Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist secret society.

        87. Under the terms of the Sussex pledge, the German government promised what? Germany attempted to appease the United States by issuing, on May 4, 1916, the Sussex pledge, which promised a change in Germany’s naval warfare policy. The primary elements of this undertaking were:



  • Passenger ships would not be targeted;

  • Merchant ships would not be sunk until the presence of weapons had been established, if necessary by a search of the ship;

  • Merchant ships would not be sunk without provision for the safety of passengers and crew.

        88. The Selective Service Act was a means of doing what? Selective Draft Act, which was passed by the Congress of the United States on May 18, 1918. It was for men to go to WWI at a young age.

        90. The United States broke off diplomatic relations with Germany when what event took place? German’s decision to continue unrestricted submarine warfare.

91. Why did the U.S. decide to enter WWI? Sinking of the Lusitania, Zimmerman Telegram, Unrestricted submarine warfare (Germany)

        92. Herbert Hoover, head of the Food Administration, worked to do what? Hoover believed "food will win the war." He established set days to encourage people to avoid eating particular foods to save them for soldiers' rations: meatless Mondays, wheatless Wednesdays, and "when in doubt, eat potatoes." This program helped reduce consumption of foodstuffs needed overseas and avoided rationing at home. It was dubbed "Hooverizing" by government publicists, in spite of Hoover's continual orders that publicity should not mention him by name.

        93. Minorities and women found employment opportunities mainly in what area during WWI? Industry (Factory work)

94. The Sedition Act made it illegal to do what? The


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