True/false. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false



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TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

1) In 1992, a hole the size of North America was reported in the ozone layer over Antarctica. 1) _______


2) Twenty of the 27 countries included in the "extreme suffering category" on the Human Suffering Index are located in Africa. 2) _______
3) Deforestation often occurs in conjunction with desertification. 3) _______
4) In 2002, the African American infant mortality rate was more than twice that of white infants. 4) _______
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

5) Choose the answer that best fits. David works for U.S. Census Bureau and studies the composition size and distribution of the population in America. The field of research in which David studies is called: 5) _______

A) Proportional populace.

B) Desertification.

C) Demography.

D) Environmental degradation theory.


6) Zero population growth: 6) _______

A) is threatened by birth control and trends toward later marriage.

B) is the case in most African nations.

C) refers to a situation in which there is a balance among births, deaths, and migration, causing the population to stay about the same from year to year.

D) has been reached in the United States since 1930.
7) ________ percent of the pollution in urban areas is due to vehicles with internal combustion engines. 7) _______

A) Forty-five B) Twenty-five

C) Eighty-five D) Sixty-five
8) Mortality: 8) _______

A) is often measured by the women's death rate.

B) has increased dramatically in many nations.

C) is the same all over the world.

D) refers to the number of deaths that occur in a specific population.
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

9) Unlike developing nations, the United States does not have serious problems with water shortages and water pollution. 9) _______


ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

10) Outline the major sources of environmental degradation in both developed and developing nations. Discuss what, if anything, nations have done to reduce this problem.


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

11) All of the following statements regarding the Green Revolution are correct, except: 11) ______

A) Methods used in the Green Revolution often differ from the cultural practices of people in developing nations.

B) The Green Revolution has focused primarily on agricultural production in developing nations.

C) The Green Revolution has made it possible to expand the global food supply at a faster rate than the global population from 1970 up to today.

D) The technology involved in the Green Revolution is quite costly.


12) According to the ________ perspective, environmental problems are made worse by people's subjective assessment of reality. 12) ______

A) neo-Malthusian B) functionalist

C) interactionist D) conflict
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

13) Describe how social analysts using functionalist, conflict, and interactionist approaches might seek to reduce environmental problems in the twenty-first century.


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

14) An environmental condition caused by excessive quantities of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere is known as: 14) ______

A) ozone depletion. B) deforestation.

C) acid rain. D) the greenhouse effect.


15) Life expectancy in the United States: 15) ______

A) is higher than in Japan.

B) is higher for African Americans than whites.

C) is higher for poor than rich nations.

D) is higher for women than men.
16) Infant mortality rates: 16) ______

A) are 72/1,000 in Japan.

B) are much higher for whites than for African Americans in the United States.

C) are miniscule in less-developed nations.

D) have declined worldwide.
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

17) Demographers define fertility as the maximum number of children that could be born to a woman if she reproduced at maximum capacity. 17) ______


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

18) Many critics of family planning programs argue that the political leaders in high-income nations develop health policies intended to influence or control family planning/fertility rates: 18) ______

A) Are based on the economic dominance of developing nations over developed nations.

B) Are based on class and race issues rather than genuine concern regarding world hunger or population.

C) Are based on genuine concern regarding world hunger or population and concern for the well being of humanity.

D) None of the above are correct.


TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

19) All nations go through the demographic transition in the exact same manner. 19) ______


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

20) Environmental racism is an issue of particular concern to analysts using the ________ perspective. 20) ______

A) neo-Malthusian B) interactionist

C) conflict D) functionalist


TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

21) Neo-Malthusians believe that population and environmental problems have less to do with overpopulation and shortages of resources than with power differentials in societies and in the larger global economy. 21) ______


22) Neo-Malthusians believe that overpopulation is related to global warming and rain forest destruction. 22) ______
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

23) John and his children live in poverty. The food they are able to buy is enough to sustain them but does not provide the minimum level of energy needed to do light work over a period of time. John and his children suffer from: 23) ______

A) Malthusian. B) chronic nourishment.

C) chronic malnourishment. D) None of the above are correct.


ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

24) Compare and contrast Malthusian, neo-Malthusian, and zero population growth perspectives on African population growth. How well do you think each applies to current patterns? Explain your answer.


TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

25) Some scientists believe that the greenhouse effect will bring about a temperature increase of about five degrees over the next hundred years. 25) ______


26) According to the textbook, 50 million acres of pasture and croplands become inadequate each year due to excessive use of herbicides and pesticides, poor crop rotation, and hyper-agricultural production. 26) ______
27) As many people leave the United States each year as enter this country. 27) ______
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

28) All of the following statements regarding environmental degradation are correct, except: 28) ______

A) Environmental degradation refers to disruptions to the environment that have negative consequences for ecosystems.

B) Environmental degradation includes problems with natural resources.

C) In the United States, environmental degradation is linked to the affluent lifestyle and material comforts that many people now enjoy.

D) Environmental degradation should decrease in the United States as the economy shifts from industrial production to postindustrial activities such as information processing.


ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

29) Describe the factors that contribute to rapid population growth. Discuss how the theory of demographic transition predicts that each of these factors will change as developing nations go through each of these stages. Is it inevitable that all nations will go through these stages? Why or why not?


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

30) The stage of the demographic transition in which both birth rates and death rates decline is known as the ________ stage. 30) ______

A) postindustrial B) transitional

C) advanced industrial D) preindustrial


31) According to the text, the biotechnological revolution: 31) ______

A) includes any technique that uses living organisms to modify or improve plants or animals.

B) may not have the potential to produce enough food to feed the rapidly growing world population.

C) is less controversial because it involves genetic manipulation.

D) avoids the use of hormones.
32) All of the following statements regarding population growth are correct, except: 32) ______

A) Some nations have negative population growth: Fewer people are added to the population than are lost through death.

B) To measure population growth, demographers focus on the reproductive behavior of both women and men.

C) The population is growing much faster in developing nations than in developed nations.

D) Births, deaths, and migration are the three main factors that affect the rate of population growth.
33) All of the following statements regarding fertility control are correct, except: 33) ______

A) People will not control their fertility unless they have some reason to want to do so.

B) In societies where people believe in a supernatural power, they are more likely to believe humans have the right to control their own reproduction.

C) Some women in developing nations have children to secure the mother's position in the kinship group.

D) Most family planning programs do little to influence a couple's desire to have children.
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

34) It is estimated that motor vehicles produce 85 percent of the air pollution in urban areas. 34) ______


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

35) All of the following statements regarding migration are correct, except: 35) ______

A) Official immigration statistics do not reflect the actual number of people who have immigrated to the United States.

B) Migration includes both immigration and emigration.

C) The rate of U.S. immigration increased throughout the 1990s.

D) About 130,000 refugees migrate to the United States each year.


36) Fertility: 36) ______

A) refers to the actual number of children born to an individual or population.

B) is often measured by the contraceptive use rate.

C) is measured for men and women.

D) is based primarily on psychological factors.
37) Which of the following is not one of the factors affecting fertility, as discussed in the text? 37) ______

A) how many women of childbearing age live in the society

B) the number of men in the workforce

C) government policies regarding families

D) general health and nutrition level of women of childbearing age
38) In regard to the effects of waste on the environment, the text notes that: 38) ______

A) All of these are accurate.

B) radioactive, or nuclear waste is probably the most dangerous of all toxic wastes.

C) toxic waste is associated with technology that has brought improvements in the quality and length of life for many people.

D) consumption of products by people in developed nations is a major source of environmental degradation.
39) Some functionalist perspectives on environmental problems focus on: 39) ______

A) an anthropocentric worldview.

B) the neo-Malthusian approach to controlling population.

C) environmental racism.

D) ecofeminism.
40) The world's population is now slightly more than: 40) ______

A) 8 billion. B) 2 billion. C) 4 billion. D) 6 billion.


ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

41) Describe how people involved in the green revolution and the biotechnological revolution have sought to reduce global food shortages and world hunger. How successful have their efforts been?


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

42) In regard to global population, Thomas Malthus believed that: 42) ______

A) technology would increase the food supply and ease population pressure.

B) societies are in various stages of demographic transition.

C) population increases amounted to a "population bomb."

D) the food supply would not keep up with rapid population growth, thus causing drastic consequences for the world population.


43) All of the following statements regarding immigration are correct, except: 43) ______

A) There is a large wage gap between recent immigrants and U.S.-born workers.

B) Most studies have found that immigrants cost the United States much more than they contribute to the U.S. economy.

C) Immigration is causing the world's urban areas to grow much faster than the total population.

D) Immigration will play a dominant role in U.S. population growth over the next fifty years.
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

44) The U.S. automobile industry has spent billions of dollars attempting to reduce acid rain in the United States. 44) ______


45) Rapid population growth in developing nations has resulted in as many as 800 million people experiencing continuous hunger or chronic malnutrition. 45) ______


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