Designed to target a specific group of immigrants, this Act, passed in 1882, banned all future Chinese immigration to the U.S. Chinese Exclusion Act
Who was Samuel Gompers? President/Founder of the American Federation of Labor.
The purpose of the American Federation of labor was to . . . support workers to use strikes (work stoppage) to fight for equal rights and better working conditions
Purpose of the 1894 Pullman Strike first example of workers using strikes to get better working conditions. This event involved the federal government supporting strikes by forcing the employer to remove the immigrants from original workers (those who went on strike) jobs.
This movement was intended to strengthen democracy and to make people’s lives better by allowing more government regulation to protect consumers.
Progressive Movement (early 1900s) to improve society.
Muckraker and author he exposed the filth and corruption found within the meatpacking industry. Upton Sinclair
Title of the book written by Upton Sinclair that brought about the passing of the Pure Food and Drug Act.
The Jungle, written by Upton Sinclair
U.S. History GPS # 13, 14 & 15 – REVIEW (Progressive Era, Imperialism, World War I, & Roaring 1920s)
Segregation laws passed in the south that required the separate use of public and private facilities for blacks and whites
Jim Crow Laws (Plessy vs. Fergerson)
Impact of Jim Crow laws: supported Segregation, separation between black and white, unequal treatment between races.
A 1896 Supreme Court case that upheld the idea of “separate but equal” Plessy vs. Fergerson
What does NAACP stand for? National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
What was the purpose of the NAACP? Seek full civil rights on African Americans.
Prior to the addition of the 17th amendment to the Constitution, how were state senators elected? by state legislatures (members of the House of Representatives)
The 18th amendment outlawed what? Prohibition (prohibiting the drinking, manufacturing, distribution, sale, of Alcohol)
The 18th amendment led to . . . crime, bootlegging, mobsters such as Al Capone.
Susan B. Anthony’s claim to fame was? President of the National Association of Women Suffrage –a movement supporting women’s right to vote.
The 19th amendment granted what? Women’s right to vote (suffrage)
List key events during Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency. Square Deal-equality for workers used the media to focus attention on need for government involvement, National Parks-conservation, Coal Miners strike workers’ right.
What is meant by the idea of American expansionism? Increase western civilization (Democracy) across the Atlantic, overseas into other countries in Western hemisphere.
What is “yellow journalism”? an exaggerated truth of the realization of what really occurred.
“Remember the Maine” refers to what incident? Spanish-American War.
Who was the U.S. fighting in the Spanish-American? Spain-Philippines for lands of Puerto Rico, Cuba, Guam.
How do the Philippines figure into the Spanish-American War? Philippines wanted freedom—1st battle of the Spanish American War.
What was the Roosevelt Corollary? An extention of the Monroe Doctrine explaining why the U.S. intervened in helping Cuba and other countries get their independence from Spain.
This project was undertaken by the U.S. to shorten the travel distance by ship from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Panama Canal
What were the “MAIN” long term causes of WWI? Militarianism, Alliance System, Imperialism, Nationalism.
What was the immediate cause of World War I? the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the crown prince of Austria-Hungary, fall of the Hapsburgs.
At the beginning of the war the U.S. maintained this policy: neutrality (isolationism)
The German engagement in this naval practice ultimately pulled America into the war. Unrestricted submarine warfare, Germany aggression on the sea.
The sinking of the Lusitania is an example of . . . unrestricted submarine warfare caused by Germany this was the reason for U.S. involvement in World War I.
A type of warfare that took place in deep ditches dug to protect the soldiers fighting, but did not allow for much progress on either side. Trench Warfare
What happened to Russia during World War II? Russia had to leave due to their own revolution overthrow of their Czar Nicholas II by the Bolsheviks.
Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks? Vladimir Lenin What did they do? Overthrow Czar Nicholas II, which was the fall of the Romanovs.
U.S. History GPS # 15, 16, &17 – REVIEW (World War I, Roaring 1920s, and the Great Depression)
What was the Schleiffen Plan? The German’s shift of their army from the eastern front to the western front in WWI.
