Tripken sg7 Consciousness



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Tripken SG7 Consciousness


Consciousness: Our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
Biological Rhythms: Periodic physiological fluctuations.
Circadian Rhythm: The biological clock.  It involves regular body rhythms (ex: temperature & sleep) that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
                      

STAGES OF SLEEP
Stage 1:
Alpha waves; hypnogogic hallucinations; sleep talking; hypnic jerk; slow down of biological functions (e.g., blood pressure, heart rate, respiration) & a decrease in temperature.
Stage 2: Waves are slower (see some theta waves); sleep spindles; K-complexes; sleep talking; biological functions continue to slow.
Stage 3: Transition stage.  See first signs of delta waves; biological functions continue to slow.
Stage 4: Deep sleep. All delta waves; bedwetting & sleep walking most likely.  Biological functions are at there lowest.

After stage 4, the sleeper moves back to stages 3, stage 2, & then into REM sleep.


REM Sleep: Rapid eye movement; dreaming; erections in males; paralysis.  Also called "paradoxical sleep" because while the person is totally asleep, there biological function and brain waves appear more like a person who is awake.
A full sleep-cycle takes about 90 minutes.  As the cycles continue throughout the night, stage 4 sleep gets shorter and REM sleep gets longer.
                        

SLEEP THEORIES
1. Possibly certain chemicals depleted during the day are restored during sleep.
2. A build-up of "s-factor" during the day causes sleep at night.         
3. Pituitary gland more active during deep sleep. So, sleep may be involved in growth process. (Babies and young people spend more time in deep sleep than older people). 4. Evolutionary view: Sleeping when it was dark kept us safe.
                 


DREAM THEORIES
Freudian Theory:
Dreams help disguise unconscious conflicts and motives.
      Manifest Content: According to Freud, the remembered storyline of a dream.
      Latent Content: According to Freud, the underlying "meaning" of a dream.
Activation-synthesis Theory: Dreams spring from the mind's relentless effort to make sense of random visual bursts of electrical activity which originate in the brainstem and are given their emotional tone as they pass through the limbic system.
Memory Consolidation Theory: The parts of the brain active when we learn something are similarly active later when we sleep and dream.
Brain-Stimulation Theory:  Periodic stimulation during dreaming helps form neural connections.  Especially important in infants.

Regardless, if we don't get enough REM sleep, we will go into


REM Rebound: The tendency for REM sleep to increase following a period of REM deprivation.             

SLEEP DISORDERS
Insomnia:
Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.
Narcolepsy: Disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks.  The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep at inopportune time.
Sleep Apnea: Disorder characterized by temporary cessation of breathing during sleep and momentary awakenings throughout the night.
Night Terror: Disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified.  Unlike nightmares, these occur during stage 4 sleep and are typically not remembered.

HYPNOSIS
Hypnosis: A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another person (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
Posthypnotic Amnesia: Supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis; induced by the hypnotist's suggestion.
Posthypnotic Suggestion: A suggestion, made during hypnosis, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors (e.g., eat less, quit smoking, feel less anxiety, etc.).

Hypnosis does not improve memory.  In fact, it is likely to contaminate our memories.  It is, however, useful in relieving PAIN.  Possibly due to dissociation or a "split in consciousness".  While part of the person is still aware of the pain, the conscious part of the person is not.


                       

Theories of Hypnosis
1.  Divided Consciousness Theory: Suggests that dissociation occurs during hypnosis.  A "split" in consciousness occurs.  "Part" of the person is unaware of what is occurring, but another "part" is aware.  This part is called:
       The Hidden Observer: Hilgard's term describing a hypnotized person's awareness of experiences, such as pain, that seem to go unreported during hypnosis.
2.  Social Influence Theory: The subject simply becomes caught up in the "role" of being a hypnotized person.  It involves role-playing, conformity, and obedience.
            


DRUGS AND CONSCIOUSNESS
Psychoactive Drug: A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood.
Tolerance: The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug; requiring the user to take larger and larger doses in order to obtain the same effect.
Withdrawal: The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug. Physical Dependence: A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.
Psychological Dependence: A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.
                        Psychoactive Drugs
Depressants: Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
      Barbiturates: drugs that depress the activity of the CNS, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.
      Opiates: Opium and its derivatives (such as morphine and heroin); they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
Stimulants: Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines and cocaine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
      Amphetamines: Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.
      Ecstasy (MDMA): A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen.  It produces short-term euphoria.  However, it harms serotonin-producing neurons causing long-term changes in mood and cognitions.
Hallucinogens: Psychedelic ("mind-altering") drugs, such as LSD and marijuana, that distort perceptions and may evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input (i.e., hallucinations).
      THC: The major active ingredient in marijuana.
                        

NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES


Near-death Experience: An altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as after a cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.
Monism: The belief that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing (when the body dies, so does the mind.
Dualism: The belief that mind and body are two distinct entities (when the body dies, the mind may continue to exist).

Brainwaves & Sleep    



Sleep During the Lifespan

Sleep Stages During the Night

CONSCIOUSNESS



Consciousness is our awareness of the various cognitive processes that operate in our daily lives: making decisions, remembering, daydreaming, concentrating, reflecting, sleeping, and dreaming, among others. Psychologists divide consciousness into two broad areas: waking consciousness, which includes the thoughts, feelings, and perceptions that arise when we are awake and reasonably alert; and altered states of consciousness (ASC), during which our mental state differs noticeably from normal waking consciousness.

NATURAL VARIATIONS IN CONSCIOUSNESS
To make sense of our complex environment, we choose what to absorb from the myriad happenings around us and filter out the rest. This applies to both external stimuli such as sounds, sights, and smells, and internal sensations such as heat, cold, pressure, and pain. Even our thoughts, memories, emotions, and needs are subjected to this selective process. We also perform familiar tasks, such as signing our names, without deliberate attention. Many psychologists believe that important mental processes go on outside of normal waking consciousness, perhaps as a form of automatic processing.

Daydreaming and Fantasy
Daydreaming occurs without effort, often when we seek to escape the demands of the real world briefly. Some psychologists see no positive or practical value in daydreaming. Others contend that daydreams and fantasies allow us to express and deal with hidden desires without guilt or anxiety. Still others believe that daydreams build cognitive and creative skills that help us survive difficult situations—that they serve as a useful substitute for reality or a beneficial way of relieving tension. Finally there are those who view daydreaming as a mechanism for processing the vast array of information we take in during the day, enabling us to retrieve thoughts put aside for later review and to transform them into new and more useful forms.

Sleep and Dreaming

Research into sleep patterns shows that normal sleep consists of several stages. Following the initial "twilight" state, which is characterized by irregular, low-voltage alpha waves and a state of relaxed wakefulness, the sleeper enters Stage 1 of sleep. This stage, which is marked by a slowing of the pulse, muscle relaxation, and side-to-side rolling movements of the eyes, lasts only a few moments. The sleeper is easily awakened from Stage 1 sleep.

Stages 2 and 3 are characterized by progressively deeper sleep. In these stages, the sleeper is hard to awaken and does not respond to noise or light. Heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature continue to drop.

During Stage 4 sleep, when the brain emits very slow delta waves, heart and breathing rates, blood pressure, and body temperature are as low as they will get during the night. About an hour after first falling asleep, the sleeper begins to ascend through the stages back to Stage 1—a process that takes about 40 minutes. At this stage in the sleep cycle, heart rate and blood pressure increase, the muscles become more relaxed than at any other time in the cycle, and the eyes move rapidly under closed eyelids. It is this rapid eye movement (REM) that gives this stage of sleep its name.



REM sleep is also called paradoxical (hint – paralyzed) sleep because while brain activity and other physiological symptoms resemble those recorded during waking consciousness, the sleeper appears to be deeply asleep and is incapable of moving because of paralysis of the body's voluntary muscles. Non-REM, or NREM sleep, refers to the non-rapid-eye-movement stages of sleep that alternate with REM stages during the sleep cycle.

Dreams are visual or auditory experiences that occur primarily during REM periods of sleep. Less vivid experiences that resemble conscious thinking tend to occur during NREM sleep. One theory to explain why REM dreams are so vivid cites the level of brain arousal during REM sleep. The brain's activity closely resembles that of normal waking consciousness, but because of its relative insensitivity to outside sensory input, it draws on nothing but internal images from memory. Several theories have been developed to explain the nature and content of dreams. According to Freud, dreams have two kinds of contents: manifest (the surface content of the dream itself) and latent (the disguised, unconscious meaning of the dream). One recent hypothesis suggests that dreams arise out of the mind's reprocessing of information absorbed during the day—information that is important to the survival of the organism. Thus, dreaming strengthens our memories of important information. At the neurophysiological level, REM sleep may be related to brain "restoration" and growth. If people are deprived of REM sleep, they often become anxious, irritable, and testy, and, when they are permitted to have REM sleep again, the amount of REM they experience almost doubles—an effect referred to as REM rebound.

