Two Cultures? The Interest of the House of Schwarzenberg in the English Literature and Culture
Bachelor’s Diploma Thesis
Supervisor: prof. Mgr. Milada Franková, CSc., M.A.
I declare that I have worked on this thesis independently,
using only the primary and secondary sources listed in the bibliography.
I would like to thank professor Franková for her kind guidance, supervision and corrections.
I would also like to apologize to Mrs. Mertová and other members of the staff of the Český Krumlov Castle for making them climb hundreds of stairs and carry tons of frozen books there and back again.
I would also like to thank my family and friends: Karel Stein for all the chocolate and much more, Ondřej Harnušek, Viktor Dvořák, Lenka Pokorná, Vítězslav Mareš, David Hálek and Markéta Šonková for their help, advice and moral support, and of course, my Mum.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction 5
2. Historical Background 9
2.1. General Overview 9
2.1.1. A Brief History of Český Krumlov Castle 9
2.1.2. History and Development of the Castle Library in Český Krumlov 11
2.1.3. The Development of the English Collection 13
2.2. Johann Adolf II of Schwarzenberg and His Travels to England 17
3. The English Collection Divided by Subject 23
3.1. Agriculture, Industry and Economy 24
3.2. Architecture and Design 25
3.3. Geography 27
3.4. Language and Language Learning 29
3.5. History and Theology 30
3.6. Literature 32
3.6.1. Children’s Literature 32
3.6.2. Poetry and Drama 34
3.6.3. Prose 35
3.7. Periodicals 37
4. Conclusion 39
Works cited 41
For most of its history, the interest of the aristocratic families in Bohemia was German-oriented. As a part of the Holy Roman Empire, the Austrian Empire and finally the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Bohemia became home to many former German or Austrian aristocratic families. One such family, the House of Schwarzenberg, came to Bohemia in the 17th century and built up a vast dominion expanding over most of which is the modern region of South Bohemia. The German origin of this family, together with the fact they belonged to a German-speaking monarchy was reflected in the choice of the books for the family library. Amongst the books in German, however, there appear books in other languages as well; including English. The aim of this work is to locate the English books in one of the surviving libraries of the Schwarzenberg family – the castle library in Český Krumlov – first in the library catalogue and then physically; to sort them into categories by their subject, to comment on their origin, owners and special features, if there are any, and to provide a list of the books in English which can serve as a starting point for further research.
The focus of this work is very limited, because the library in Český Krumlov is not the only library of the Schwarzenberg family. Given the number of books in the English language present in the library, the interest in the English language and culture emerged in the late 18th century and developed especially during the 19th century, when the castle in Český Krumlov ceased to be the main residence of the Schwarzenberg family. In the new main residence, Hluboká nad Vltavou Castle, another library developed, where there are now approximately 12,000 books („Knihovna”). Adding the books from Hluboká Castle could significantly alter the results of the statistics proposed in this thesis. Another limitation of the thesis lies in studying the books without wider research in archives considering, for example, the precise information on how, where and when these books were obtained; which would often help to clarify, who their original owner was. Studying both the libraries and all the sources available at the same time would, however, go beyond the planned scope of this work. The ownership of the books is, therefore, only an estimation based on the year of publication and various marks in the books such as inscriptions, signatures, ex-libris1, supralibros2, and glosses and notes written by the readers.
The thesis itself is divided into two main parts (besides the introduction and the conclusion); the first part provides a historical background which is necessary for the orientation of the rest of the text. The focus is laid on the history of the 19th century, because, as mentioned above, most of the books in the English collection of the castle library in Český Krumlov were printed in that period. Namely, the work is focused on Johann Adolf II of Schwarzenberg (1799-1888), who is known for the complete reconstruction of the Hluboká Castle to its present neo-Gothic form, and for introducing modern technologies to South Bohemia. His travels abroad (including his travels to Britain) inspired him to improve and modernize both agriculture and industry on his estate and were a valuable source of knowledge of forestry, water management, breeding and horticulture. In connection with the reconstruction of Hluboká Castle, the interest of the family in the English architecture increased, which is reflected by the number of architectonic designs now present in the library.
The second part of the work discusses the books in the English language present in the library of Český Krumlov Castle. It is divided in six subchapters dealing with the books grouped by the specific subject, and a special subchapter dedicated to the periodicals. In each of these chapters, the number of books is discussed; together with their owners and condition which can often serve as evidence that the books were or were not read. The books which do not quite fit into any of the categories are classified into the closest one.
Even though the emphasis is placed on Great Britain, the books from the United States of America are also included in this work. Their origin, however, will not be given much attention to, for they are not as numerous as the books from Britain. On the other hand, books which were printed in Britain, but were written in other languages than English, the books which were translated from English and books that focus on the English speaking countries (there are several hundred books fitting into these categories) are not included in this work because of its limited scope.
The list of books in the English language is provided in form of an appendix in alphabetical order.
This chapter is divided into two parts; the first subchapter provides an outline of the history of Český Krumlov Castle and an overview of some of the members of the Schwarzenberg family (chosen with respect to their role in the growth of the English collection or the library in general, or for their connection with English-speaking countries), followed by the history of the library itself, and further focused on the books in the English language. The focus of the second part narrows down to a single generation of the Schwarzenberg family; Johann Adolf II of Schwarzenberg and his wife Eleonore, for they enriched the castle library in Český Krumlov with the largest number of English books and they drew inspiration from Great Britain in many different fields.
2.1. General Overview
2.1.1. A Brief History of Český Krumlov Castle
Český Krumlov Castle was founded in the first half of the 13th century by one of the branches of the Witigonen family.3 The Krumlov branch of the Witigonen died out in 1302 and its property was inherited by the Rosenberg branch of the same family. The Rosenbergs held the castle for the following three centuries (1302-1602) and as their power in the Bohemian Kingdom was rising, so was the importance and size of their seat in Český Krumlov. The last generation of the Rosenberg family turned the castle into a luxurious Renaissance residence (Hajná).
In 1602, the castle was sold to the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II of Habsburg and twenty years later, in 1622, the castle was donated to the House of Eggenberg, a noble family from Styria, whom owned the castle until 1719. The last member of the primogeniture of the House of Eggenberg, Johann Christian, bequeathed his property to the nephew of his wife, Adam Franz of Schwarzenberg (Hajná).
