Toward the modern consciousness: intellectual and cultural developments

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    1. before 1914, most Europeans continued to believe in the values and ideals that had been generated by the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

    2. beginning in the late 19th Century, a new view of the physical universe, an appeal to the irrational, alternative views of human nature, and radically innovative forms of literary and artistic expression shattered old beliefs and opened the way to a modern consciousness (a sense of confusion and anxiety prevalent)

    3. Developments in the Sciences: the Emergence of a New Physics

      1. science was one of the chief pillars underlying the optimistic and rationalistic view of the world that many Westerners shared in the 19th Century

      2. throughout the 19th Century, Westerners adhered to the mechanical conception of the universe postulated by the classical physics of Isaac Newton

      3. these views were seriously challenged at the end of the 19th Century

      4. Inquiry into the disintegrative processes within atoms became a central theme in the new physics in part due to the experimental work of Marie and Pierre Curie on radium and radiation

      5. the quantum theory of energy developed by Max Planck raised fundamental questions about the subatomic realm of the atom as the basic building blocks of the material world

      6. Einstein was responsible for the Special Theory of Relativity

    4. Toward a New Understanding of the Irrational

      1. intellectually, the decades before 1914 witnessed a combination of contradictory developments

        1. human reason and progress still remained a dominant thread

        2. a small group of intellectuals attacked the optimistic progress, dethroned reason, and glorified the irrational

      2. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)

        1. intellectual who glorified the irrational

        2. believed that Christianity was a scourge and had deeply undermined the creative power of western civilization

      3. Henri Bergson (1859-1941)

        1. accepted rational, scientific thought as a practical instrument

        2. reality was the “life force” that suffused all things

      4. Georges Sorel (1847-1922)

        1. a French political theorist

        2. believed that a small elite ruling body had to govern the masses (advocated violence if necessary to achieve socialism)

    5. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)and the Emergence of Psychoanalysis

      1. Austrian (Vienna)doctor who put forth a series of theories that undermined optimism about the rational nature of the human mind

      2. argued that human behavior was determined by one’s unconsciousness and by inner drives which people were generally unaware

      3. Maintained that human being’s inner life was a battleground between the id (contained lustful drives and desires), ego (seat of reason), and superego (represented inhibitions and moral values)

      4. often linked with Marx and Darwin as the intellectual giants of the 19th Century

    6. The Impact of Darwin: Social Darwinism and Racism

      1. in the 2nd half of the 19th Century, scientific theories were sometimes wrongly applied to achieve other ends

      2. the application of Darwin’s principle of organic evolution to society came to be known as Social Darwinism

      3. the most popular exponent of Social Darwinism was the British philosopher Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) who argued that all human societies were organisms evolving through time from a struggle with their environment

      4. according to Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927), an Englishman who became a German citizen, Aryans were the real creators of western culture

      5. he urged that the Aryan race, under German leadership, must be prepared to fight for Western civilization and save it from the destructive assaults of lower races such as Jews, Negroes, and Orientals (Jews in particular)

    1. The Attack on Christianity and the Response of the Churches

      1. the growth of scientific thinking as well the forces of modernization presented new challenges to the Christian churches (EX: church had weak hold on factory workers)

      2. political movements of the late 19th Century were hostile to the established Christian churches (EX: Paris Commune murdering the archbishop of Paris)

      3. science became one of the chief threats to all Christian churches and even to religion itself in the 19th Century (EX: Darwin’s theory of evolution)

      4. the urbanization of Europe brought religion under attack through:

        1. new migrants to cities without connections to civic churches

        2. advocates of more scientific inquiry (EX: higher criticism of the Bible championed by the French Catholic scholar Ernst Renan [1823-1892]seriously questioned the historical accuracy of the Bible and denied the divinity of Jesus)

        3. Marxist political environment of the 19th Century

      5. the Catholic Church took a rigid stand against modern ideas including religious toleration, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press under the direction of conservative popes such as Pius IX (1846-1878)

      6. the church began to compromise more with modern society under Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903) who stated in his De Rerum Novarum (1891) that much in socialism was Christian in principle

