Transformation of Europe: 1450 1750: Era of Revolutions I. Renaissance



Download 2.14 Mb.
Page1/2
Date28.01.2021
Size2.14 Mb.
  1   2

Transformation of Europe: 1450 – 1750: Era of Revolutions

I. Renaissance

A. Italian Renaissance


    • Renaissance, or rebirth of art and learning, 1350-1600

    • Aristocrats, popes, nobles became wealthy patrons and vied to outdo one another

    • City-states sponsored innovations in art and architecture

      • Macaccio, Leonard) used linear perspective to show depth

      • Sculptors (Donatello and Michelangelo) created natural poses

B. Renaissance architecture

    • Simple, elegant style, inherited from classical Greek and Roman

    • Magnificent domed cathedrals

      • Brunelleschi's cathedral of Florence

      • St. Peter’s in Rome

C. Humanists or Man is the Measure of All Things

    • Drew inspiration from classical models especially Greece, Rome

    • Leading scholars included Dante, Petrarch

    • Scholars interested in humane letters

      • Literature, history, and moral philosophy

      • Called humanists

      • Recovered and translated many classical works

    • Attention to political and social issues and graces, too

      • Boccaccio’s Decameron

      • Castiglione’s The Courtier

      • Machiavelli’s The Prince

D. Northern Renaissance

    • Especially strong in France, England, Netherlands

    • Focus was more on science, math, and Christianity (language favored was Hebrew)

    • Strongly supported by the middle classes and minor nobles

    • Leading figures include Shakespeare, Durer, Erasmus, Protestant reformers

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

II. Protestant Reformation

A. Precursors to Luther


    • Great Schism

      • 2 to 3 popes at same time undermined authority of the church

      • Church councils rule/attempt to overrule popes

    • Jan Hus in Holy Roman Empire and Wycliffe in England

      • Both attacked aspects of church corruption, wealth, practices

      • Both condemned by Church

      • Hus executed, but Wycliffe protected by King of England

      • Wycliffe had Bible translated into English

B. Martin Luther (1483-1546)

    • Attacked the sale of indulgences, 1517

    • Attacked corruption in Catholic Church; called for reform

    • Argument reproduced with printing presses and widely read

    • Enthusiastic response from lay Christians, princes, many cities

    • By mid-16th century, half Germans adopted Lutheranism

C. Reform spread outside Germany

    • Protestant movements popular in Swiss cities, Netherlands

    • Scandinavian kings like movement as it removes Church as a rival

    • English Reformation sparked by King Henry VIII's desire for divorce

D. John Calvin, French convert to Protestantism

    • Organized model Protestant community in Geneva in the 1530s

    • Calvinist missionaries were successful in France

    • Zwingli leads Calvinist like reformation in Switzerland

    • John Know leads Presbyterian movement in Scotland

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

III. Catholic Church

A. Early Attempts to Reform


    • Catholic cardinals, bishops call council in early 15th century

      • Council of Constance deposes rival popes

      • Attempts to assert authority over pope, initial reforms

    • Catholic intellectuals attack Church corruption

    • Emperor Sigismund attempts to reform church in Germany

B. Church reaction to Luther, Protestants

    • Charles V, Church condemn, excommunicate Luther

    • King Henry VIII condemns Luther

    • Inquisition unleashed against Protestants

    • Spanish use wealth to fund anti-Protestants

C. The Council of Trent, 1545-1563

    • Directed reform of Roman Catholic Church

    • Attacked corruption

    • Reaffirmed tradition, Bible as co-equal

D. The Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

    • Founded 1540 by Ignatius Loyola

    • High standards in education

    • Combat Protestants with logic, faith, hard work

    • Saved S. Germany, E. Europe from Protestants

    • Became confessors, advisories to kings

    • Worldwide missionaries

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

IV. Religious Conflicts

A. Between Protestants, Catholics during 16TH century


      • Wars as much social, political as religious

      • Neither side is innocent of conflict

B. Civil war in France

      • Between Huguenots (French Calvinists), Catholic League

      • Monarchy often a pawn of both sides and nobles

      • Lasted thirty-six years (1562-1598)

      • Ended with new dynasty

C. Spanish Armada

      • War between Catholic Spain, Protestant England, 1588

      • Spill over from conflict in the Netherlands

      • Question of heir to English throne: Catholic Scottish Queen or Protestant Elizabeth

D. Protestant provinces of the Netherlands revolted against rule of Catholic Spain

      • Originally began as a revolt of all Netherlands against Spain

      • Eventually split country into Catholic south (Belgium) and Protestant north (Holland)