What caused American involvement in WWI? Sinking of the Lusitania (unrestricted German warfare)
Who were the big winners of WWI? Great Britain-George; France-Clemenceau; Italy-Orlando; United States-Wilson.
The Treaty of Versailles did what? Ended WWI with Germany’s defeat and acceptance of war guilt clause to pay for war reparations.
What are reparations and why were they Germany’s problem?
The cost of war, expenses and damages. The German citizens felt they were being punished for something their government was responsible for.
President Wilson’s proposed peace plan was called the . . Fourteen Points-joinging the League of Nations to settle disputes prior to fighting in war.
The intent of the League of Nations was to . . . maintain peace with foreign nation if differences are economic or political. The United States Senate refused to sign treaty to ratify…the US did not join.
Large numbers of African American moving to the North from the South in search of jobs during WW I was called the . . .
Many women did what when the men went off to war? Worked in factories (jobs once done by men) to help with war efforts.
After WW I, the U.S. restricted the number of immigrants who could move to the U.S. from other countries.
Who was Eugene Debs? President of the American Railway Union, a socialists who criticized war.
What was the Red Scare in the U.S.? the fear of communism, widespread hysteria of immigrants in America, fearing the spread of communism.
This group believed that those born here in America were superior to those who immigrated to the country. Nativist
The Fascist leader of Italy Benito Mussolini rose to power exploiting anger of Italy’s involvement in WWI.
Fascist leader of Germany Adolf Hitler rose to power blaming the Jewish people for poverty and lack of wealth.
Who had a five year plan to transform the Soviet Union into an industrial state?
Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union wanted to transform from agricultural to industrial economy.
Term often used to describe the 1920s Roaring 20s, time of exploiting wealth at the needs of the people. Celebrating winning of WW1, good times and changes in social society.
Owner of a large automobile plant he is responsible for pushing the idea of assembly-line manufacturing
Name of automobile Model T-Ford
America’s first media stars were found on the Radio.
America’s own unique style of music Jazz.
Sometimes called “Satchmo,” he was considered one of America’s biggest Jazz artists. Louis Armstrong, the trumpet player.
A period of artistic and literary movement centered in Harlem was called Harlem Reniassance
He wrote about the working class African Americans during the Harlem Renaissance Langston Hughes.
America’s first ___ movies were all silent. Talkies
What were Speakeasies? Saloons in which alcohol was secretly sold.
U.S. History GPS #’s 17, 18, & 19 – REVIEW (the Great Depression, the New Deal, and World War II)
Who was Al Capone? Famous mobster who smuggled alcohol during the time of prohibition (18th amendment passage).
Japan’s emperor from 1926 to 1989 Hirohito, personally took control of the military and gave direct instructions to officers.
What is communism? The political ideology in which the government is in control of the people and the economy.
What is an Authoritarian government? The type of government favoring the concentration of all power in a single leader.
Totalitarianism is…a theory of government in which a single party or leader controls the economic, social, and cultural lives of its people.
A major economic collapse in the U.S. in 1929 the Stock Market Crash in October 1929.
How did overproduction and under-consumption lead to the Great Depression? Buying things on credit (income decrease and people begin purchasing items on credit.
What is meant by the term “speculation”? high risk investment on items in the stock market in the 1920s.
What were Hoovervilles? Clusters of tents and shacks built outside of major cities in which people lived who worked in cities but could not afford appropriate housing, named after President Hoover.
What were “soup lines”? during widespread unemployment, people needed places for food because of depression era.
American president in 1929, who did little to help the people during the Great Depression:
Herbert Hoover, blamed the people and their attitude for not seeking work.
1930s widespread unemployment in America was the result of what event? Stock market crash leading to the Great Depression Black Tuesday.
Who was the president that developed the New Deal programs to help the U.S. get out of the Great Depression Era
Franklin D. Roosevelt, believed it was the government’s responsibility to help people.
What did Roosevelt believe about the government’s responsibility toward the people of the U.S.? Government must develop programs to support it’s people. New Deal program offered help to US citizens.
Franklin Roosevelt’s plan to get America back on its feet after the Great Depression:
The 3 R’s meant….. Recovery (build up), Relief (offer income, and Reform (government regulate).