      7. other religious groups also made efforts to win support for Christianity among the working-class poor and restore religious practice among the urban working classes

    2. The Culture of Modernity

      1. Naturalism and Symbolism in Literature

        1. throughout much of the late 19th Century, literature was dominated by Naturalism

        2. Naturalists accepted the material world as real and felt literature should be realistic

        3. although Naturalism is a continuation of realism, it lacked the underlying note of liberal optimism about people and society that had still been prevalent in the 1850s

        4. the Naturalists were pessimistic about Europe’s future and often portrayed characters caught in the grip of forces beyond their control (greatest difference from realism)

        5. the best example of naturalistic literature can be found in the novels of Emile Zola (Rougon-Macquart)

        6. explaining his use of naturalism in his novels and his depiction of characters, Emile Zola said: “I have simply done on living bodies the work of analysis which surgeons perform on corpses.”

        7. Russia entered its golden age of literature powered by the realistic novels of two men:

          1. Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910)

  1. known for his character portrayal and vivid descriptions of military life

  2. War and Peace is his masterpiece

      1. Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881)

        1. known for his narrative skills and profound insights into human nature

        2. most famous works Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov

      2. Symbolism

        1. primarily used poetry

        2. believed that objective knowledge of the world was impossible

        3. WB Yeats and Rainer Maria Rilke are the best examples

        4. Late 1800s early 1900s

2. Modernism in the Arts

  1. in art, modernism found its beginnings in the work of Camille Pissarro (1830-1903) movement called impressionism

  2. sought to put into painting their impressions of the changing effects of light on objects in nature

  3. Claude Monet (1840-1926) was especially enchanted with water and painted many pictures in which he sought to capture the interplay of light, water, and atmosphere (evident in Impression, Sunrise)

  4. Berthe Morisot (1841-1895) was a female impressionist who had to fight every step of the way to be regarded as a serious artist; known for her lighter colors and flowing brush strokes (Young Girl by the Window [1878])

  5. by the 1880s, a new movement known as Post-Impressionism arose in France but soon spread to other European Countries

  6. Post-Impressionism retained the Impressionist emphasis upon light and color but revolutionized it even further by paying more attention to structure and form

  7. Paul Cezzane (1839-1906) [Woman with Coffee Pot] and Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) [Starry Night]

      1. Modernism in Music

        1. modernism in music included the elements of:

          1. attraction to the exotic and the primitive

          2. nationalist themes

          3. folk music

        2. Edvard Grieg (1843-1907) was a Scandinavian composer who dedicated his music to Norwegian nationalism; used Norwegian folk music extensively (Peer Gynt Suite—best-known work composed in 1876)

        3. Claude Debussy (1862-1918) was closely linked to the Impressionist movement as his music was often inspired by art and poetry (Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun [1894])

        4. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) was a chief exponent of musical primitivism (The Firebird --1910;Petrushka –1911); composed many of his works for Sergei Diaghilev who headed the world famous Ballet Russe

        5. at its premier, Igor Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring (1913), now considered as a classic example of modernism in music and ballet caused a great riot at the theatre by audience members fighting over the music’s heavy beat, sharp dissonance, and blatant sensuality

    1. The Movement for Women’s Rights

      1. in the 1st half of the 19th Century a number of women in the United States and Europe began to work together for women’s rights

      2. family and marriage laws were especially singled out since it was difficult for women to secure divorces and property laws gave men almost complete control over the property of their wives

      3. progress was slow as women in Britain did not gain rights over their own property until 1870 (Germany in 1900; France in 1907)

      4. divorce was not legalized in Britain until 1857 (France in 1884 and just partially; Spain and Italy not at all)

      5. some upper and middle-class women gained access to higher education during the 19th Century

      6. teaching was the first professional occupation opened to women

      7. thanks to the pioneering efforts in the field of nursing by women such as German Amalie Sieveking (1794-1859), Englishwoman Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), and American Clara Barton (1821-1912), nursing became another professional career open to women

      8. by the 1840s and 1850s, the movement for women’s rights entered the political arena with the call for equal political rights

