DIRECTIONS: Below are fifteen (15) multiple choice questions. Select the best answer for each. Each question is worth three (3) points. There is only one best answer for each question. _____1. Which of the following statements regarding the origins of life on this planet is false?
A. Scientists estimate that Earth is approximately 6 billion years old
B. Dinosaurs appeared around 3 billion years ago
C. Humanlike creatures have been around for nearly 3-5 million years
D. Homo sapiens existed as early as 200,000 years ago
E. Fully modern humans have been around for the last 90,000 years _____2. Culture may be defined simply as a group of people’s way of life. Which of the following facets of culture does not fit the others?
E. Religion _____3. Which discovery in the Paleolithic Age led to the emergence of the Neolithic Age?
A. The discovery of how to plant & take care of seeds
B. The discovery of how to preserve raw meat
C. The discovery of how to cook raw food
D. The discovery of how to breed animals
E. The discovery of how to create sturdier, more advanced tools _____4. Which of the following traits are defining characteristics of the first civilizations?
I. Urbanism II. Metallurgy III. Writing A. I & II D. I, II, & III
B. II & III E. None of the above
C. I & III _____5. Why did the first civilization emerge in the valley of the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers?
A. Close access to sustainable water
B. Rich land allowing for huge food surpluses
C. Large amount of wildlife in the area
D. Valley protected people from the elements
E. No enemies in the immediate area _____6. Although surrounded by desert, the people of Egypt managed to create their own civilization around the Nile River. What allowed the Egyptians to build a civilization in the desert?
A. Fishing D. War
B. Shipping E. Salt
C. Irrigation _____7. The rulers of Egypt – pharaohs – treated their peasants harshly (high taxes & regulation). So how did the pharaohs manage to maintain their power?
A. Pharaohs made their people believe they were gods
D. Most pharaohs provided a safe, sturdy society to live in
E. All pharaohs kept wages high for skilled workers _____8. After the power of the Old Kingdom collapsed in Egypt, which of the following dynasties restored the power of the pharaohs?
A. 6th Dynasty D. 12th Dynasty
B. 8th Dynasty E. 14th Dynasty
C. 10th Dynasty _____9. Which of the following timelines below shows the correct order of Egyptian Kingdoms?
A. Middle KingdomSecond Intermediate PeriodEarly Dynastic Period
B. Old KingdomNew KingdomMiddle Kingdom
C. Early Dynastic PeriodOld KingdomFirst Intermediate Period
D. New KingdomFirst Intermediate PeriodSecond Intermediate Period
E. First Intermediate PeriodSecond Intermediate PeriodEarly Dynastic Period _____10. After the Hyksos weakened the Egyptians, the 18th Dynasty restored Egypt’s power once again. Which foreign empire would eventually cause the ultimate downfall of Egypt?
A. Greek D. Mesopotamian
B. Hittite E. Spartan
C. Babylonian _____11. Which of the following religions originated in the area known as Palestine in the Middle East?
A. Judaism D. All of the above
B. Christianity E. None of the above
C. Islam _____12. Although Abraham managed to build a united kingdom in Canaan, his sons David & Solomon split the kingdom in two – Israel & Judah. The Assyrians managed to conquer Israel, but the land of Judah remained. What have people from this area come to be known as?
A. Israelites D. Canaanites
B. Syrians E. Phoenicians
C. Jews _____13. A major contribution of the Jewish people is the practice of monotheism. Which of the following best defines monotheism?
A. The refusal to believe in any gods
B. The worship of many different gods
C. The worship of three gods
D. The worship of one universal god
E. The worship of two gods _____14. Followers of Judaism believed that a Messiah would come to redeem their people. Who, according to Christianity, was this Messiah?
A. Hannibal D. Isaiah
B. Moses E. Jesus
C. Abraham _____15. All of the following statements about Greek city-states (poleis) are true EXCEPT ___.
E. It was transmitted along trade routes _____57. The Black Death found its way into Europe via:
B. Greenland and Iceland
C. Asian trade routes
E. North Africa _____58. Among the social and economic consequences of the bubonic plague was a/an:
A. Increase in urban population
B. Decline in the price of luxury and manufactured goods
C. Shrunken labor supply
D. Rise in agricultural prices
E. Rise in value of the estates of the nobility _____59. Which social group suffered the greatest decline in power as a result of the plague?
C. Noble landholders
D. Urban elites
_____60. The Statute of Laborers:
A. Limited wages to pre-plague levels
B. Governed working conditions in early factories
C. Barred laborers from moving from one city to another
D. Guaranteed a minimum wage for artisans
E. Barred children from certain trades Short Answer
DIRECTIONS: Below are three (3) short answer questions. Answer each question completely & correctly. Point totals for each are listed next to the question. 61. Explain TWO causes of the Hundred Years’ War. (4 points)
62. How did the Avignon papacy and the Great Schism affect the church in Europe? (3 points)
63. Why would the church be threatened by the religious movements led by John Huss and John Wycliffe? (3 points) Multiple Choice
DIRECTIONS: Below are eight (8) multiple choice questions. Select the best answer for each. Each question is worth three (3) points. _____64. Between 1243 and 1480, Russia was ruled by:
B. The Persians
C. The Princes of Kiev
D. The Mongols
E. Sweden _____65. Under the rule of Prince Vladimir (980-1015), what city was the most important in Russia?
C. Saint Petersburg
E. Vladivostok _____66. The broadest social division in 11th century Russia was between:
DIRECTIONS: Below are two (2) fill in the blanks questions. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Each question is worth four (4) points. 72. After ___________________________________ fell to the Turks in 1453, the city became, in Russian eyes, the “third Rome.”