The Agricultural Adjustment act provided…… payment/loans to farmers not to grow crops due to lack of income of individuals had during Great Depression era.
TVA stands for what? Tennessee Valley Authority- provided for assisting with electricity in rural areas through construction of hydroelectric power plants.
What was the purpose of the Second New Deal plan? to continue with the original New Deal in reforming society and taking care of the needs of people mainly fixing the labor force.
The Social Security Act provided what? Provided for retirement benefits/income to individuals that are: old age, unemployed, or disabled.
What did the Wagner Act do? This act created a board to monitor unfair management practices their took away workers’ rights. It supported the worker’s rights, collective bargaining rights.
This Act provided old age insurance for retirees age 65 or older and their spouses paid for one-half by the employer and one-half by the employee Social Security Act
This law established collective bargaining rights for workers and prohibited unfair labor practices like stopping the organization of labor unions or the intimidation of employees. Wagner Act. National Labor Relations Act
What New Deal program was created to secure individual’s bank deposits? Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) insures deposits up to $250,000 in case of robbery or bank failure.
Established in 1933, this was one of Roosevelt’s New Deal plans. Its purpose was to build hydroelectric dams on the Tennessee River which would bring electricity to the Appalachian Mtns. area. Tennessee Valley Authority, provided electricity in rural areas.
What actions started World War II? Germany invades Poland. The attack at Pearl Harbor by Japan caused the United States involvement.
U.S. History GPS #’s 19, 20, & 21 – REVIEW (World War II, the Cold War, United States 1945-1970)
Japan attacked the U.S. at . . . the Naval base Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.
What was the name of the U.S. foreign policy to stop the spread of communism? Containment (keep communism in one concentrated area).
The Allied invasion of Normandy is called? D-Day (June 6, 1944) northern coast of France) code name of Operation Overload.
What was the Lend-Lease program? An act passed by Congress to lend military equipment and supplies to any nation at war.
The point of the Marshall Plan was to what? European Recovery Program to help with the rebuilding of Western Europe, used to stop the spread of Communism.
What do we call FDR’s aid program that assisted European countries during WWII? Marshall Plan
What was the name of the first Soviet satellite launched into space? Sputnik
Who was the American General who was in charge of supervising the rebuilding of Japan following WW II? Douglass MacArthur
What do we call the allied invasion of France also known as Operation Overload during WWII? the Allied power invasion of Normany, France (D-Day).
In what two countries did the U.S. enter to stop the spread of communism? Korea (successful…South Korea-democratic); Vietnam (unsuccessful-Vietnam-communist).
What was the name of the secret U.S. program to build the atomic bomb during WW II? Manhattan Project—Los Alamos, New Mexico.
The victorious sea battle against the Japanese Navy that was a turning point of World War II? Battle of Midway—
The intent of HUAC was to do what? House UnAmerican Activity Committee investigated possible subversion to activities by Fascists, Nazis, or Communitists.
What is War mobilization and Wartime Conversion? Mobilization-getting ready for war with drafting men (Selective Service Act); Conversion-factory production were civilians worked to make wartime goods for military purposes.
Who was Senator Joseph McCarthy? the Senator who lead the investigation into civil rights violations of those who were suspected of being communists or knowning communists.
Who was “Rosie the Riveter”? Symbol for working women during World War II back into factories.
This was the largest seaborne invasion in history with America attacking the Nazi front in Europe European Theatre (D-Day Operation Overload)
American families conserved on the home front by limiting their use of certain goods and products. This was called . . .? Rationing-a way of conserving on the home front with scare items.
Fears of spies and sabotage led to the development of camps set up to hold Japanese Americans called what? Japanese interment camps.
He became president after the death of Roosevelt and also made the decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan. Harry S. Truman
One of the final battles of the European theater during World War II accomplished by the Soviet Union? Fall of Berlin
What happened to Germany at the end of the War? Germany was split in half. Eastern Germany (communist); Western Germany (democratic)
Where did the U.S. dropped the bomb during WWII? two major cities in Japan; Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Name of the secret laboratory used by the U.S. government to develop the atomic bomb?