      9. the women’s suffrage movement was strongest in Great Britain and the United States where Enlightenment ideas such as “natural rights” were often nurtured

      10. the British women’s suffrage movement was divided into camps led by two women

        1. Millicent Fawcett (1847-1929)

          1. led the moderate faction

          2. her group believed it was important for women to demonstrate that they would use political power responsibly if they wanted Parliament to grant them the right to vote

        2. Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928)

          1. led the radical faction

          2. along with her daughters, Christabel and Sylvia, founded the mostly middle and upper-class Women’s Social and Political Union in 1903

          3. to advance the cause of women’s suffrage, this group took a radical, public, well publicized approach to the movement, employing different media and provocative public actions to demand the vote for women like pelting male politicians with eggs, chaining themselves to lampposts, smashing windows of fashionable department stores, burning railroad cars, going on hunger strikes when imprisoned

      11. nevertheless, only in Finland, Norway, and some American states did women actually receive the right to vote before 1914

      12. women such as Bertha Suttner (1843-1914), who led the Austrian Peace Society, led the movement for disarmament and peace

      13. Italian Maria Montessori (1870-1952), medical doctor turned educator, established a system of childhood education based on natural and spontaneous activities in which students learned at their own pace (her schools were popular both in Europe and the US by the 1930s)

    2. Jews within the European Nation-State

      1. during the 19th Century, Jews were emancipated in most countries, but still restricted

        1. in France, they had full citizenship granted to them in 1791 but due to a 1808 decree restrictions were placed on their movement and ability to lend money commercially

        2. in Prussia, Jews were emancipated in 1812 but not allowed to hold government offices or take advanced degrees in universities

        3. in Vienna, Austria, Jews made up ten percent of the population but 39% of all medical students and 23% of all law students

        4. in Great Britain, Jewish politician Benjamin Disraeli rose to the position of Prime Minister in the 1860s

      2. despite advances as a group during the 1800s, anti-Semitism was still alive and well in Europe

        1. France—Dreyfus Affair

        2. Austria---the most powerful party in Vienna was the Christian Socialists who combined agitation on the behalf of workers with a virulent anti-Semitism

        3. Germany---had right-wing anti-Semitic parties such as Adolf Stocker’s Christian Social Workers’ Party

        4. The worst treatment of Jews in the last two decades of the 19th Century and the first decade of the 20th Century occurred in Eastern Europe where 72% of the entire world Jewish population lived (widespread persecution and pogroms led to a mass Jewish exodus from Eastern Europe to the United States, Canada, and, to a much lesser degree, Palestine)

      3. Theodor Herzl (1860-1904)

        1. Jewish leader who was a key figure in the growth of political Zionism

        2. In 1896, he published The Jewish State in which he advocated the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine as a means of sparing European Jews the indignities of growing anti-Semitism

    3. The Transformation of Liberalism: Great Britain and Italy

      1. in Great Britain, neither Liberals or Conservatives were moved to accommodate the working-class with significant reforms until they were forced to do so by the pressure applied by the newly created Labour Party and fledgling trade unions (both non-Marxist)

      2. the Labour Party had been created by Fabian Socialists who advocated the necessity of workers using their new voting rights to progressively elect a new House of Commons wherein legislation favorable to the working-classes could be passed in a democratic fashion

      3. the Liberals, who gained control of the House of Commons in 1906 and held it until 1914, perceived that they would have to enact a program of social welfare or lose the support of workers

      4. under the leadership of Prime Minister David Lloyd George (1863-1945), the Liberal Party abandoned the classical principles of laissez-faire and voted for a series of social reforms such as the National Insurance Act of 1911

      5. the National Insurance Act of 1911 provided sickness and unemployment benefits to workers with state aid (paid for by increasing the tax burden on wealthy classes)-----------2

      6. In Italy, Liberal leader and sometime Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti used a policy of ruler ship called transformismo which was the policy of transforming old political parties into new power blocks through the calculated use of political patronage and outright bribery

      7. despite Giolitti passing welfare legislation, worker unrest exploded into anti-government riots in 1914 (troops had to be used to crush them)

