U. S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs 810 Seventh Street, N. W. Washington, D. C. 20531 Janet Reno

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1934 Johnson O’Malley Act - This act, was an attempt to address the needs of Indian students as they enrolled in public schools, as amended in 1936, permitted the government to contract with states, territories, corporations, private institutions, agencies, and political subdivisions to provide education and other services to American Indians (Cohen 1982). Despite this act, thirty years later Indian education remained far below national standards.

  • 1930 1945 - Indian Reorganization Act - This act ended the destructive land allotment system, which had begun in earnest in 1887. Allotment had progressively dismantled numerous reservation land bases and forced affected tribes to have fewer resources available to its members. This act was purposely designed to help re-establish self-government and restore to tribes sufficient powers to represent tribal interests in a variety of political and economic circumstances. Elected tribal governments became formal organizations and traditional forms of tribal governing were discouraged. Unfortunately much of the bureaucratic stranglehold and paternalism of the Bureau of Indian Affairs continued. The elected officials had limited power with restrictions by the BIA.

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