Los Alamos (in Los Alamos, New Mexico)
Who is the leader of the communist revolution in China?
________ was the code name of the project that developed the atomic bomb.
What term do we use for the plan to rebuild Europe after WWII, also called the European Recovery Program? Marshall Plan
Which British prime minister was involved in the talks at Yalta about rebuilding post-WWII Europe? Winston Churchill
Which Soviet leader was involved in the talks at Yalta about rebuilding post-WWII Europe? Joseph Stalin
Who helped operate U.S. factories during WWII? American Women
U.S. History GPS#’s 20, 21, & 22- REVIEW (the Cold War, United State 1945-1970, & Civil Rights Movement)
Developed by Secretary of State George Marshall, the U.S. spent $13 billion on economic and technical assistance for the war-torn Democratic European nations? Marshall Plan
An act that was passed by Congress to amend the Neutrality Acts so the United States could lend military equipment and supplies to any nation was called? Lend-Lease Act
What do we call the attempt by Hitler’s Germany to eliminate all Jewish people from the areas they controlled? Anti-Semitism
What term de use to describe the American fear of communists?
What is the name of the competitive military/weapons build up by the U.S. and the Soviet Union? Arms Race
Who organized a march on Washington DC to protest treatment of black workers in government industries as well as the military? A. Phillip Randolph
Trials of the Nazi leaders showed that people are responsible for their actions, even in wartime. Nuremberg Trials
An organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security.
Roosevelt order all people of Japanese ancestry be moved from California, parts of Washington, Oregon, and Arizona to rural prison camps called? Internment camps.
The process in which Americans would car pool to work or ride bicycles was called? Wartime Conversion
Conserving on the home front during war time was called Rationing in which each household received a “c book” with coupons that were used to buy scare items such as meat, sugar, and coffee.
This was known as the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 gave money to veterans to study in college, universities, have medical treatment, loans to buy a house, start a business, etc. Government Issued Bill of Rights (G.I. Bill)
This presidential “doctrine” was used to justify aid to Greece and Turkey so they would not fall under the influence of the Soviets. Truman Doctrine
The U.S. policy to halt the spread of Communism in Western Europe from the Soviet-controlled nations of Eastern Europe was called? Containment
The increased fear of Communism after a communist regime took control of China in 1950 was highlighted by Senator? Joseph McCarthy- McCarthyism
What is the name of the bomb developed by the U.S. in the 1950s during the arms race with the Soviet Union? Hydrogen Bomb
Name of the Soviet Union’s first artificial satellite. Sputnik I
The division of Korea at the 38th parallel was the result of the Korean War between the United States (South Korea) and the Soviet Union (North Korea).
The U.S. jeopardized their containment policy by invasion of Cuba’s Bay of Pigs by the CIA-U.S. trained Cuban exiles.
The removal of missiles between Soviets (Cuba) and the United States (Turkey) under the Kennedy Administration. Cuban Missile Crisis
The conflict which involved preventing the spread of communism in Vietnam.Vietnam War
The communist assault (North Vietnam) on a large number of South Vietnamese cities in early 1968. Tet Offensive
Who is the leader of the Indian Independence movement know for his commitment to non-violent change? Gandhi
What new country was established following WWII in the former British mandate of Palestine? Israel
U.S. History GPS#’s 22, 23, & 24- REVIEW (Civil Rights Movement, Political Developments, & 1960s)
Integration order was an executive order by President Truman that involved the blacks of the U.S. Armed Forces it also ended discrimination in hiring U.S. government employees.
This movement help many Americans turn their sympathies toward ending racial segregation and persuaded Kennedy to find ways to end racial segregation.
The Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights leader who fought discrimination using non-violent means
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
After the World War II soldiers returned home the Baby Boom resulted in a huge growth in population.
This led to the creation of the first suburbs—
communities outside of a city and made up of single family houses for people who worked in the cities.
Levittown, New York
Because of suburbs being outside of city limits, more people purchased cars so Congress passed this act in order to help individuals use their cars to arrive to and from work.
Interstate Highway Act
This 1954 case declared (by the U.S. Supreme Court) that state laws establishing the “separate but equal” doctrine in public schools were unconstitutional.