    4. Growing Tensions in Germany

      1. the new imperial Germany begun by Bismarck in 1871 continued as an “authoritarian, conservative, military-bureaucratic power state” during the reign of Kaiser Wilhelm II (1888-1918)

      2. by 1914, Germany had become the strongest military and industrial power on the Continent

      3. the growth of industrialization led to even greater expansion for the Social Democratic Party (frightened the middle and upper classes who blamed labor for their own problems)

      4. with the expansion of industry and cities came demands for more political participation and growing sentiment for reforms that would produce greater democratization

      5. growing tensions in modern German society were exemplified by the proliferation of ultra-nationalist right-wing political pressure groups with anti-Semitic, racist, and imperialist beliefs (EX: Pan-German League)

      6. the Pan-German League advocated anti-socialist and anti-liberal policies including the development of a global German colonial empire to unite all different classes of citizens at home

    5. Industrialization and Revolution in Imperial Russia

          1. Sergei Witte (1849-1915)

  1. the minister for finance in Russia from 1892 to 1903

  2. starting in the 1890s, Russia experienced a massive surge of state-sponsored industrialism under his guidance

  3. Witte believed that railroads were a very powerful weapon in economic development (35,000 miles of railroad were built on his watch)

  4. encouraged protective tariffs to help Russian industry

  5. persuaded Czar Nicholas II that foreign capital was essential for rapid industrialism (his programs help make Russia the world’s 4th largest steel producer by 1900)

          1. as industrialism grew in Russia, so did urban squalor and unrest

          2. this unrest coupled with Russia’s disastrous defeat in the Russo-Japanese War indirectly led to the internal Revolution of 1905

          3. Russo-Japanese War had caused food shortages; a massive procession of workers marched on the Czar’s Winter Palace to peacefully present him with a petition (troops panicked and opened fire on the crowd (Bloody Sunday) setting off the revolution

          4. under Witte’s advice, the czar issued the October Manifesto which granted civil liberties and agreed to create a Duma (legislative assembly) elected directly by the people

          5. the manifesto won the support of middle-class moderates who now supported the czar’s efforts to suppress the worker uprising

          6. after the czar’s reform minded chief minister, Peter Stolypin, was assassinated in 1911, Nicholas II reverted back to his reactionary roots and curtailed the power of the Duma and ruled with his bureaucracy and military

    1. The Rise of the United States

    1. between 1860 and 1914, the United States made the shift from an agrarian to a mighty industrial nation

    2. American heavy industry was unrivaled by 1900

    3. people still questioned the overall quality of life in the US since the richest 9% of the population controlled 71% of the wealth

    4. terrible working conditions in factories led to the emergence of organized labor (EX: American Federation of Labor)

    5. after 1900, Progressive reformers, particularly on the state level, enacted economic and social legislation which did improve the quality of life for the average American

    1. The Growth of Canada

      1. Canada faced problems of national unity at the end of the 19th Century

      2. real unity was difficult to achieve because of distrust between the English-speaking and French-speaking peoples of Canada

      3. Wilfred Laurier, the 1st French-Canadian Prime Minister of Canada in 1896, helped bring the country together.


      1. Causes of the New Imperialism

          1. the existence of competitive nation-states after 1870 was undoubtedly a major determinant in the growth of this new imperialism

          2. late 19th Century imperialism was closely tied to nationalism (nationalists equated national power to military power and its use for material gain)

          3. imperialism was also tied to Social Darwinism and racism (Social Darwinists believed “superior” races must dominate “inferior” races to show how strong and virile they are)

          4. a more religious-humanitarian, yet still very racist, approach to imperialism was taken by some Europeans when they argued that Europeans had a moral responsibility to civilize ignorant peoples (White Man’s Burden)

          5. the need for natural resources and new military bases were other reasons emphasized by some historians for imperialism

      1. The Creation of Empires

    1. The Scramble for Africa

  1. Europeans controlled relatively little of the African continent before 1880 (South Africa was the exception)

  2. The British

1. Britain had established themselves in South Africa during the Napoleonic wars

    1. the original colonizers of South Africa were the Dutch, called Boers.