The history of the House of Schwarzenberg (originally of Seinsheim) dates back to the 12th century. This originally Bavarian family gained a considerable amount of land in Bohemia in the 17th century and gradually focused most of its activities on the Bohemian dominion. The first family member, whom owned castle Schwarzenberg and was titled ‘Herr auf Schwarzenberg’, was Erkinger von Seinsheim (1362-1437), who was also the first family member in contact with Bohemia – in 1420 he fought against the Hussites (Hajná).
In the 1660s, Johann Adolf I of Schwarzenberg (1615-1683) gained the first holdings in South Bohemia for his lifelong service to the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm in Brussels. Leopold Wilhelm, the uncle of the Emperor Leopold, owed him not only his salary, but also housekeeping costs. Furthermore, he endowed him all of his possessions in his will. Thanks to his organizational, economical and political talent, Johann Adolf I gained domains Třeboň (1660), Hluboká (1628) and a few smaller ones (Paleczek). Through a convenient marriage, his son Ferdinand added a significant property in Germany to the family domain, and Ferdinand’s son Adam Franz inherited not only the property of his father, but the property of his father’s sister Maria Ernestine Eggenberg as well (including Český Krumlov Castle).
The Schwarzenbergs owned Český Krumlov Castle until the 1940s, but as soon as at the end of the 18th century, the castle started to lose its prominent position among the other mansions of the family. By the second half of the 19th century, the castle ceased to be the main residence of the family; being replaced in this position by the newly reconstructed, fashionable, modern and comfortable seat in Hluboká nad Vltavou. At the beginning of the 20th century, Adolf Josef of Schwarzenberg initiated the project of opening Český Krumlov Castle to the public as a tourist attraction. In 1939, when JUDr. Adolf Schwarzenberg, the last Schwarzenberg to own Český Krumlov Castle left the country. His property, including the castle in Český Krumlov, was confiscated by the Gestapo a year later and after the war it was confiscated by the government without any compensation to the family (Hajná).
Adolf Schwarzenberg had no children and outlived both his younger brothers. His death in 1950, therefore, marked the end of the direct family line.45
2.1.2. History and Development of the Castle Library in Český Krumlov
The history of the castle library in Český Krumlov dates back to the medieval period. The Rosenberg family, which owned the castle from 1302 until 1602, donated a number of medieval manuscripts written and decorated in their own scriptoriums to the local monasteries (Třeboň, Vyšší Brod, Český Krumlov, Zlatá Koruna and Písek). Some of these manuscripts are still kept in the archives. The most generous donors were Peter II of Rosenberg (1326-1384) and his brothers. This family established and developed a library which, at the end of the 16th century, became one of the most numerous collections in Europe. Unfortunately, the books of the Rosenberg family are no longer part of the Krumlov castle library. Several years after the death of the last member of the family; Peter Wok (1539-1611), the library became the plunder of the Thirty Year’s War and it was taken out of Bohemia. Most of the books are now placed in various libraries in Sweden, the biggest portion in the University Library in Uppsala and the Royal Library in Stockholm. Václav Březan, who was the librarian to the last Rosenbergs, created the catalogue of the library in four volumes, in which the books were divided into six fields: Theology, Philosophy, Law, History, Medicine and Geography. This catalogue is to be found in Stockholm as well (Šimáková 3-4).
The present library was founded by Johann Ulrich of Eggenberg (1568-1634), who owned the castle from 1622. Most of his books were bound in white parchment, decorated with a fine Eggenberg supralibros. A significant number of books were added to this library by Johann Christian of Eggenberg (1649-1710) and his wife Maria Ernestine, née Schwarzenberg (1649-1719). These books are bound in leather and marked with golden supralibros showing the initials of Maria Ernestine under a prince’s crown. In 1721, the library held more than 3,000 volumes.6 After the death of the childless Maria Ernestine, the castle was inherited by her nephew, Adam Franz of Schwarzenberg (1680-1732), who further enriched the library (Šimáková 3-6). In 1839, this part of the library was merged with another one, brought to Český Krumlov from the Schwarzenberg palace in Vienna. In 1843, it was placed into the Mirror Hall,7 where it was to stay until 1912, when it was moved to another two rooms inside the castle (Radimská 18). The Eggenberg library includes books on Theology and Philosophy, History, Geography, Botany and Astronomy, as well as classic literature in Latin, Italian and French. In the more numerous library of the Schwarzenberg family, there can be found works of prominent philosophers, books documenting both the religious and the secular history of the world, biographies of the monarchs and various personalities of the political, scientific and literary circles. The scientific part of the library contains books on Zoology, Botany, Forestry, Chemistry, Mathematics, Astronomy, Medicine and Geography. The rest of the library consists of books of fiction and drama (Šimáková 3-6). Nowadays, the castle library is placed in four rooms in the New Burgrave’s House (Castle No. 59). It consists of about 42,000 volumes (Lifka 8).8
2.1.3. The Development of the English Collection
Of the 42,000 volumes present in the library, over 400 are in the English language. The presence of English literature in the Schwarzenberg library indicates that its owners were not only able to read them, but that they were also interested in owning and reading them, and sometimes found it appropriate to mark these books with their signatures, notes, ex-libris or supralibros. These marks indicate the significance of the books for their owners. The majority of these books were published in the 19th century. From the few pieces of evidence available, it can be estimated, which members of the family in particular were buying and reading books in English.