E. The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)

      • The most destructive European war up to WWI

      • Began as a local conflict in Bohemia; eventually involved most of Europe

      • Devastated the Holy Roman Empire (German states): lost one-third population

      • Saw rise of Sweden as Great Power and eclipse of Spain, Hapsburgs as European great power

      • Saw independence of Holland, Switzerland from Holy Roman Empire

      • Ended with Germany neither holy, nor Roman nor an Empire

F. Scottish Presbyterians revolt

      • Expel Catholic Queen with England’s secret assistance

      • Raise her kidnapped son as Presbyterian

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Europe’s Religious Map


V. State-Building



  • Italian city-states

    • Flourished with industries and trade

    • Each with independent administration and army

    • Levied direct taxes on citizens

    • More powerful absorbed smallest

  • France and England

    • Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)

      • Fought for control of French lands

      • Imposed direct taxes to pay the costs of war

      • Central government over feudal nobility

    • English War of the Roses leads to Tudor Dynasty

    • Louis XI reduces powers of feudal aristocracy

  • Spain united

    • By marriage of Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castile

    • Sales tax supported a powerful standing army

    • Conquered Granada from Muslims

    • Seized southern Italy in 1494

    • Sponsored Columbus's quest for western route to China

  • Competition among European states

    • Frequent small-scale wars

    • Encouraged new military and naval technology

    • Technological innovations strengthened armies

  • Dynastic Politics

    • Constant search for an heir

    • Must marry for political advantage

    • Gave women influence as regents, brides, mother of heir

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

VI. New Monarchies

A. New Monarchs


    • Taxes, armies as instruments of national monarchies by late fifteenth century

    • Used feudal powers but added new powers to become dominant in society

    • Developing towards divine right monarchs answerable only to God, not people

    • Henry VII of England and Louis XI of France are two best examples

B. France, England and Spain

    • All three united after long wars

    • Kings have new, broad powers

    • Nobles often weakened; new nobles created out of middle classes

C. Enhanced royal, centralized powers

    • Wealthy treasuries by direct taxes, fines, and fees

    • State power enlarged and more centralized

      • Standing armies in France and Spain

      • Professional bureaucrats loyal only to monarch, not church

      • Nobility status often sold to wealthy merchants to raise funds

    • Reformation increased royal power

      • Kings confiscate wealth, land of the Church

      • Kings sell off lands to middle class, making them loyal to state

      • Even Catholic monarchs tended to follow this trend

D. New law courts enhance royal power

    • Kings tend to function above the law

    • English Star Chambers – do not require warrants, trials

    • The Spanish Inquisition, Catholic court of inquiry, founded 1478

      • Intended to discover secret Muslims and Jews

      • Used by Spanish monarchy to detect Protestant heresy and political dissidents

    • French Parliaments reduced to law courts not legislative assemblies

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

VII. Attempted Revival of Empires



A. Charles V

    • Reigned 1519-1556

      • Holy Roman Emperor

        • Austria

        • Czech lands, Silesia

        • Hungary, Slovakia,

        • Slovenia, Croatia

        • Netherlands

        • Eastern France

        • Milan, Northern Italy

      • King of Spain

        • Castile

        • Navarre

        • Catalonia

        • Two Sicilies

        • Spanish American Empire, Philippines

    • Inherited a vast empire of far-flung holdings through marriage

    • Unable to establish a unified state

B. Disputes with German nobles, France, and Ottoman Empire



    • German nobles resented his power and obstructed his every move

      • Many nobles became Protestant as it was a tool against emperor

      • Even Catholic nobles supported Reformation as it limited his religious influence