Brown vs. Board of Education
The famous Chief Justice who issued the landmark decision of Brown vs. Board of Education.
Chief Justice Earl Warren
The change in American political debates changed when the Kennedy/Nixon Presidential Debates were the first shown on Television.
This Supreme Court ruling stated police must inform suspects of their constitutional rights at the time of arrest.
Miranda vs. Arizona
Dr. King’s response to religious leaders (while in jail in Alabama) on the issue of racial desegregation moving too fast. Letters from the Birminham Jail
Dr. King’s speech given at the Lincoln Memorial in 1963 in which he asked for peace and racial harmony.
I Have A Dream
President Lyndon B. Johnson signed this law prohibiting discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, and gender.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This outlawed the requirement for would-be voters in the U.S. to take a literacy test to register to vote also other negative tactics such as poll tax. Voting Rights Act of 1965
The first African American to play for a major league baseball team in the United States.
After the assassination of President Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson took office as President to keep the government moving.
This phrase used by President Johnson which outlined his programs giving Americans a better standard of living and greater opportunities such as education, healthcare, improving the environment, etc.
The Great Society programs were designed to eliminate poverty and racial prejudice.
An organization founded in 1966 to promote equal rights and opportunities for American women.
National Organization of Women
Founded by Dr. King, other ministers, and Civil Rights leaders to carry on non-violent crusades against the evils of second-class citizenship. Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Founded by African American college students with $800 from the SCLC this organization was called Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
The difference between the SCLC and SNCC is that SNCC later became
militant and violent
Sit-ins are when many members of the SNCC sat at segregated lunch counters in areas in the South.
SNCC operated to speed up changes mandated by Brown vs. Board of Education.
Black Power became the later philosophy of the SNCC organization.
U.S. History GPS#’s 23, 24, & 25- REVIEW (Political Developments of 1960s-1970s, & Modern Era)
Freedom Rides on interstate buses were determined fight against laws that enforced segregation in public transportation.
This Supreme Court ruling addressed the issue of abortion allowing women the right to choose.
Roe vs. Wade
Leader for farm workers (grape pickers) of Mexican descent who founded the United Farm Workers movement. Cesar Chavez
Author of Silent Spring, Rachel Carson exposed the dangers of the environment which later promoted the first Earth Day.
Created by President Nixon that set limits on pollution, conduct environmental research, and assist state and local governments to clean up polluted sites. Environmental Protection Agency
Barry Goldwater stated the rise in the Conservative movement and believed the federal government should not fix social and economic problems such as poverty, discrimination, and lack of opportunity.
Richard Nixon wanted to change the Great Society programs by taking away some federal government powers such as social welfare and give them to state and local governments.
Anti-Vietnam war protests took place on several college campus, Kent State was very significant due to the killing of four youth which prompted many other college demonstrations.
President Nixon’s name of his program which will make state and local governments responsible for their people. New Federalism
The scandal which centered on President Nixon in which tried to cover up his attempt to burglarize the offices of the Democratic Party in the Watergate apartment. Watergate Scandal
The only President who was not elected to office, he received criticism for his relationship with the former president Richard Nixon especially when he pardoned him of his federal crimes.
President from the state of Georgia, known for his peaceful resolutions in time of crisis especially in international issues.
Camp David Accords took place under the Carter Administration
This brought peace in the Middle East between Egypt and Israel.
Under this incident, President Carter allowed an anti-American Iranian shah (King) to enter America for medical treatment. The Iranian revolutionaries raided the U.S. Embassy in Iran and took 52 Americans captive this was called the Iranian Hostage Crisis .
economic policies of President Reagan which included budget cuts, tax cuts, and increased spending on defense.
Reaganomics policies cut social welfare which hurt lower income Americans and led to a severe recession.
Reagan failure in international policy which allowed for weapons to be sold to Iran was called the Iran-Contra Scandal
President Reagan’s biggest international success was the collapse of the Soviet Union putting the U.S.S.R on the path to a democratic gov’t.
OPEC consists of countries in the Middle East and controls crude oil prices.