In the Český Krumlov library, there are only a few books in the English language from the 17th and the first half of the 18th century and none from the earlier periods. That does not mean, however, that there was no knowledge of, or no interest in, the British culture. Many books from this period were written by English authors and translated into other languages, most often to German or French (the books translated into these two languages appear throughout the 19th century as well), and another numerous group of books was printed in Great Britain, but not written in the English language. There are, for example, a number of texts in Latin printed in Cambridge (mostly theological treatises), but also French fiction. Over hundred other books focus on the culture or history of the English speaking countries (those are mostly in German and French).9
Only one single volume of the English collection is marked as personal property of Maria Ernestine Eggenberg. This volume is Emblemata Amatoria or Emblems of Love (published in 1683) by an English poet Philip Ayres. It is a book of short poems which are written in four languages – Latin, English, French and Italian. Maria Ernestine read books in French and probably in Italian (Radimská 75), however, she probably did not know Latin and English.10 The book is a very small volume bound in leather and marked on both covers with a fine golden supralibros with the initials of Maria Ernestine. The other seven books are theological treatises probably connected with Joseph Adam Schwarzenberg (1712-1782). These books are bound in leather and decorated with a few carved lines, with the exception of Isaac Barrow’s A Treatise of The Pope's Supremacy (published in 1680) which is covered with fine white parchment richly decorated with a golden geometric pattern. On the title page of this book, there is the signature “J. A. Schwarzenberg” and the year 1777 written next to it. This signature can be understood as evidence that this book was of special interest to Joseph Adam, therefore, he probably read it. Another two of these treatises are of an older date as well (1675 and 1705), but on their front flyleaves there is a partially illegible signature of John K…, the same as in A Treatise Considering the Operations of the Holy Spirit, which was published in 1719. It is likely that Joseph Adam obtained the three used books later.
The most prominent period for the English part of the Schwarzenberg library, however, came in the 19th century. Johann Adolf II Schwarzenberg (1799-1888) and his wife Eleonore Schwarzenberg, née Liechtenstein, enriched the library with approximately 200 books on various subjects; predominantly history of England, guidebooks, architecture, economy, English textbooks, children’s literature and, of course, novels and poetry. Half of the books in English are now present in the castle library in Český Krumlov were published, and presumably bought and brought to Bohemia in this period, therefore this generation will be dealt with in detail in the following chapters.
From the 20th century, there are only a few books, but a number of periodicals, namely Illustrated London News, Ladies’ Field and Zoological Record. These periodicals will be dealt with in a special chapter as well. The decrease in the number of new books can also be a result of Hluboká Castle becoming the new main residence of the family; there are probably other books in the English language in the library of Hluboká Castle. Apparently, the descendants of Johann Adolf and Eleonore spoke English as well, and certainly their great grandson Adolph Schwarzenberg (1890-1950) did. In the castle library in Český Krumlov, there are several volumes of the Zoological Record, as well as several issues of the Reports of the Council and Auditors of the Zoological Society of London and A List of Fellows, Imperial Fellows, Honorary, Foreign, Corresponding Members and Medallists of the Zoological Society of London, where the name of Adolph Schwarzenberg can be found; he was listed as a member of the Zoological Society of London since 1926. Between the years 1933 and 1950, Adolph owned the farm Mpala in Kenya, where he supported studying the local fauna in cooperation with Bedřich Machulka (Votrubec). In 1946, he published an essay „A Kenya farmer looks at his colony” (written in English), where he describes life and development of Mpala (Young). In the library, there are two books on Kenya from the 1920s.
The newest volume in the library is an issue of the Zoological Record from July 1939. In 1940, Adolph, prosecuted by the Nazi administration for his pro-Czech actions, emigrated via Italy and Switzerland to the USA, and his property was confiscated by the German Reich. This resulted in an end to the expansion of the library. After the war, the former Schwarzenberg property was confiscated by the Czechoslovak government and Adolph prevented from regaining it (Nikendey). Nowadays, the library is looked after by the Administration of Český Krumlov State Castle and Chateau.
2.2. Johann Adolf II of Schwarzenberg and His Travels to England
Johann Adolf II Schwarzenberg was born on 22nd May 1799 in Vienna. His education was focused mostly on forestry and agriculture. As a part of his education, he travelled to Western Europe, where he studied the local technologies; and was also responsible for the management of one of the smaller estates of the Schwarzenberg family (Záloha, “Jan Adolf II.” 5). When his father died in 1833, he took up the administration of the family properties (“19. století”). Unlike many of his ancestors, he did not accept any state office, but nevertheless, as a member of a prominent family he, was sometimes appointed as a member of official delegations to perform certain diplomatic tasks. He was given the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1836. His lands stretched over 178,180 ha in Bohemia, 22,945 ha in Germany and 2,785 ha in Austria.
The need to increase efficiency of his lands aroused – especially after 1848, when serfdom was abolished in Austria-Hungary. He reformed the agriculture on his lands by applying new technologies, educating his employees, introducing new crops and importing new breeds of cattle from abroad (Záloha, “Jan Adolf II.” 5-6).
In 1830, Johann Adolf married Eleonore of Liechtenstein; the daughter of Moritz of Liechtenstein and Leopoldine, née Esterhazy, who was born on 25th December 1812. She was a beautiful woman with a “vigorous masculine spirit,” who cared much about the economic activities of her husband (Wurzbach 16). She supported a number of humanitarian organizations and she also initiated a number of reconstructions and alterations of buildings and parks; the most prominent of them being the reconstruction of Hluboká Castle in South Bohemia in neo-Gothic style; the interior decorations were based on her designs, inspired by books brought from England (this topic is to be further developed in chapter 3.2.). She also chose furniture, pictures and other items to be brought from other Schwarzenberg mansions; she had a number of these items professionally restored. After the reconstruction works were finished, Hluboká Castle became the new principal seat of the Schwarzenberg family. Eleonore also bought a number of books, predominantly in German, French and English (Záloha, “Eleonora” 6-7).11
The couple had three children, Adolf Joseph (born in 1832), Maria Leopoldine (1833) and Walter Prosper (1839).12 Eleonore did not live long enough to see the completion of the reconstruction of Hluboká Castle. She was hit by a stroke in November 1872 and died eight months later in Třeboň (“19. století”). She was buried in the tomb of the Schwarzenberg family in the church of St. Giles in Třeboň. In 1877, when the new Schwarzenberg tomb in Domanín (not far from Třeboň) was finished, her coffin was placed there (Kubíková, “Waltrova hrobka” 2). Johann Adolf died in Hluboká Castle, already finished at that time, on 15th September 1888.
Johann Adolf spent several months of his life in England. He visited the United Kingdom for the first time in 1825. He accompanied the Austro-Hungarian ambassador to France, where they attended the coronation of Charles X. After the official visit, Johann Adolf travelled to England and lived in London. He kept a diary, in which he recorded his experiences (“19. století”). Among the accounts kept in the archive of Český Krumlov Castle, there are bills for accommodation. The cost for accommodation from 9th August 1825 to 13th January 1826 was £1,450. During his stay and travels in England, Schwarzenberg gathered information on trade, cattle breeding, iron production, land reclamation and irrigation. After his return to Bohemia, this newly acquired knowledge was used, together with machinery brought from England, to create an extensive drainage system around Hluboká and Třeboň (“19. století”).
