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The West Before 1300 &

The Late Middle Ages
Open-Book Test
AP European History
Mr. Konecke

Name ____________________________


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Section A: Multiple Choice

DIRECTIONS: Below are fifteen (15) multiple choice questions. Select the best answer for each. Each question is worth three (3) points. There is only one best answer for each question.
_____1. Which of the following statements regarding the origins of life on this planet is false?

A. Scientists estimate that Earth is approximately 6 billion years old

B. Dinosaurs appeared around 3 billion years ago

C. Humanlike creatures have been around for nearly 3-5 million years

D. Homo sapiens existed as early as 200,000 years ago

E. Fully modern humans have been around for the last 90,000 years
_____2. Culture may be defined simply as a group of people’s way of life. Which of the following facets of culture does not fit the others?

A. Behavior

B. Ideas

C. Institutions

D. Beliefs

E. Religion
_____3. Which discovery in the Paleolithic Age led to the emergence of the Neolithic Age?

A. The discovery of how to plant & take care of seeds

B. The discovery of how to preserve raw meat

C. The discovery of how to cook raw food

D. The discovery of how to breed animals

E. The discovery of how to create sturdier, more advanced tools
_____4. Which of the following traits are defining characteristics of the first civilizations?

I. Urbanism II. Metallurgy III. Writing
A. I & II D. I, II, & III

B. II & III E. None of the above

C. I & III
_____5. Why did the first civilization emerge in the valley of the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers?

A. Close access to sustainable water

B. Rich land allowing for huge food surpluses

C. Large amount of wildlife in the area

D. Valley protected people from the elements

E. No enemies in the immediate area
_____6. Although surrounded by desert, the people of Egypt managed to create their own civilization around the Nile River. What allowed the Egyptians to build a civilization in the desert?

A. Fishing D. War

B. Shipping E. Salt

C. Irrigation
_____7. The rulers of Egypt – pharaohs – treated their peasants harshly (high taxes & regulation). So how did the pharaohs manage to maintain their power?

A. Pharaohs made their people believe they were gods

B. Peasants had some say over local government

C. Any defiance of the pharaoh was punishable by death

D. Most pharaohs provided a safe, sturdy society to live in

E. All pharaohs kept wages high for skilled workers
_____8. After the power of the Old Kingdom collapsed in Egypt, which of the following dynasties restored the power of the pharaohs?

A. 6th Dynasty D. 12th Dynasty

B. 8th Dynasty E. 14th Dynasty

C. 10th Dynasty
_____9. Which of the following timelines below shows the correct order of Egyptian Kingdoms?

A. Middle KingdomSecond Intermediate PeriodEarly Dynastic Period

B. Old KingdomNew KingdomMiddle Kingdom

C. Early Dynastic PeriodOld KingdomFirst Intermediate Period

D. New KingdomFirst Intermediate PeriodSecond Intermediate Period

E. First Intermediate PeriodSecond Intermediate PeriodEarly Dynastic Period
_____10. After the Hyksos weakened the Egyptians, the 18th Dynasty restored Egypt’s power once again. Which foreign empire would eventually cause the ultimate downfall of Egypt?

A. Greek D. Mesopotamian

B. Hittite E. Spartan

C. Babylonian
_____11. Which of the following religions originated in the area known as Palestine in the Middle East?

A. Judaism D. All of the above

B. Christianity E. None of the above

C. Islam
_____12. Although Abraham managed to build a united kingdom in Canaan, his sons David & Solomon split the kingdom in two – Israel & Judah. The Assyrians managed to conquer Israel, but the land of Judah remained. What have people from this area come to be known as?

A. Israelites D. Canaanites

B. Syrians E. Phoenicians

C. Jews
_____13. A major contribution of the Jewish people is the practice of monotheism. Which of the following best defines monotheism?

A. The refusal to believe in any gods

B. The worship of many different gods

C. The worship of three gods

D. The worship of one universal god

E. The worship of two gods
_____14. Followers of Judaism believed that a Messiah would come to redeem their people. Who, according to Christianity, was this Messiah?