Other phenomena associated with sleep and dreaming include sleepwalking, sleeptalking, sleep terrors, nightmares, and sleep learning. Most episodes of sleeptalking and sleepwalking occur during delta sleep. Unlike nightmares, sleep terrors, which are more common among children than adults, prove difficult to be awakened from, and are rarely remembered the next morning. The learning of complex material during sleep has never been scientifically confirmed. Sleep deprivation is a major problem in the United States. Inadequate sleep has been shown to adversely affect attention, memory, reaction time, judgment, and job performance. Moreover it is implicated as one of the major causes of automobile accidents.

Many people are afflicted by sleep disorders. Insomnia is characterized by difficulty in falling asleep or remaining asleep throughout the night. Apnea is marked by breathing difficulties during the night and feelings of exhaustion during the day. Narcolepsy is a hereditary sleep disorder characterized by sudden nodding off during the day and sudden loss of muscle tone following moments of emotional excitement.

DRUG-ALTERED CONSCIOUSNESS

Some ASCs are induced with the help of psychoactive drugs.

Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependence
It is important to distinguish between substance use and substance abuse. Substance use may be essential for medical reasons and it may also be culturally approved and valued. By contrast, substance abuse is a pattern of drug use that diminishes the person's ability to fulfill responsibilities at home or at work or school, that results in repeated use of a drug in dangerous situations, or that leads to legal difficulties related to drug use.

Continued abuse over time can lead to substance dependence, a pattern of compulsive drug taking that is much more serious than substance abuse. It is often marked by tolerance, the need to take higher doses of a drug to produce its original effects or to prevent withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal symptoms are the unpleasant physical or psychological effects that follow discontinuance of the psychoactive substance.

To study the effects of drugs scientifically, most researchers use the double-blind procedure to eliminate biases that might arise out of the experimenter's or the participant's prior knowledge or expectations about a drug.

Consciousness-altering drugs are grouped into three broad categories: depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens.



Depressants: Alcohol, Barbiturates, the Opiates

Levels of Alcohol in the Blood Behavioral Effects

0.05% Feels good; less alert

0.10% Slower to react; less cautious

0.15% Reaction time much slower

0.20% Sensory-motor abilities suppressed

0.25% Staggering (motor abilities severely impaired); perception is limited as well

0.30% Semistupor

0.35% Level for anesthesia; death is possible

0.40% Death is likely (usually as a result of respiratory failure)Depressants are chemicals that slow down behavior or cognitive processes. Alcohol, a depressant, is the intoxicating ingredient in whiskey, beer, wine, and other fermented or distilled liquors. It is responsible for tens of thousands of deaths each year and contributes to a great deal of crime and domestic violence. Its dangers notwithstanding, alcohol continues to be a popular drug because of its short-term effects. As a depressant, it calms down the nervous system working like a general anesthetic. It is often experienced subjectively as a stimulant because it inhibits centers in the brain that govern critical judgment and impulsive behavior.

Barbiturates, popularly known as "downers," are potentially deadly depressants. They were first used for their sedative and anticonvulsant properties, but today their use is limited to the treatment of such conditions as epilepsy and arthritis. The opiates are highly addictive drugs such as opium, morphine, and heroin that dull the senses and induce feelings of euphoria, well-being, and relaxation. Morphine and heroin are derivatives of opium.

Stimulants: Caffeine, Nicotine, Amphetamines, and Cocaine

Stimulants are drugs such as caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and produce feelings of optimism and boundless energy, making the potential for their abuse significant.

Caffeine occurs naturally in coffee, tea, and cocoa; nicotine occurs naturally only in tobacco. Caffeine is considered to be a benign drug, but in large doses it can cause anxiety, insomnia, and other unpleasant conditions. Although nicotine is a stimulant, it acts like a depressant when taken in large doses.



Amphetamines are stimulants that initially produce "rushes" of euphoria often followed by sudden "crashes" and, sometimes, depression. Cocaine brings on a sense of euphoria by stimulating the sympathetic nervous system, but is can also cause anxiety, depression, and addictive cravings. Its crystalline form—crack—is highly addictive.

Hallucinogens and Marijuana
Hallucinogens are any of a number of drugs, such as LSD, phencyclidine (PCP, or "angel dust"), and mescaline, that distort visual and auditory perception.