    • France opposed Charles and supported Protestants, Charles’ enemies

    • Charles main enemy was Ottoman Empire

      • France, Protestants and Turks allied against Charles

      • Charles forces defeat Turks, block moves; unable to take advantage of strength

VIII. Constitutional and Absolute Monarchies

A. Constitutional states of England and the Netherlands



    • Divine Right Monarchs limited by war, nobles, wealthy

      • Characterized by

        • Powers limited by constitutions, bills of right, convention

        • No one is above the law, property is protected by law

        • Representative institutions: rights of oversight, taxation, review, veto

      • Prominent merchant classes enjoyed unusual prosperity

      • Commercial empires overseas with minimal state interference

    • Dutch constitutional monarchy evolved out of religious wars

    • England’s road to rights

      • Constitutional monarchy in England evolved out of a civil war

      • English Glorious Revolution 1688

      • English Bill of Rights 1689

B. Absolutism in France, Spain, Austria, and Prussia

    • Based on the theory of the divine right of kings

      • Relied often on bureaucrats, professional armies

      • Great trappings of power especially palaces, images

      • Restricted power of aristocracy, legislatures and church

      • Relied on mercantilism to generate taxable wealth

    • Spain, Austria united by Hapsburg marriage, inheritance

    • Cardinal Richelieu

      • French chief minister 1624-1642

      • Crushed power of nobles

      • Supported Protestants, Sweden against Hapsburgs, Spain, Austria

    • Prussia began to rise in late 17th century

      • Based on absolutism and army

      • Eventually will unite Germany

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

IX. Louis XIV of France

A. King of France


B. Bureaucracy

    • Used middle class for professional bureaucrats

    • Established intendants tp carry out wishes

C. Model of royal absolutism: the court at Versailles

    • Nobles reduced to serving king, state

    • Became generals, diplomats, ministers

    • Lived at Versailles where king spied on them

D. Large professional standing army

    • Well trained, well paid, well equipped

    • Kept, enforced order

E. Mercantilism and Colonies

    • Minister Colbert was mastermind behind wealth

    • Promoted economic development: roads, canals

    • Promoted industry, and exports especially luxuries

    • Built large French navy and colonies in North America, India

F. Rulers in Spain, Austria, Prussia, Russia saw France as model

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

X. European State System

A. The Peace of Westphalia (1648)



    • Ended the Thirty Years' War

    • Began system of independent sovereign states

    • Abandoned notion of religion unity

    • Did not end war between European states

B. The balance of power

    • No state allowed to dominate others

    • Diplomacy based on shifting alliances

    • No permanent alliances

    • Only permanent interests

    • Religion unimportant to determining alliances

    • Destroy no nation

    • Make no permanent enemies

C. Military development costly and competitive

    • New armaments (cannons and small arms)

    • New military tactics

    • Extremely intricate fortifications

    • Professional navies with modern warships, weapons

    • China, India, and the Islamic states did not keep apace

    • Small, well-trained armies become critical

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

XI. The Nation State

A. Nation-State


    • Ethnic group with common language, culture

    • Shared history, traditions

    • Shared institutions (faith, politics)

    • Occupying a common territory

    • Ruled by a common government

    • Government’s job

    • Multiple ethnic groups destroy nation-state

B. Belief in Nation-state became new popular ideology

    • Love of your nation above others is nationalism

    • Originated as an elite idea of the aristocracy, educated elite

    • Loyalty to state, king more important than loyalty to church, pope

    • Martin Luther addresses the “German People”

    • King James, Wycliffe translate Bible into English

    • French have Joan of Arc fighting for France against English

    • Scotsmen, English resent Catholic “Romish” influence

    • Dutch, Portuguese, Catalans revolt against foreign Spanish rule

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



XII. War and Peace in Europe

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

XIII. Population Growth

A. Population growth



    • American foods improved European nutrition, diets

    • Increased resistance to epidemics after 1650s

      • Life spans increased

      • Infant deaths decrease

    • Population growth

      • American food crops improved Europeans' nutrition and diets

      • Increased resistance to epidemic diseases after the mid-seventeenth century

      • European population increased from 81 million in 1500 to 180 million in 1800

    • Urbanization

      • Rapid growth of major cities: Paris from 130,000 in 1550 to 500,000 in 1650

      • Cities increasingly important as administrative and commercial centers

    • Most dramatic in Ireland, England, Poland, France, Netherlands

B. Urbanization

    • Rapid growth of major cities

      • For example, Paris from 130,000 (1550) to 500,000 (1650)

      • London, Amsterdam, St. Petersburg, Berlin, Lyons

    • Cities increasingly important: administrative, commercial, intellectual centers