A. Hannibal D. Isaiah

B. Moses E. Jesus

C. Abraham
_____15. All of the following statements about Greek city-states (poleis) are true EXCEPT ___.

A. Every polis began as a small village or town

B. All citizens in each polis were considered relatives

C. All poleis were independent political units

D. The people in each polis were broken into clans, tribes, & fighting brotherhoods

E. All poleis were under the authority of the Greek Senate

Section B: Short Answer

DIRECTIONS: Below are thirty-eight (38) short answer questions. Answer each question completely & correctly. Point totals for each are listed next to the question.

16. Why did the Spartans turn their city into a permanent military academy & camp? (3 points)

17. Describe the typical life of a male Spartan. (4 points)

18. Which Athenian ruler began the foundation of what later leaders would turn into democracy? (2 points)

19. When Persian leader Xerxes tried to conquer Greece in 480 B.C.E., the Greeks – led by the Spartans – held off the Persians at what battle? (2 points)

20. Under Pericles, how did the Greek constitution become more democratic? (3 points)

21. What effect did the Peloponnesian War have on Greece? (3 points)

22. How did Plato’s views of the polis differ from Aristotle’s views of the polis? (4 points)

23. Which group of people brought about the end of freedom & autonomy for the Greeks? (2 points)

24. For ten years, Alexander the Great conquered a number of areas across Europe & Asia. Name the six major areas he conquered. (3 points)

25. Alexander the Great died at the age of 33. So what did all of his conquests actually accomplish? (4 points)

26. What was so different about how the Romans treated their conquered people? (3 points)

27. Who did the Romans face in the First & Second Punic Wars & how did those wars end? (2 points)

28. “While Rome had conquered Greece militarily, Greece had conquered Rome culturally.” What is meant by this expression? (3 points)

29. While Julius Caesar ruled Rome almost by himself for several years, who was it that actually ended civil war in Rome and controlled the entire Mediterranean world? (2 points)

30. One of the greatest writers in the late republic was Cicero. Summarize Cicero’s basic beliefs. (3 points)

31. During the time of the Caesars, the Senate technically made the laws in Rome. But what was the real purpose of the Senate? (2 points)

32. Explain the 4 ways in which the cost of running the Roman Empire became too high. (4 points)

33. Following the death of Jesus in C.E. 30, his followers created Christianity. The more orthodox members of the Christian faith are called ___. (1 point)

34. As the Roman Empire began to crumble, many people turned to Christianity for comfort & leadership. Why? (3 points)

35. Which emperor was the first to champion Christianity (and as a result, ultimately lead to it becoming the official religion of the Roman Empire)? (2 points)

36. After the fall of the Roman Empire, barbarian groups now controlled various parts of the old empire. Name each tribe and the area they controlled. (5 points)

37. The fall of the Roman Empire brought on a new era in history known as the early ___. (1 point)

38. As the Germanic tribes conquered Europe, the eastern part of the Roman Empire became more prominent. What was the capital of this eastern area? (1 point)

39. What act by Emperor Leo III contributed to major break between western & eastern Christianity? (2 points)

40. Who was the founder of Islam? What does the word “Islam” mean? (2 points)

41. Explain four of the main requirements all Muslims must perform. (4 points)

42. What did the doctrine of “papal primacy” declare? (3 points)

43. Who was the only ruler to gain centralized political authority between the 6th & 11th centuries? (1 point)

44. What, in your own words, are the defining characteristics of a feudal society? (3 points)

45. Explain how the feudal system worked? (4 points)

46. What is the difference between a peasant and a serf? (3 points)

47. Why is the time between 500 & 1000 known as the “Dark Ages?” (2 points)

48. The bourgeois first appeared during the 11th century. How did they differ from the traditional social ranks? (3 points)

49. Who proclaimed the First Crusade? What did he promise the Crusaders? (2 points)

50. How were the later Crusades different from the first (aside from the obvious fact that the Christians never regained the Holy Land)? (3 points)