In 1825, Schwarzenberg travelled around England and Scotland, and visited a number of fashionable mansions. The most eccentric example of romantic architecture he saw was Fonthill Abbey, which he referred to as “insanity” (Kuthan)13. According to the accounts, he also visited the United Kingdom in 1829.
On 20th May 1838, Johann Adolf II was appointed to attend the coronation of Queen Victoria as a special ambassador representing Austria-Hungary (“19. století”). He recorded various details of his journey in his diary, which is a valuable piece of evidence of his diplomatic activities14. Accompanied by his wife, Eleonore, he arrived in London on 14th June, after visiting Regensburg, Nurnberg, Antwerp and Rotterdam; where they boarded a ship to England. During the first days they spent in London, Johann Adolf called on a number of interesting people; the visits being either private or official. On 16th June, Schwarzenberg was invited to see the Queen in Buckingham Palace, together with other Ambassadors Extraordinary (from Russia, Spain, the Netherlands and Prussia). His other diplomatic duties included paying a call to the Duke of Wellington on 17th June, dancing with the Queen during the official ball the next day and attending a levée on 20th June.15 The following day, he attended another levée, this time accompanied by his wife, and on 23rd June, he met Lord Melbourne and spent the rest of the week sightseeing (museums, Hyde Park) and performing his other diplomatic duties (Kubíková, “Účast” 28-29).
June 28 was the day of the coronation. Johann Adolf wrote the following in his diary:
At 8 o’clock in the morning, I left with Esterhazy for Buckingham Palace. From the Palace, we rode very slowly to the Westminster Abbey. The coronation was beautiful. The Duke of Wellington and Lord Melbourne attended the ceremony. When the ceremony was over, we rode home. We spent the evening at the Duke of Wellington’s. (Johann Adolf II of Schwarzenberg qtd. in Kubíková, “Účast” 29, translated from Czech)
On 29th June, The Times published an enormous, six page long article reporting in detail the coronation and celebrations in London. On the first page, there is a detailed description of the procession to Westminster Abbey; a whole paragraph is dedicated to describing the carriage of Johann Adolf.
His Excellency Prince Schwarzenberg, Ambassador Extraordinary from Austria – A state chariot of the most approved taste. The colour is yellow, relieved with blue. On the panels his Excellency’s arms in a mantle superbly emblazoned. Various orders are attached: among the most conspicuous is that of the Gold Fleece. The top is surmounted by a neat, but tasteful silver cornice, with the coronet of the Prince at the four corners. The handplates are of silver. The hammercloth is of pale blue, trimmed in an elegant style with amber silk lace. In the centre are the armorial bearings of the Prince, of elaborately chassed gold. The interior is lined with a rich blue water-silk damask. The carriage was drawn by two horses. The harness is beautifully finished, and although exceedingly rich and fully charged with arms, chassed work, &c., at the same time is so recherché that any private gentleman might have used it without appearing to court attraction by any over display or ornament. The liveries. – Coats of imperial blue, lined with scarlet, decorated with a very small figured silver lace; waistcoat and broaches of scarlet, with silver lace trimmings. The chasseurs, an uniform of green, silver crossbelts, swords, &c. (“The Coronation” 2)
In the archive of the Český Krumlov Castle, there is a poster printed on silk with the instructions considering the coronation procession, such as the order of the carriages and the route. Johann Adolf rode among the other Ambassadors Extraordinary in the front part of the procession (Kubíková, “Účast” 30).
After the coronation, Johann Adolf visited the Queen Dowager and Lord Palmerstone and walked in Regent’s Park. On 1st July, accompanied by several other gentlemen, he travelled by train to Windsor. He became acquainted with Sir Robert Gordon, whom he referred to as “Bob” in his diary. On 6th July, he went to Greenwich to see the Maritime Museum, where he was impressed by the uniform of Admiral Nelson, and he called on a number of other people including the future Prime Minister Robert Peel. On 21st July, he went to Birmingham by train, and apparently, he was very impressed by the local railway (Kubíková, “Účast” 31).16
On 23rd July 1838, Johann Adolf and Eleonore organized a grand fete in Richmond for the English aristocracy. The Schwarzenberg couple were given an album of engravings showing the hotel Richmond and its surroundings with a short history of the building, which is kept in the album Collection of the Český Krumlov Castle. On 25th July, they visited the Queen for the last time and spent the rest of their stay travelling throughout Britain; they visited Oxford, Birmingham, Chester, Liverpool, Carlisle, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Plymouth and York. The last few days were spent in Windsor (5th and 6th September) and in London. On 10th September, the Schwarzenbergs left Britain. Various items they bought were sent to Bohemia and arrived there at the end of the year 1838 (Kubíková, “Účast” 31-32). 3. The English Collection Divided by Subject
The following part of the thesis is divided into subchapters discussing the books in the castle library divided by their subject. In some of these groups, books from different fields are included, because they were too few to be discussed separately. Those are briefly mentioned in the chapter. Not all the books are mentioned, however - mostly only those books which can be directly connected with the activities of the Schwarzenbergs, or which are interesting for their unusual binding, or marks drawn by the readers are dealt with. The books are ordered in seven groups. The group ‘Agriculture, Industry and Economy’ deals with the improvement of the work efficiency on the Schwarzenberg lands thanks to the knowledge gained in Britain; and ‘Architecture and Furniture’ with building activities inspired by the Victorian architecture. Guidebooks, maps, travelogues and books on history, society and customs of foreign countries are included in the third group, ‘Geography’. The fourth subchapter is dedicated to language learning, for there are a few first-reading books for the learners of English and English textbooks in the library. Exceptionally, in this chapter, books in other languages (French and German) are discussed – the grammar books for learners of English. The following subchapter groups together books on History and Theology. There are only a few theological treatises which were already dealt with above in chapter 2.1.2., because they are among the oldest volumes in the English collection. The most numerous group is ‘Literature’, which contains all the books of fiction and is further divided into subchapters ‘Prose’, ‘Poetry’ and ‘Drama’. Finally in the chapter ‘Periodicals’, newspapers, magazines and journals are discussed.