    2. British policies disgusted the Boers and led them in 1835 to migrate north on the Great Trek to the region between the Orange and Vaal Rivers (later known as the Orange Free State) and north of the Vaal River (the Transvaal).

    3. after a struggle between the British and the Boers, the Transvaal region was recognized as the independent Boer South African Republic (did not keep either white group from massacring and subjugating the Zulu and Xhosa peoples of the region)

    4. British scheming against the Boers in the 1890s precipitated the Boer War from 1899 to 1902 (British army overwhelmed out manned Boers but British were conciliatory to Boers afterward)

    5. Britain also seized control of Egypt in 1882 (primarily because of the Suez Canal) and later Sudan in 1898 (Battle of Omdurman)

  1. the Portuguese had settlements in Angola and Mozambique

  2. the French had control in Algeria by 1879 , Tunisia and the vast French West Africa by 1900, and had established a protectorate in Morocco in 1912

  3. the Italians seized Ottoman Tripoli in 1911 renaming it Libya

  4. Central Africa was dominated by King Leopold II of Belgium starting in 1876(condemned even by other European governments for his brutality in the region)

  5. between 1884 and 1900, the Germans established colonies in Southwest Africa, the Cameroons, Togoland, and East Africa

  6. only Liberia and Ethiopia remained independent states in Africa by 1914

    1. Asia in the Age of Imperialism

    1. although Asia had been open to Western influence since the 16th Century, not much of its immense territory had fallen under direct European control

    2. The British

      1. it was not until the explorations of Australia by Captain James Cook between 1768 and 1771 that Britain took an active interest in the East

      2. Australia and New Zealand were made part of the British Commonwealth

      3. in 1842, Britain acquired Hong Kong through war (also seized Burma and the Malay States in SE Asia)

      4. in 1858, the British government took control of India from the private British East India Company after the unsuccessful Sepoy uprising

    3. The Russians

      1. in the north, gained control over Siberia and Alaska (Alaska was acquired by US in 1867)

      2. in the south, gained control over the entire northern coast of the Black Sea (1830), the Trans-Caspian area (1881), and Turkestan (1885)

      3. Japanese halted Russian plans for expansion plans in the Far East as did Britain on the Indian subcontinent

    4. The French

      1. they occupied the city of Saigon in 1858

      2. Cochin China was taken in 1862

      3. Cambodia, Annam, Tonkin, and Laos were organized into the Union of French Indochina in the 1880s

    5. The United States

      1. forced Japan to give them trading and diplomatic privileges in the 1850s

      2. added the Samoan Islands and the Hawaiian Islands in the late 1800s

      3. after defeating the Spanish in 1898, the Americans added Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to its holdings

3. Asian Response to Imperialism

  1. China

    1. Britain, France, Germany, Russia, the United States, and Japan established spheres of influence and long-term leases of Chinese territory

    2. the humiliation of China by the Western powers led to much anti-foreign violence, but the Westerners only used this lawlessness as an excuse to extort further concessions from the Chinese

    3. the Boxer Rebellion of 1900-1901 was an attempt by Chinese nationalists called “Boxers” to expel all foreigners through an armed uprising (failed)

    4. Manchu Dynasty failed and was replaced by a weak republic led by revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen

  2. Japan

    1. Japan, under the astute leadership of Emperor Mutsuhito (1867-1912), was able to avoid China’s fate

    2. his regime’s Meiji Restoration:

  1. created a political system that was democratic in form but rigidly authoritarian in practice

  2. sent many Japanese abroad to be educated in the ways of the west and adopted western reforms in political, economic, and military organization

    1. made Korea a colony in 1905 (ruled harshly)

  1. India

    1. under Parliament’s supervision, a small group of British civil servants directed the affairs of India’s almost 300 million people

    2. the British brought order to a society that had been divided by civil wars for some time and created a relatively honest and efficient government

    3. the Indian people paid a high price for the peace and stability of British rule

  1. due to population growth, extreme poverty was a way of life for most Indians (67% of the country was malnourished in1901)