51. Who conquered England in 1066 (while also controlling much French land)? (1 point)

52. What led to the rise of universities in Europe? (3 points)

53. What did many people fear would result from religious figures adopting Aristotle’s ideas of logic & metaphysics? (2 points)
Multiple Choice

DIRECTIONS: Below are seven (7) multiple choice questions. Select the best answer for each. Each question is worth three (3) points.
_____54. The Black Death refers to:

A. A heretical sect of Gnostic Christians

B. The famine that occurred from 1315 to 1317

C. A disease transmitted through African slaves

D. A virulent plague that struck 14th century Europe

E. The collapse of the European economy in the 14th century
_____55. The Black Death:

A. Is thought by most scholars to be a form of smallpox

B. Followed the trade routes into Europe from England

C. Was preceded by years of famine that weakened the populace

D. Was preceded by a gradual decline in population

E. Devastated primarily the rural population of Europe
_____56. All of the following are true of the bubonic plague EXCEPT:

A. It spread rapidly once it arrived in Europe

B. It struck only children and the elderly

C. It was transmitted by rat- or human-borne fleas

D. It was known as the Black Death

E. It was transmitted along trade routes
_____57. The Black Death found its way into Europe via:

A. Spain

B. Greenland and Iceland

C. Asian trade routes

D. Scandinavia

E. North Africa
_____58. Among the social and economic consequences of the bubonic plague was a/an:

A. Increase in urban population

B. Decline in the price of luxury and manufactured goods

C. Shrunken labor supply

D. Rise in agricultural prices

E. Rise in value of the estates of the nobility
_____59. Which social group suffered the greatest decline in power as a result of the plague?

A. Peasants

B. Clergy

C. Noble landholders

D. Urban elites

E. Women

_____60. The Statute of Laborers:

A. Limited wages to pre-plague levels

B. Governed working conditions in early factories

C. Barred laborers from moving from one city to another

D. Guaranteed a minimum wage for artisans

E. Barred children from certain trades
Short Answer

DIRECTIONS: Below are three (3) short answer questions. Answer each question completely & correctly. Point totals for each are listed next to the question.
61. Explain TWO causes of the Hundred Years’ War. (4 points)

62. How did the Avignon papacy and the Great Schism affect the church in Europe? (3 points)

63. Why would the church be threatened by the religious movements led by John Huss and John Wycliffe? (3 points)
Multiple Choice

DIRECTIONS: Below are eight (8) multiple choice questions. Select the best answer for each. Each question is worth three (3) points.
_____64. Between 1243 and 1480, Russia was ruled by:

A. Poland

B. The Persians

C. The Princes of Kiev

D. The Mongols

E. Sweden
_____65. Under the rule of Prince Vladimir (980-1015), what city was the most important in Russia?

A. Minsk

B. Kiev

C. Saint Petersburg

D. Moscow

E. Vladivostok
_____66. The broadest social division in 11th century Russia was between:

A. Government officials and clergy

B. Freemen and slaves

C. Army officers and freemen

D. Peasants and townspeople

E. Clergy and principality
_____67. The majority of the slave population in Russia was:

A. Russian criminals sentenced to this function

B. Of Chinese and Japanese descent

C. Part of the African slave trade

D. Prisoners of war

E. Of Greek descent
_____68. Wealthy landowners in medieval Russia were known as:

A. Junkers

B. Boyars

C. Serfs

D. Cossacks

E. Grossemensch

_____69. This was the name for the segment of the Mongol Empire that included the steppe region of what is today southern Russia.

A. Golden Faction

B. Golden Horde

C. Golden Flock

D. Golden Set

E. Golden Crescent
_____70. What was the official religion of the Mongols that occupied Russia?

A. Confucianism

B. Buddhism

C. Hinduism

D. Islam

E. Christianity
_____71. Which of the following statements best characterizes the Mongol treatment of Russian political and religious institutions?