The books were located in the most recent and complete catalogue of the castle library in Český Krumlov, which was compiled by Ivo Beneš and Václav Slanec in the 1960s. The books are numbered according to their present location; which is based on their size, rather than language or genre, which makes the locating of the specific sources time-consuming. The numbers include the number of the bookcase and a letter indicating the specific shelf followed by the serial number of the book. There are 22,844 items listed in the catalogue which indicate one or more volumes. The information concerning the publisher and size of the book is missing.
3.1. Agriculture, Industry and Economy
Despite the expectations raised by the economic interests of Johann Adolf Schwarzenberg mentioned in chapter 2.1.1., there are only few books of this field in the Český Krumlov library. Possibly there are more in Hluboká. The books mostly contain advice on more profitable and effective farming,17 the only two exceptions being A Comparative Statement of the Advantages and Disadvantages of the Docks in Wapping and the Docks in the Isle of Dogs: with General Remarks on the Advantages of Making the Port of London a Great Depot by William Vaughan, which did not have much in common with improving the efficiency of the lands and businesses; and Racing for Gold, Or, Incidents in the Life of a Turf Commissioner, with Examples of the Most Successful Systems of Speculating on the Turf and in Games of Chance by James Peddie. As mentioned before, Schwarzenberg had to deal with the radical changes in land ownership and looked for new technologies and ideas which would help him in business. On his lands, there were quite a number of moors, from which peat was extracted only occasionally by the local people as a source of fuel or bedding for animals. Johann Adolf II, and mainly his son Adolf Josef, organized the extraction of peat, which was then used as fuel for breweries and factories (Záhora).
Johann Adolf Schwarzenberg initiated and relentlessly supported the construction of modern rail network. Having observed how the railroad transport in England speeded up the distribution of goods, he started to make plans to build a network in South Bohemia. During his life, the industrial and administrative centres of his lands were connected via railway with Pilsen, Prague, Vienna, Chomutov (source of coal), Ústí nad Labem (port on the Elbe which enabled shipping of goods to Hamburg) and his domain Schwarzenberg in Saxony. Thanks to his lobbying, the central point of the new state railroad was placed in the town of Třeboň. The new railway system significantly increased the possibilities in transportation of material to the factories and goods to the customers and it helped to centralize the administration of Schwarzenberg’s lands in Bohemia, Germany and Austria. Thanks to this new system, fresh beer from Třeboň brewery could be served in Schwarzenberg (Ivanov 25, 27), without the railway, the beer would not be drinkable after the slow and long transportation.
3.2. Architecture and Furniture
In the Český Krumlov library, there are seventeen books on architectonic designs. Sixteen of them were published in the 1820s, 30s and 40s and were probably an inspiration for the building activities of Johann Adolf II Schwarzenberg. These designs are the works of John Buonarotti Papworth (one of the architects who formed the Royal Institute of British Architects), Agustus Welby Northmore Pugin (architect considered to be an authority on the Gothic Revival architecture, who participated on the design of the Houses of Parliament), Robert Lugar, Francis Goodwin, P.F. Robinson and Charles James Richardson. There are also the first four books of The Mansions of England in the Olden Time by Joseph Nash, consisting of a number of lithographs showing interiors and exteriors of historical buildings with figures in Tudor dresses.18 The most damaged book of this group is An Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm and Villa Architecture and Furniture by J.C. Loudon. This thick volume (1,138 pages) contains many designs of furniture and patterns for villa interiors, but also designs for feed racks and other necessary farm equipment and, judging on its condition, it was frequently read.
The visit of Johann Adolf II Schwarzenberg to England in 1838 had a great impact on the decision concerning style of Hluboká Castle. The castle was built in the 13th century, and in 1661, it was bought by Johann Adolf’s ancestor of the same name, Johann Adolf I. The castle was rebuilt several times and at the beginning of the 19th century, it was in the Baroque style (the result of a reconstruction in 1707-1725). Johann Adolf was considering the reconstruction in the 1830s. The main reason was the poor condition of the administrative buildings in the bailey. But the Schwarzenberg couple decided to have the castle altered completely; being inspired by their visits to Windsor and other fashionable mansions of the Victorian England. The decision was made in 1839 and the demolition of some parts of the old mansion started on 2nd January 1840. The architect Franz Beer supervised the construction until his death in 1861 and was replaced by Damasus Deworezky, the court architect of the Schwarzenbergs. The work was finished in 1871, but the Schwarzenbergs could live in the new parts of the mansion already from 1852. Hluboká become the purest representative of the neo-Gothic style in Bohemia (Kovář 145-148). Damasus Deworezky redesigned not only many interiors in Hluboká, but also in the mansion Červený Dvůr near Český Krumlov. These interiors mirrored the desirable Victorian fashion (Kadlecová); Deworezky also designed the iron constructions surrounding the Hluboká Castle, inspired by the Victorian style (Kuthan).
Apart from rebuilding Hluboká Castle, this generation of the Schwarzenberg family initiated a number of other building activities, very often inspired by the medieval architecture, but the English inspiration gave way to continental models.19
The Prince, however, was interested primarily in English gardens. He had redesigned not only the park surrounding Hluboká, but also the castle gardens in Český Krumlov and the park in Červený Dvůr. In England, he was impressed by the works of Capability Brown in Blenheim and other renowned English landscape architects (Ehrlich). Only in the year 1851, 11,597 trees and 2,180 bushes were planted around Hluboká. These figures show the considerable scale of the landscaping. The park area covers 200 km2 and it includes gardens, artificial lakes, meadows and game reserves (Kuthan). While the Princess was apparently more interested in the design of the mansion and busy choosing the patterns of parquet and wall-panelling, her husband referred to the construction in process with laconic matter-of-factness, summarizing it simply as “medieval style”. The park, on the other hand, was his field. He defined the basic outlines and planting (“19. století”).