  2. British manufactured goods destroyed local industries

  3. the education system served only the Indian elite (educated Indians still treated like 2nd class citizens)

  4. smug racial attitudes undermined acceptance of British rule

    1. Indian National Congress (1883) sought autonomy for India


        1. The Bismarckian System

    1. Bismarck knew that the emergence of a unified Germany in 1871 had upset the balance of power established at Vienna in 1815

    2. Bismarck’s alliance system served to bring the European powers into an interlocking system in which no one state could be certain of much support if it chose to initiate a war of aggression

    3. Bismarck believed the best way to preserve the new German state and new status quo was to act as Europe’s peacemaker

    4. The Three Emperors’ League (1873)

  1. an alliance Bismarck engineered between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia

  2. this alliance of traditionally conservative countries purpose was to isolate France

  3. did not work very well due to conflicts in eastern Europe between Austria-Hungary and Russia particularly in the Balkans

  4. Bismarck tried to act as an intermediary between its two allies (ultimately unsuccessful)

5. Ottoman Wars (late 1870s)

    1. in 1876, the Balkan states of Serbia and Montenegro declared war on the Ottoman Empire

    2. both were defeated

    3. Russia, with Austrian approval, then attacked and defeated the Ottoman Empire

    4. the Treaty of San Stefano (1878) ended the Russo-Ottoman hostilities calling for the creation of a large Bulgarian state (Russian satellite)

    5. this Bulgarian state concerned the other great powers of Europe and they called for the treaty’s revision

6. Congress of Berlin (1878)

  1. meeting of European nations which effectively demolished the San Stefano Treaty

  2. dominated by Bismarck

  3. greatly reduced the size of the new Bulgarian state (returned much of the former Bulgaria back to the Ottomans)

  4. made the Balkan states of Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania independent

  5. put the Balkan states of Bosnia and Herzegovina under Austrian protection

  6. humiliated the Russians (Russians terminated the Three Emperors’ League)

  7. congress resulted in the European powers seeking new alliances to safeguard their security

    1. Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy formed the Triple Alliance in 1882

    2. Fearing that Russia and France may come together, Bismarck also made a separate Reinsurance Treaty with the Russians in 1887 (undone shortly after Wilhelm II’s firing of Bismarck in 1890)

        1. New Directions and New Crises

    1. after 1890, a new European diplomacy unfolded in which Europe was divided into two opposing camps that became more and more inflexible and unwilling to compromise

    2. after Bismarck’s dismissal, Kaiser Wilhelm II embarked upon an activist foreign policy dedicated to enhancing German power

    3. his ending of his agreement with Russia, allowed the French and Russians to become allied in 1894

    4. Great Britain which had an isolationist policy in place regarding continental matters changed its tune after receiving criticism because of its Boer War with South Africa

    5. despite Germany seeming to be Britain’s most likely choice as an ally, Great Britain eventually allied itself with its long-time nemesis France because of its growing concerns over Germany as an industrial, colonial, and naval rival (Entente Cordial of 1904 officially made France and Great Britain allies)

    6. Germany’s foolish saber rattling during the First Moroccan Crisis of 1905-1906 further united France and Great Britain and eventually led to Russia joining an alliance with both (Triple Entente)

    7. Crises in the Balkans (1908-1913)

      1. the Bosnian Crisis of 1908-1909 led Austria to take the drastic step of annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina (prohibited by Congress of Berlin)

      2. Serbia which was attempting to create its own Balkan empire protested (backed by Russia---aka Papa Slav)

      3. it appeared Austria and Serbia would go to war but Germany sided with Austria and warned Russia that any war against Austria would mean war with Germany (Russia backs off defusing the crisis for the time being)

      4. the First and Second Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913 between various Balkan nations accomplished little other than leaving the inhabitants feeling embittered and spiking tensions

      5. Serbia’s effort to gain access to the Adriatic via Albania was denied by Austria at the London Conference which created a newly independent Albania (angered Serbs and Russians)

      6. The two rival camps (the Triple Entente and Triple Alliance) viewed each other with distrust in 1914

      7. only some kind of “accident” was needed to set off continent-wide hostilities

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