A. They totally dismantled them

B. They incorporated some facets of Russian ideology and institutions, but disregarded the rest

C. They adopted Russian institutions as if they were of their own creation

D. They left them largely intact

E. They kept the institutions, but killed all existing office holders
Fill in the Blanks

DIRECTIONS: Below are two (2) fill in the blanks questions. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Each question is worth four (4) points.
72. After ___________________________________ fell to the Turks in 1453, the city became, in Russian eyes, the “third Rome.”

73. ________________________________________, the religion of Russia, added strong cultural bonds to the close commercial ties that had long linked Russia to the Byzantine Empire.
Multiple Choice

DIRECTIONS: Below are fourteen (14) multiple choice questions. Select the best answer for each. Each question is worth three (3) points.
_____74. What papal doctrine contributed to the transformation of the papacy into a great secular power?

A. Papal infallibility

B. Papal hegemony

C. Plenitude of power

D. Papal primacy

E. Petrine doctrine
_____75. Boniface VIII found himself locked in a struggle over the limits of monarchial authority with:

A. Philip the Fair C. Richard II E. Henry VI

B. Edward III D. Henry V
_____76. Which of the following statements most aptly applies to the bull Ausculta fili?

A. The people over the church

B. The church and state are one

C. The church over the state

D. The church and state are separate and equal entities

E. The state before the church

_____77. The papal bull Unam Sanctum declared that:

A. The Holy Roman Emperor could establish national churches in his realm

B. Only men could be priests

C. A new crusade was necessary in order to unify European spirituality

D. Only strong monarchies could fulfill the Christian gospel

E. Temporal authority was “subject” to the spiritual power of the Church
_____78. Defender of Peace, written by Marsilius of Padua, depicted the pope as:

A. A Christ-like figure who was elected to save the world from its wickedness

B. The king of kings

C. The supreme ruler

D. The Anti-Christ

E. A subordinate member of society
_____79. Which of the following was recognized by the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges?

A. The obligation of the state to pay the annates to Rome

B. The right of all French clergy to develop their own doctrines

C. The principle that religious rights and principles take precedent over national rights

D. The right of the French church to elect its own clergy without papal interference

E. The right of French clergy to conduct the Mass in French
_____80.Which of the following religious movements was most successful at overwhelming the late medieval church in England?

A. Waldensians

B. Hussites

C. Cathars

D. Lollards

E. Franciscans
_____81. John Wycliffe:

A. Was charged with the task of trying Lollards for heresy

B. Crafted works that initially served the anticlerical policies of the French government

C. Was a Cambridge theologian and philosopher

D. Was a major intellectual spokesman for the rights of royalty

E. Believed that rank and office were the true bases of religious authority
_____82. This university, founded in 1348, became the center for both Czech nationalism and a religious movement.

A. University of Ostrava C. University of Bonn E. University of Prague

B. University of Brno D. University of Kiev
_____83. The phrase “Babylonian Captivity” refers to:

A. The state of the church in Czechoslovakia after religious reformers took control of it

B. The persecution of the Lollards and Hussites by the church

C. The precarious position of the church in France during the Hundred Years’ War

D. The period of time when France had no universally recognized monarch

E. How the papacy was held in political bondage at Avignon
_____84. The Great Schism was supported by:

A. Pope Gregory XI

B. Pope Boniface VIII

C. Philip of France

D. Charles V

E. Martin V
_____85. England’s allies in the Great Schism:

A. Disagreed with each other over the issue of the Conciliar Theory of Church Government

B. Included the Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, Bohemia, and Poland

C. Supported the popes who were no longer considered official by the church

D. Included the Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, Bohemia, and Scotland

E. Supported the pope at Avignon
_____86. In 1409 the Council of Pisa:

A. Dissolved in the face of deep divisions within its delegates

B. Nullified the position of the pope

C. Deposed both the Roman and Avignon popes, and elected a new pope

D. United the Catholic Church

E. Was recognized by the entire Catholic Church as the ultimate authority
_____87. What two groups were the traditional “containers” of monarchy?