73. ________________________________________, the religion of Russia, added strong cultural bonds to the close commercial ties that had long linked Russia to the Byzantine Empire. Multiple Choice
DIRECTIONS: Below are fourteen (14) multiple choice questions. Select the best answer for each. Each question is worth three (3) points. _____74. What papal doctrine contributed to the transformation of the papacy into a great secular power?
A. Papal infallibility
B. Papal hegemony
C. Plenitude of power
D. Papal primacy
E. Petrine doctrine _____75. Boniface VIII found himself locked in a struggle over the limits of monarchial authority with:
A. Philip the Fair C. Richard II E. Henry VI
B. Edward III D. Henry V _____76. Which of the following statements most aptly applies to the bull Ausculta fili?
A. The people over the church
B. The church and state are one
C. The church over the state
D. The church and state are separate and equal entities
E. The state before the church
_____77. The papal bull Unam Sanctum declared that:
A. The Holy Roman Emperor could establish national churches in his realm
B. Only men could be priests
C. A new crusade was necessary in order to unify European spirituality
D. Only strong monarchies could fulfill the Christian gospel
E. Temporal authority was “subject” to the spiritual power of the Church _____78. Defender of Peace, written by Marsilius of Padua, depicted the pope as:
E. How the papacy was held in political bondage at Avignon _____84. The Great Schism was supported by:
A. Pope Gregory XI
B. Pope Boniface VIII
C. Philip of France
D. Charles V
E. Martin V _____85. England’s allies in the Great Schism:
A. Disagreed with each other over the issue of the Conciliar Theory of Church Government
B. Included the Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, Bohemia, and Poland
C. Supported the popes who were no longer considered official by the church
D. Included the Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, Bohemia, and Scotland
E. Supported the pope at Avignon _____86. In 1409 the Council of Pisa:
A. Dissolved in the face of deep divisions within its delegates
B. Nullified the position of the pope
C. Deposed both the Roman and Avignon popes, and elected a new pope
D. United the Catholic Church
E. Was recognized by the entire Catholic Church as the ultimate authority _____87. What two groups were the traditional “containers” of monarchy?
A. The peasantry and laity
B. The laity and landed nobility
C. The church and the laity
D. Landed nobility and the church
E. The church and urban elites Fill in the Blanks
DIRECTIONS: Below are nine (9) fill in the blanks questions. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Each question is worth four (4) points. 88. Pope Innocent III, under the authority of the doctrine of papal _________________________________________, declared saints, disposed of benefices, and created a centralized papal monarchy.
89. In 1309, Clement V moved the papal court to _________________________________, an imperial city on the southeastern border of France.
90. 1300 was deemed a/an _________________________________ year by Pope Boniface VII, which meant that all Catholics who visited Rome and fulfilled certain conditions had the penalties for their unrepented sins remitted.
91. According to church doctrine, _________________________________ was a place of punishment where souls would atone for forgivable sins.
92. ________________________________________ is the teaching that the efficacy of the church’s sacraments did not only lie in their true performance, but also depended on the moral character of the clergy who administered them.
93. Advocates of the _____________________________________________ sought to fashion a church in which a representative council could effectively regulate the actions of the pope. 94. One of the most extreme reactions to the spreading plague was processions of ___________________________ religious fanatics who beat themselves in ritual penance.
95. Centuries of Christian propaganda had bred hatred toward __________________________, and they were therefore cast as scapegoats for the spreading plague.
96. In1351, the English Parliament passed a/an ____________________________________________________, which limited wages to pre-plague levels and restricted the ability of peasants to leave their masters’ land. Multiple Choice
DIRECTIONS: Below are eight (8) multiple choice questions. Select the best answer for each. Each question is worth three (3) points.
_____97. All of the following are true of the Hundred Years’ War EXCEPT:
A. It changed the political systems of both France and England
B. It ended with a decisive English victory
C. It was a struggle for national identity
D. It was launched when England’s Edward III claimed the French throne
E. It was caused by long-standing rivalries and animosities between England and France _____98. At the outset of the Hundred Years’ War:
A. England was wealthier than France
B. France was superior militarily
C. The English navy ruled the seas
D. England was in a state of civil war
E. France had a larger population than England _____99. In the mid-14th century, France had:
A. Half the population of England
B. Split from the Roman Catholic Church
C. Three times the population of England and was much richer
D. Twice the population of England, but was much poorer
E. About the same population of England, but was much poorer _____100. The French peasant uprising of 1358 is known as the:
B. Western rising
D. Pilgrimage of Grace
E. Taille _____101. The primary reason for early French failure in the Hundred Years’ War was:
D. That they were a modern state fighting a feudal society
E. Superior English financial resources _____102. The use of this medieval weapon proved to give the English the tactical advantage in the war:
E. Primitive firearms _____103. Joan of Arc was executed on May 30, 1431 under this charge:
A. Treason C. Fraud E. Kidnapping
B. Murder D. Heresy _____104. The burden of the Hundred Years’ War fell mostly on the:
Fill in the Blanks
DIRECTIONS: Below are four (4) fill in the blanks questions. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Each question is worth four (4) points. 105. Like kings and queens in earlier centuries, the late medieval rulers practiced the art of ___________________ government, but on a grander scale and with greater sophistication.
106. In 1355, in a bid to secure funds for the war, the king turned to the ____________________________________, a representative council of townspeople, clergy, and nobles.
107. The first great battle of the Hundred Years’ War took place in the ___________________________________ on June 23, 1340.
108. In March 1429, _______________________________________ presented herself to Charles VII, declaring that the King of Heaven had called her to deliver besieged Orleans from the English. Essay
In detail, answer the essay question completely below. The essay is worth 20 points. Make sure to answer all parts of the question thoroughly.
A. What caused the Black Death, and why did it spread so quickly throughout Western Europe? Where was it most active? What does the case of the Black Death suggest about the role disease may play in shaping history?