This Paper explores impediments to international trade and transport relying on the Trade and
Transport Facilitation work of the World Bank in the Europe and Central Asia region and in
particular the lessons learnt in South East Europe including Moldova, the results of an intensive
policy dialogue that has been taking place for the past 2½ years in the South Caucasus countries,
as well as the information gained from the trade and transport facilitation audit in Central Asia.
We would like to thank Michel Zarnowiecki, Michel Audige, Gerald Ollivier, Anca Dumitrescu,
Jean-Charles Crochet, Antti Talvitie, (ECSIE), Robin Carruthers (TUDTR), Graham Smith
(EASTR, China), Guljahan Kurbanova (Turkmenistan) and Aslan Sarinzhipov (Central Asia
Anchor), Peter Nicholas (South Caucasus Anchor); Jakob von Weizsacker (ECSPE), Sebnem
Akkaya (country economist for Kyrgyzstan, ECSPE), Motoo Konishi (ECSIE) for their valuable
comments and contributions. We are also grateful to Prianka Seneviratne (ADB) Peter Krausz
and Oleg Kamberski (IRU), Sophie Fouvez (ECMT) and Ian Jenkins (TRACECA consultant) for
their inputs and comments. The va luable guidance and comments from the Peer Reviewers Marc
Juhel, transport and logistics advisor (TUDTR) and Guang Zhe Chen transport sector manager
(South Asia), as well as Samuel Otoo sector manager (ECSPE) are highly appreciated.