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

XIV. Early Capitalism

A. Profits and ethics



    • Medieval theologians considered profit making to be selfish and sinful

    • Renaissance merchants supported changes, arts becoming influential in society

    • Protestant Reformation saw profit, success as signs of God’s Favor

B. Early capitalism

    • Led to increased influence for urban middle classes

    • Altered rural society

      • Improved material standards

      • Increased independence of rural workers

    • Capitalism generated deep social strains

      • Bandits, muggers, witch-hunting

      • Began to impoverish urban workers

      • Pricing Revolutions were common

      • Impoverished aristocrats, peasants

      • Too much money chasing too few goods

C. The Price Revolution

    • Use of money replaced barter

    • Imports of gold, silver led to trade imbalances

      • Mercantilism demanded payments in gold, silver

      • Spain, Portugal did not support manufacturing

      • Both countries had to import goods

      • Northern Europeans demanded payment in gold, silver

D. Too much money chasing too few goods

      • Inflation resulted

      • Peasants, aristocrats

        • On fixed incomes

        • Payment in kind economies suffered

      • Inflation drove real wages down




________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


XV. Commercial Revolution

A. The nature of capitalism



    • Private parties sought to take advantage of free market conditions

    • Economic decisions by private parties, not by governments or nobility

    • Forces of supply and demand determined price

    • New managerial skills and banking arrangements arose

B. Supply and demand

    • Merchants built efficient transportation and communication networks

    • New institutions and services: banks, insurance, stock exchanges

C. Joint-stock companies

    • Dutch East Indies, English East/West Indies Companies

    • Organized commerce on a new scale

    • Authorized to explore, conquer, colonize distant lands

D. Rise of Manufacturing

    • Colonial markets, population stimulated manufacturing

    • Putting-out system of 17th and 18th centuries

      • Entrepreneurs bypassed guilds

      • Moved production to countryside

      • Rural labor cheap, cloth production highly profitable

E. Capitalism actively supported by governments

    • Especially in England and Netherlands

    • Chartered joint-stock companies

    • Protected property, upheld contracts, settled disputes

F. Adam Smith and The Wealth of Nations

    • Considered the founding father of capitalism

    • Society would prosper as individuals pursued their own interests

    • States were to support private interests, free trade

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



XVI. More Changes in Europe

A. Mass Culture Arises



    • Nationalism, national faiths arise embracing all

    • Use of some luxuries becomes common

    • Rise of leisure time even for poorer peoples

    • Rise of professional entertainment

    • Immigration by commoners to colonies

B. Agriculture changes

    • New technologies applied to farming

    • Draining swamps, animal breeding

    • New tools to increase productivity

    • Introduction of new world crops, i.e. potato

C. Manufacturing

    • Mass produced items common: textiles, metal products

    • Capitalism stimulates production as profitable

    • New jobs caused people to move into manufacturing from agriculture

D. New Social Classes

    • Rise of entrepreneurial class with great wealth

    • Rise of a technological managerial class

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

XVII. Social Change, Social Protest



A. Rise of urban, rural working class

    • Referred to as proletariat

    • Paid low wages in horrible conditions

    • At mercy of price revolutions

    • Many peasants reduced to paid wages

B. Population growth

    • Urbanization increased tensions

    • Growth increased poverty

C. Social Tensions

    • Peasant revolts especially during Reformation

      • In France, Germany rose against landlords

      • Many sought more radical forms of Protestantism

    • Urban citizens also tended towards Protestantism

    • Persecution of witches

D. Elite and Mass Culture

    • Prior to Reformation, there were two cultures, elite and common

    • Two rarely intermixed or cooperated

    • Mass culture such as entertainment

    • Faith often became elite culture

E. The nuclear family strengthened by capitalism

    • Families more independent economically, socially, and emotionally

    • Love between men and women

    • Parents and children became more important

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

XVIII. Gender Issues in Europe

A. Renaissance saw expansion of women’s rights



    • Books written for women

    • Education of women allowed

    • Women could enter public arena as intellectuals

    • Artesmia Gentileschi was a painter

B. Reformation took back many of the rights

    • Many reformers were women

      • Many threatened males traditional roles

      • Margaritte of Navarre, Elizabeth of England

    • Protestants emphasized family role of women

C. Witch-hunts in Europe

    • Theories, fears of witches intensified in 16th century

    • Reformation fed hysteria about witches and devil worship

    • About sixty thousand executed, 95 percent of them women

D. Commercial, Capitalist Revolution

    • Women needed often to support family by outside work

    • Many women merchants very successful

    • Women assumed new economic roles

E. Education and Women

    • Education was one of few avenues open to women

    • Aristocratic women often educated

F. Enlightenment saw first major victories for women’s rights

    • Women ran intellectual salons of France

    • Many very prominent as philosophes: Madame de Stael

    • Some few feminists appeared

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

XIX. Scientific Revolutions

A. The re-conception of the universe


    • The Ptolemaic universe

      • A motionless earth surrounded by nine spheres

      • Could not account for observable movement of the planets

      • Compatible with Christian conception of creation

    • The Copernican universe

      • Copernicus suggested sun was center of universe, 1543

      • Implied that the earth was just another planet

B. The Scientific Revolution
  1   2




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page