Many of the hallucinogens occur naturally in mushrooms or other fungi. In these forms, they share an ancient history with other consciousness-altering drugs of natural origin. By contrast, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is an artificial hallucinogen, synthesized in the laboratory, that produces hallucinations and delusions similar to those that occur in a psychotic state.



Marijuana is a mild hallucinogen that is capable of producing feelings of euphoria, a sense of well-being, and swings in mood from gaiety to relaxation to paranoia. Currently, marijuana is the fourth most popular drug among students, following alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine. Though similar to hallucinogens in certain respects, marijuana is far less potent and its effects on consciousness are far less profound.


DRUGS OF ABUSE/Uses and Effects

U.S. Department of Justice


Drug Enforcement Administration







Dependence

 

Drugs

CSA Schedules

Trade or Other Names

Medical Uses

Physical

Psycho-logical

Tolerance

Duration (Hours)

Usual Method

Possible Effects

Effects of Overdose

Withdrawal Syndrome




Narcotics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




Heroin

Substance I

Diamorphine, Horse, Smack, Black tar, Chiva, Negra (black tar)

None in U.S., Analgesic, Antitussive

High

High

Yes

3-4

Injected, snorted, smoked

Euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression, constricted pupils, nausea

Slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, possible death

Watery eyes, runny nose, yawning, loss of appetite, irritability, tremors, panic, cramps, nausea, chills and sweating




Morphine

Substance II

MS-Contin, Roxanol, Oramorph SR, MSIR

Analgesic

High

High

Yes

3-12

Oral, injected




Hydrocodone

Substance II, Product III, V

Hydrocodone w/ Acetaminophen, Vicodin, Vicoprofen, Tussionex, Lortab

Analgesic, Antitussive

High

High

Yes

3-6

Oral




Hydro-morphone

Substance II

Dilaudid

Analgesic

High

High

Yes

3-4

Oral, injected




Oxycodone

Substance II

Roxicet, Oxycodone w/ Acetaminophen, OxyContin, Endocet, Percocet, Percodan

Analgesic

High

High

Yes

3-12

Oral




Codeine

Substance II, Products III, V

Acetaminophen, Guaifenesin or Promethazine w/Codeine, Fiorinal, Fioricet or Tylenol w/Codeine

Analgesic, Antitussive

Moderate

Moderate

Yes

3-4

Oral, injected




Other Narcotics

Substance II, III, IV

Fentanyl, Demerol, Methadone, Darvon, Stadol, Talwin, Paregoric, Buprenex

Analgesic, Antidiarrheal, Antitussive

High-Low

High-Low

Yes

Variable

Oral, injected, snorted, smoked




Depressants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid

Substance I, Product III

GHB, Liquid Ecstasy, Liquid X, Sodium Oxybate, Xyrem®

None in U.S., Anesthetic

Moderate

Moderate

Yes

3-6

Oral

Slurred speech, disorientation, drunken behavior without odor of alcohol, impaired memory of events, interacts with alcohol

Shallow respiration, clammy skin, dilated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, coma, possible death

Anxiety, insomnia, tremors, delirium, convulsions, possible death




Benzodiazepines

Substance IV

Valium, Xanax, Halcion, Ativan, Restoril, Rohypnol (Roofies, R-2), Klonopin

Antianxiety, Sedative, Anti-convulsant, Hypnotic, Muscle Relaxant

Moderate

Moderate

Yes

1-8

Oral, injected




Other Depressants

Substance I, II, III, IV

Ambien, Sonata, Meprobamate, Chloral Hydrate, Barbiturates, Methaqualone (Quaalude)

Antianxiety, Sedative, Hypnotic

Moderate

Moderate

Yes

2-6

Oral




Drugs

Stimulants

CSA Schedules

Trade or Other Names

Medical Uses

Physical

Psycho-logical

Tolerance

Duration (Hours)

Usual Method

Possible Effects

Effects of Overdose

Withdrawal Syndrome




Cocaine

Substance II

Coke, Flake, Snow, Crack, Coca, Blanca, Perico, Nieve, Soda

Local anesthetic

Possible

High

Yes

1-2

Snorted, smoked, injected

Increased alertness, excitation, euphoria, increased pulse rate & blood pressure, insomnia, loss of appetite

Agitation, increased body temperature, hallucinations, convulsions, possible death