A. The peasantry and laity

B. The laity and landed nobility

C. The church and the laity

D. Landed nobility and the church

E. The church and urban elites
Fill in the Blanks

DIRECTIONS: Below are nine (9) fill in the blanks questions. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Each question is worth four (4) points.
88. Pope Innocent III, under the authority of the doctrine of papal _________________________________________, declared saints, disposed of benefices, and created a centralized papal monarchy.

89. In 1309, Clement V moved the papal court to _________________________________, an imperial city on the southeastern border of France.

90. 1300 was deemed a/an _________________________________ year by Pope Boniface VII, which meant that all Catholics who visited Rome and fulfilled certain conditions had the penalties for their unrepented sins remitted.

91. According to church doctrine, _________________________________ was a place of punishment where souls would atone for forgivable sins.

92. ________________________________________ is the teaching that the efficacy of the church’s sacraments did not only lie in their true performance, but also depended on the moral character of the clergy who administered them.

93. Advocates of the _____________________________________________ sought to fashion a church in which a representative council could effectively regulate the actions of the pope.
94. One of the most extreme reactions to the spreading plague was processions of ___________________________ religious fanatics who beat themselves in ritual penance.

95. Centuries of Christian propaganda had bred hatred toward __________________________, and they were therefore cast as scapegoats for the spreading plague.

96. In1351, the English Parliament passed a/an ____________________________________________________, which limited wages to pre-plague levels and restricted the ability of peasants to leave their masters’ land.
Multiple Choice

DIRECTIONS: Below are eight (8) multiple choice questions. Select the best answer for each. Each question is worth three (3) points.

_____97. All of the following are true of the Hundred Years’ War EXCEPT:

A. It changed the political systems of both France and England

B. It ended with a decisive English victory

C. It was a struggle for national identity

D. It was launched when England’s Edward III claimed the French throne

E. It was caused by long-standing rivalries and animosities between England and France
_____98. At the outset of the Hundred Years’ War:

A. England was wealthier than France

B. France was superior militarily

C. The English navy ruled the seas

D. England was in a state of civil war

E. France had a larger population than England
_____99. In the mid-14th century, France had:

A. Half the population of England

B. Split from the Roman Catholic Church

C. Three times the population of England and was much richer

D. Twice the population of England, but was much poorer

E. About the same population of England, but was much poorer
_____100. The French peasant uprising of 1358 is known as the:

A. Jacquerie

B. Western rising

C. Ciompi

D. Pilgrimage of Grace

E. Taille
_____101. The primary reason for early French failure in the Hundred Years’ War was:

A. Deficient numbers in the military

B. Poor military strategy

C. Internal disunity

D. That they were a modern state fighting a feudal society

E. Superior English financial resources
_____102. The use of this medieval weapon proved to give the English the tactical advantage in the war:

A. Cannons

B. Longbow

C. Trebuchet

D. Catapult

E. Primitive firearms
_____103. Joan of Arc was executed on May 30, 1431 under this charge:

A. Treason C. Fraud E. Kidnapping

B. Murder D. Heresy
_____104. The burden of the Hundred Years’ War fell mostly on the:

A. Peasants

B. Women

C. Nobility

D. Clergy

E. Military

Fill in the Blanks

DIRECTIONS: Below are four (4) fill in the blanks questions. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Each question is worth four (4) points.
105. Like kings and queens in earlier centuries, the late medieval rulers practiced the art of ___________________ government, but on a grander scale and with greater sophistication.

106. In 1355, in a bid to secure funds for the war, the king turned to the ____________________________________, a representative council of townspeople, clergy, and nobles.

107. The first great battle of the Hundred Years’ War took place in the ___________________________________ on June 23, 1340.

108. In March 1429, _______________________________________ presented herself to Charles VII, declaring that the King of Heaven had called her to deliver besieged Orleans from the English.

In detail, answer the essay question completely below. The essay is worth 20 points. Make sure to answer all parts of the question thoroughly.

A. What caused the Black Death, and why did it spread so quickly throughout Western Europe? Where was it most active? What does the case of the Black Death suggest about the role disease may play in shaping history?

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