1879 – Carlisle Indian School was established by Henry Pratt, a Civil War veteran, whose initial goal was complete annihilation or assimilation. “Kill the Indian and save the man” was his motto. Regimentation, reading, writing, arithmetic, the manual trades, and home economics were drilled into the students until the school was closed in 1918 (BIA 1988; O’Brien 1989; Szasz and Ryan 1988). Many students stayed at least 5 years, losing their language and most Native cultural practices during this time. After receiving education at Carlisle, those that returned to the reservation found little or no work for the trades they had learned and experienced more alienation from their families because of differences in thoughts and beliefs.