In this category, various maps and books on foreign countries are included, together with travelogues and guidebooks. Several of them were evidently bought by Johann Adolf during his travel to Northern England and Scotland in 1825: A New Map of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire (1823), Hodgson’s Geographical Companion through England; Wales and Part of Scotland (1824) and The Steam-Boat Companion and Stranger’s Guide to the Western Islands and Highlands of Scotland (1825). During his visit in 1838, the following books were probably obtained: Scotland, a set of three large maps (63x165 cm) published in 1834; Guide to the Highlands and Islands of Scotland (1834); and The Scottish Tourist, and Itinerary (1836). The only book from the 1830s which does not focus on Scotland is the already mentioned plan of the London and Birmingham railway (1835). In the following decades, the subjects of the books in this category grew more variable. There are a few books for travelers to Egypt, such as A Handbook for Travelers in Lower and Upper Egypt from 1891, The Nile; Notes for Travelers in Egypt, which was published a year later, and two copies of Guide to the Cairo Museum from 1910. There are two books on Kenya - A Traveler's Guide to Kenya and Uganda (s.a.) and Kenya: It's Industries, Trade, Sports and Climate (1924). As was mentioned before, Adolf Schwarzenberg and his wife Hilda owned a farm in Kenya from 1933 to 1952, which later became an international research facility (“About Mpala”).
Several other maps and guidebooks indicate other visits of the members of the Schwarzenberg family to Great Britain; Briddon's Illustrated Handbook for the Isle of Wight (1865), Brannon's Shilling Pocket Guide to the Isle of Wight (s.a.), Phillip's Travelling Map of England and Wales (cca. 1860), Authorized Guide to the Tower of London (1913), A Short Sketch of the Beauchamp Tower, Tower of London; and Also a Guide (s.a.) and A Guide to Kenilworth (s.a.). Amongst the few remaining geographical publications, books on Sweden, Norway and Italy can be found, together with a map of Australia from 1860. A large album of photographs of Chicago named The White City (1894) and Panorama of New York, Brooklyn and Vicinity (1879) were also included in this category. The number of the guidebooks indicates an interest in the visited countries, which was not limited to the sights, but included the curiosity about the local lifestyle. The maps, guidebooks and albums were also probably collected as souvenirs.
Pictures from Bohemia by James Baker contain a chapter on Český Krumlov and other parts of the Schwarzenberg dominion. It was a personal gift for Adolf Josef of Schwarzenberg, given to him in 1908 (as can be read in the dedication in German written on the flyleaf). The Oriental Annual and Jennings's Landscape Annual, though they belong to this category, will be discussed in the chapter 3.7. as periodicals.
3.4. Language and Language Learning
The tendencies to learn the English language appeared at the end of the 18th century and throughout the 19th century. In the library, there are three books from the very end of the 18th century, which may have been used as study aids by Johann Adolf II Schwarzenberg: The Theatre: or, A Selection of Easy Plays, to Facilitate the Study of the English Language by J. H. Emmert (1789); Englisches Lesebuch fűr Anfänger nebst Wőrterbuch und Sprachlehre by Friedrich Gedike (1795); and Boyer’s French-English and English-French dictionary (1792). Amongst the newer books, there are eight other textbooks in German and one in French; which were published throughout the 19th century. Another five volumes are reading-books in the English language: The Selector, or, a Choice Collection of Miscellaneous Pieces in Prose and Poetry, from the Best English Writers, Designed to Facilitate the Improvement in Reading and Speaking the English Language by J. G. Flügel (1827); The Student's Assistant, or Learner's First Guide to the English Language by A. Boniface (1838); First Poetical Reading-Book (1845) and Second English Reading-Book (1847) by C. G. Clairmont and The First Story-book by C. H. Abbehusen (1882). The dates of publishing suggest that these books were used by Johann Adolf’s children, grandchildren and the following generations.
Apart from the study materials for learning the English language, there is a textbook of the Japanese language written in English. The New School of Japan by Eizo Yamada and Muneyasu Oki (1906) was written as a textbook of a proposed system of writing of the Japanese language which was supposed to replace Kana. The letters were taken from the Latin alphabet and partially from the Cyrillic alphabet. Each letter was supposed to replace one character from Kana (one syllable). Apparently, this project did not succeed.
3.5. History and Theology
The interest in the history of the British Isles and North America appeared in the Schwarzenberg library since the early 16th century, among the earliest examples are Amerigo Vespuci’s Mundus Novus (1504) and Histoire des evolutions d’Angleterre depuis le commencement de la monarchie by Pierre Joseph d’Orleans (1689). The books on history in the English language, however, are much newer. Only two of them were printed before 1800: The History of America (1787, in 3 volumes) and The History of Scotland During the Reigns of Queen Mary and of King James VI till His Accession to the Crown of England (1788, in 2 volumes) both by the Scottish historian, and a figure of Scottish Enlightenment, William Robertson. In the 1830s, the family collection was enriched with 17 volumes of The History of England,20and History of Scotland by Walter Scott (1830, 2 volumes); and in the 1840s, the works on the history of Britain by Thomas Babington, Lord Mahon and Oliver Goldsmith, and Washington Irving’s The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (1840) were added. The newest book in this category is Commentaries on the Life and Reign of Charles I, King of England by Isaac Disraeli (1851). The number of the books, together with the quality of the binding, indicates a profound interest in the history of the English speaking countries. As a diplomat, Johann Adolf was expected to orientate in the culture of the countries he was sent to.
Another category of books included in this group are genealogical guides. There are several of them in the library; Debrett’s Peerage (1828 and 1838) and Debrett’s Baronetage (1837) and The Great Governing Families of England (1865).21 The two volumes of the Peerage from 1828 are signed by Eleonore Schwarzenberg Liechtenstein.
Of special interest to the family was the book Memoirs of the Operations of the Allied Armies under Prince Schwarzenberg, and Marshal Blucher, during the Latter End of 1813 and the Year 1814 by John Fane, Earl of Westmorland (1822). The volume is bound in leather and marked by Schwarzenberg supralibros on the back cover. It documents in detail the situation of the forces led by Johann Adolf’s Uncle Karl Phillip Schwarzenberg during the Napoleonic Wars and contains a number of plans and maps.
The Tragedy of Portugal, as Shown in the Sufferings of the Portuguese Political Prisoners, Royalists, Republicans, Socialists and Syndicalists by Philip Gibbs published in 1914 is also worth mentioning. In the middle of the book, on the situation in Portugal after the 1910 revolution, there are several paragraphs marked by a reader with red lines. The marked section tells the story of Dom João d'Almeida, an Austrian subject (Captain in the Imperial Guards) who was imprisoned because of his participation in the 1912 rising and humiliated by having his hair shaved off. The purpose of the publication was to inform about the situation of the prisoners and to find financial support for their families.