Apathy, long periods of sleep, irritability, depression, disorientation




Amphetamine/
Meth-amphetamine

Substance II

Crank, Ice, Cristal, Krystal Meth, Speed, Adderall, Dexedrine, Desoxyn

Attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy, weight control

Possible

High

Yes

2-4

Oral, injected, smoked




Methylphenidate

Substance II

Ritalin (Illy's), Concerta, Focalin, Metadate

Attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder

Possible

High

Yes

2-4

Oral, injected, snorted, smoked




Other Stimulants

Substance III, IV

Adipex P, Ionamin, Prelu-2, Didrex, Provigil

Vaso-constriction

Possible

Moderate

Yes

2-4

Oral




Drugs

Hallucinogens

CSA Schedules

Trade or Other Names

Medical Uses

Physical

Psycho-logical

Tolerance

Duration (Hours)

Usual Method

Possible Effects

Effects of Overdose

Withdrawal Syndrome




MDMA and Analogs

Substance I

(Ecstasy, XTC, Adam), MDA (Love Drug), MDEA (Eve), MBDB

None

None

Moderate

Yes

4-6

Oral, snorted, smoked

 Heightened senses, teeth grinding and dehydration

Increased body temperature, electrolyte imbalance, cardiac arrest

Muscle aches, drowsiness, depression, acne




LSD

Substance I

 Acid, Microdot, Sunshine, Boomers

None

None

 Unknown

Yes

8-12

Oral

Illusions and hallucinations, altered perception of time and distance

(LSD) Longer, more intense "trip" episodes

 None




Phencyclidine and Analogs

Substance I, II, III

PCP, Angel Dust, Hog, Loveboat, Ketamine (Special K), PCE, PCPy, TCP

Anesthetic (Ketamine)

Possible

High

Yes

1-12

Smoked, oral, injected, snorted

Unable to direct movement, feel pain, or remember

Drug seeking behavior
*Not regulated




Other Hallucinogens

Substance I

Psilocybe mushrooms, Mescaline, Peyote Cactus, Ayahausca, DMT, Dextro-methorphan* (DXM)

None

None

None

Possible

4-8

Oral




Drugs

Cannibis

CSA Schedules

Trade or Other Names

Medical Uses

Physical

Psycho-logical

Tolerance

Duration (Hours)

Usual Method

Possible Effects

Effects of Overdose

Withdrawal Syndrome




Marijuana

Substance I

Pot, Grass, Sinsemilla, Blunts, Mota, Yerba, Grifa

None

Unknown

Moderate

Yes

2-4

Smoked, oral

Euphoria, relaxed inhibitions, increased appetite, disorientation

Fatigue, paranoia, possible psychosis

Occasional reports of insomnia, hyperactivity, decreased appetite




Tetrahydro-cannabinol

Substance I, Product III

THC, Marinol

Antinauseant, Appetite stimulant

Yes

Moderate

Yes

2-4

Smoked, oral




Hashish and Hashish Oil

Substance I

Hash, Hash oil

None

Unknown

Moderate

Yes

2-4

Smoked, oral




Anabolic Steroids

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




Testosterone

Substance III

Depo Testosterone, Sustanon, Sten, Cypt

Hypogonadism

Unknown

Unknown

Unknown

14-28 days

Injected

Virilization, edema, testicular atrophy, gyneco-mastia, acne, aggressive behavior

Unknown

Possible depression




Other Anabolic Steroids

Substance III

Parabolan, Winstrol, Equipose, Anadrol, Dianabol, Primabolin-Depo, D-Ball

Anemia, Breast cancer

Unknown

Yes

Unknown

Variable

Oral, injected




Inhalants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




Amyl and Butyl Nitrite

 

Pearls, Poppers, Rush, Locker Room

Angina (Amyl)

Unknown

Unknown

No

1

Inhaled

Flushing, hypotension, headache

Methemo-globinemia

Agitation




Nitrous Oxide

 

Laughing gas, balloons, Whippets

Anesthetic

Unknown

Low

No

0.5

Inhaled

Impaired memory, slurred speech, drunken behavior, slow onset vitamin deficiency, organ damage

Vomiting, respiratory depression, loss of consciousness, possible death

Trembling, anxiety, insomnia, vitamin deficiency, confusion, hallucinations, convulsions




Other Inhalants

 

Adhesives, spray paint, hair spray, dry cleaning fluid, spot remover, lighter fluid

None

Unknown

High

No

0.5-2

Inhaled




Alcohol

 

Beer, wine, liquor

None

High

High

Yes

1-3

Oral





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