The few theological and philosophical treatises written in English which were also included in this group were already discussed in the chapter 2.1.4., because they belong amongst the oldest English books in the Schwarzenberg library. The liveliest interest in this kind of literature appeared in the 17th and 18th centuries. Though there are only several books in the English language, a number of books were written in Latin and published in England.
3.6.1. Children’s Literature
Approximately 20 books are dedicated to a young audience. The oldest one was printed in 1835 and the newest one in 1897. The advantage of these books for children for this research is that they are very often marked either by a dedication or by the children themselves (especially boring textbooks). Due to these personal inscriptions, the owner of the book can, frequently, be easily identified. For example the book “Carrots:” Just a Little Boy by Mrs. Molesworth (1897) was dedicated with the following words: “Karlini Schwarzenberg/ Christmas 1897/ from/ Mama” to Karl Felix (1892-1919), the younger brother of JUDr. Adolph Schwarzenberg, whose mother Therese outlived him.22 A year later, Therese gave Adolph Easy Star Lessons (1890) with a similar inscription: “Adolf Schwarzenberg/ Christmas 1898/ from/ Mama”.
Another, only partially legible inscription, (this time in German) can be found in the The Boy’s Own Book by J. L. Williams (1843). This book, containing tips for sports and pastimes from fishing and hunting, through keeping rabbits, to games and inspiration for carving etc., was given to someone for his 11th birthday; probably to Adolf Joseph (1832-1914), son of Johann Adolf.
Harriet Martineau’s The Playfellow (the date of publication not specified) was owned by at least two girls. On different pages of the book, there are the signatures “Therese”, “Marie Schwarzenberg” and “Miss Schwarzenberg”. These young ladies were probably sisters; Marie Aloisia (1865-1943), who were to become the abbes of the Smíchov convent, and Theresia Maria (1873-1946); the two youngest children of Adolf Joseph and Ida.
A not so clear inscription is in Tales from Catland Written for Little Kittens (1858): “Eleonore Schwarzenberg from Dearest,” exactly the same words are written in Ruth and Her Friends (1860); in Mamma’s Bible Stories (1864); in Child’s Duty (1835); and in Master Gregory’s Cunning, where a partially legible date is added (24. ... 1869). In one of the books for children, supposedly from the 1860s (the date of its publication is not specified), Clara Woodward and Her Day-Dreams, and also in Girls Own Book (1842), there is a signature “Eleonore Schwarzenberg”. Only two ladies of this name would fit the combination of the name and years – Eleonore Schwarzenberg Liechtenstein (1812-1873), the wife of Johann Adolf II, who was 44 years old by the time this book was published and who used to sign her personal books “Eleonore Schwarzenberg Liechtenstein”, and her granddaughter Eleonore Johanna (1858-1938), who was yet to be born at the time of the issue of the first of the books, however, the date of publishing is not always the same as the date from when the book was obtained. The signatures mentioned point at the younger Eleonore, for the script is not perfect – as if written by a child.
Even though there must have been a wide offer of the tales and pastimes for children in the German speaking area, the children from the Schwarzenberg family in the 19th and 20th centuries were apparently strongly encouraged to study the English language and were able to read it at a very young age. The knowledge of the language was probably obtained through private individual tuition.
3.6.2. Poetry and Drama
As was stated above, there are only a few books from the 18th century or earlier. Amongst the oldest books in the library, the poetry and books on theology are prevailing, together with a few books on history. Worth mentioning is the satirical poem Hudibras by Samuel Butler (1757) in three volumes, which is bilingual – English on the odd pages and French on the even ones, and a copy of Paradise Lost (1780), there is only one in the English language, but also a Czech translation from 1843 by Josef Jungmann can be found.
The favourite poet of the Schwarzenberg family was apparently Walter Scott. Apart from two copies of The Lady of the Lake (1819 and 1863), there are also Tales of Wonder (1824) and The Poetical Works (1827) in the library together with a few translations into German. There are also works by Thomas Moore, Robert Southey and Child Harold’s Pilgrimage by Lord Byron – which reflect the public taste in the United Kingdom – and works of the American poet Henry Wardsworth Longfellow. Interestingly enough, there is also a volume of poems by Heinrich Heine (whose works were censored in Germany) translated into English by Julian Fane and printed in Vienna in 1854 with the following inscription: “A Son ... Madame la ... de Schwarzenberg ... de l’Auteur”. Two volumes of The Book of Gems (1836, 1838), a collection of poetry edited by S. C. Hall, are bound in leather and marked on the back cover with Schwarzenberg supralibros. In the first volume, there are a collection of poems of the most famous poets of Great Britain; in the second volume, there are works of then contemporary poets.
In comparison to the number of plays by British authors translated into German, French or Czech (most of them are translation of Shakespeare’s works), there are only six volumes of dramatic works published in English – one of them from the 20th century and the rest from the first half of the 19th century. Apart from The Dramatic Works of William Shakespeare (1836) and The Juvenile Dramatist, or a Selection of Plays from the Most Celebrated German Writers upon Education, which should have, perhaps, been grouped with the textbooks, there are also plays by Victor Hugo and Alexander Dumas translated into English.
The choice of the translations into German or French over the English originals was probably a result of the fact that these plays were performed in the private theatre of the Schwarzenberg family, whose guests would most often be the members of the Austrian aristocracy, who would naturally speak German and who were expected to speak French (for French was still the language of the diplomacy), but who would not necessarily speak English.
Of the nearly seventy novels and collections of short stories present in the Schwarzenberg library in Český Krumlov, over thirty were written by female authors. With a few exceptions, almost all these books were published in the 19th century and belonged probably to Eleonore Schwarzenberg or to her husband. Considering the genre of the books, the aforementioned is more likely.
In some of the books, direct evidence can be found, pointing at the fact that these books were owned and read by Eleonore. Without any doubt, she read The Vicar of Wakefield by Oliver Goldsmith. This novel, which was very popular in the Victorian England, even though published already in 1766, appears in Eleonore’s library three times. The first copy was published in 1823, and on the front flyleaf, there is the signature of “Eleonore Schwarzenberg Liechtenstein”. The second copy was printed in 1837 and is the smallest of the three (only 10 cm long). The third one dates back to 1845 and it apparently served someone as one of their first English reading. On the first fifty pages, there are little stars drawn with pen or pencil marking the spot, where the reader took a break. These stars are very close to each other – there is one on every three or four lines. Over some of the words, the German equivalent is scribbled with pencil in very small letters. However, the reader put the book down without finishing reading it. After page fifty, the pages are unmarked and the last two pages are not even cut.
Eleonore’s signature can be also found in one of the three translations of Robinson Crusoe into German, in The Adventures of Gil Blas de Santillane by Alain-René Le Sage (1818, 2 volumes) and The Adventures of the Renowned Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes (1818, 2 volumes) translated into English from French and Spanish.
An interesting mistake appears in the series New Tales (1818) by Amelia Opie. The second of the four volumes is bound in the same cover and carries the same title on the spine as the other three, but it is a second volume of a different series by the same author, Tales of Real Life (1816). Of the famous female writers of the period, Eleonore might have read Charlotte Brönte, Charlotte Mary Yonge, Harriet Martineau, Jane Austen and Anne Marsh-Caldwell amongst others. The famous male authors represented in the library are Charles Dickens, Walter Scott, Edward Lytton Bulwer (his book The Disowned from 1833 was signed with a pencil by Adolph Schwarzenberg), Marquess of Normanby and G. P. R. James. On a paperback Chrismas Carol by Charles Dickens (1844), there is a note scribbled by a reader: “a good book by a good man”. This book certainly was read, judging not only by its condition, but also by the fact that the pages were visibly cut by a reader.
Quite a number of the books both translated from and into English were written by the famous American authors: J. F. Cooper, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Harriet Beecher Stowe and Catherine Maria Sedgwick.
JUDr. Adolf Schwarzenberg and his wife Hilda were subscribers to a number of organizations, including several British and American ones. In their library, there are a number of volumes of various reports from the Zoological Society of London and the Royal Horticultural Society.
The Zoological Society of London published several prints annually; Zoological Record lists the newly published books in the field. The annual volume was divided into parts (in the library there are I Comprehensive Zoology; X Arachnida; XI Insecta; XIV Amphibia and Reptilia; XV Aves; SVI Mammalia; List of Abbreviations and Names of New Genera and Subgenera). In the library there are about 6 issues of the Record for each year from 1926 to 1933 and one issue of Insecta for each year from 1926 to 1939. In the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, the new discoveries of the members of the society were published. This, potentially the most interesting publication of the Zoological Society, was never read by Adolf of Schwarzenberg; the pages remained uncut. The rest of the publications are various annual reports. Similarly, there are reports and journals of the Royal Horticultural Society (1931-1939). Both Hilda and Adolf were listed as new members in 1930 and some of the journals and reports from the first years of their membership are present in two copies. Schwarzenberg was also a member of the National Geographic Society (Washington D.C.); in one of the issues of the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, there is a letter which must have been accidentally inserted in the book, in which the secretary of the N.G.S. thanks Prince Schwarzenberg for his support.
The Schwarzenberg family read The Illustrated London News. The world’s first illustrated newspaper was sent by post, issue after issue (there are stamps on each of the issues) and bound into hard cover, each book containing one semi-annual volume (more or less 30 volumes). There are 64 volumes (1870-1911) and some issues of the following six volumes, which are, however, not complete.
Specific kind of periodical publications are literary and picturesque annuals, such as The Keepsake; Heath’s Picturesque Annual; Forget Me Not; Heath’s Book of Beauty; The Oriental Annual; and Jennings’s Landscape Annual. There are several volumes of each of these publications from the 1830s and 1840s. Eleonore Schwarzenberg used the pictures from most of these books to decorate the rooms in Český Krumlov, Červený Dvůr and probably elsewhere as well. Some of the missing engravings can be found in frames in the depositary of pictures in Český Krumlov and some of them decorate the exhibition rooms in the Castle. These books were probably bought because of the engravings with the intention to cut them out. 4. Conclusion
The castle library in Český Krumlov contains over 400 volumes written in English and several hundred books translated from English, printed in Great Britain but written in other languages than English, and books dealing with Britain- or US-related topics.
The presence and number of these books reveal interest in the history of Great Britain, the literature of the English speaking countries, the effort to learn the English Language and much more. Even though the generalizations proposed in this work are necessarily inaccurate (for the thorough study of the subject would demand more space and a deeper studying of the context), the direct evidence was found pointing at the influence from the English speaking countries, which helped to form the modern region of South Bohemia in terms of style of the landmarks, the infrastructure, newly imported breeds and crops, etc., as well as the interest in the contemporary English and American literature.
The vast majority of the books written in English present in the castle library were printed in the 19th century and virtually all of the journals and magazines were published in the 1920s and 1930s. The number of non-fiction books slightly prevails over the number of fiction. Not only the specialized books, but also the personal experience and observation served as an inspiration for the technological modernization and development of the Schwarzenbergs’ businesses, forestry and agriculture. The neo-Gothic architecture seen in the United Kingdom and the books about design brought from there inspired Johann Adolf II of Schwarzenberg and his wife Eleonore to reconstruct their mansion in Hluboká nad Vltavou in Romantic style. The library offers a wide range of topics and genres, from the scientific journals on zoology and books on technology, through the 19th century female novels to the tales and books on pastimes for children.
Some volumes show clear evidence whether they were or were not read. Sometimes, the readers felt the need to sign or mark the books with inscriptions or glosses, and some of the books still have their pages uncut. The inscriptions and marks offer an insight into the private life and interests of the original readers. Some of the books were personal gifts from the close friends or family, some of them were given to the Schwarzenbergs as a token of respect. There are books which were read so often they fell apart, books which served only as a source of engravings for decoration of the rooms, and books which were never touched. Through the various personal marks, the private selection of the reading of an individual can be reconstructed, revealing the capabilities, knowledge and interest of the reader.
The breadth of interests of the Schwarzenbergs is mirrored not only in the English collection, but in the whole library. The castle library in Český Krumlov is, due to its intactness, a valuable document of the interests, knowledge and activities of its original owners.
"About Mpala."Mpala. Mpala Research Centre and Mpala Wildlife Foundation, 2009. Web. 20 Apr 2013.