Virginia: Decided to seceded but the north-western section of the state wanted to remain loyal. Part of the state seceded from the state as the state seceded from the Union. This section became a new northern state, West Virginia.
North Carolina: The people of North Carolina did not want to secede, but felt that there was no choice. North Carolina was surrounded by Confederate states. (Tennessee, Virginia, and South Carolina)
Texas: Governor Sam Houston declared that Texas should remain a loyal state within the Union. “Texas will leave the Union over my dead body.” Houston left Texas and the state joined the CSA
The Anaconda Plan was designed to destroy the CSA in a manner similar to the killing techniques of an anaconda snake. The USA would suffocate the life out of the Confederacy and slowly strangle the Confederates into a surrender. Scott, a southerner, chose to remain loyal to the Union and will fight to save the Union.
Four Steps of the Anaconda Plan
1. Capture the capital of the Confederacy, Richmond, Virginia
2. Capture the Mississippi River and split the CSA into a western & eastern section
3. Blockade all CSA port cities and deny ships the ability to enter or exit. The CSA depends on European supplies. The blockade will starve out the Confederates.
4.Divide and Conquer the CSA into several smaller segments.
Confederate Plan for Victory
Fight a defensive war because the Union has too many resources, troops, and banks.
Enlist the assistance of powerful European nations (British & or French) to trade weapons for cotton.
3. Patience: Hope the northern states grow tired of the bloodshed and accept the reality of the south as a separate nation.
Both sides (USA & CSA) assumed this would be a quick war. Every general (except Sherman) assumed the war would last only one battle. The winner of the battle would win the war.
The first battle occurred in Manassas, Virginia. It was called the Battle of Bull Run.
The CSA soldiers ran for their lives to escape the Union army. One CSA general (Thomas Jackson) refused to run and began building a wall with soldiers. (one kneeling behind another) The Confederate army rallied behind this wall and stopped the Union army. The Union troops threw their rifles and ran back to Washington; D.C.
For the rest of history, Jackson became known as Stonewall Jackson.(CSA)
The Union army was in chaos after the Battle of Bull Run. It was obvious that this would not be a short war. President Lincoln needed a northern general that could organize the Union troops into a “real” army. Lincoln named George McClellan the general in command of the Union army.
Born 03 December 1826
Entered college at age 13
(University of Pennsylvania)
Transferred to West Point at age 15 (studied as an engineer)
The British and French are on the verge of helping the CSA. Both countries(U.K. & France)considered sending troops and ships to help the CSA. At a minimum, both nations were planning to send weapons and food.
The Union wasn’t strong enough to fight the CSA, France, and the United Kingdom. Lincoln needed to make a move that would keep the French & British uninvolved.
Lincoln shifted the focus of the war from states’ rights to the freedom of slaves. Lincoln announced a proclamation that the slaves would be freed on 01 January 1863.
Freeing the slaves made the USA appear as if it was fighting a righteous cause to end slavery. It made the CSA appear that they were fighting to keep slavery.
Queen Victoria (British Queen)was deeply opposed to slavery. She had read Uncle Tom’s Cabin and wept when the book was finished. Slavery was illegal in the U.K. & France. Neither country wanted to send weapons to a nation that was fighting to keep slavery.
As a result, the CSA was isolated from the rest of the world. No other nations wanted to be partners with a country that fought to keep slavery.
Lincoln had outmaneuvered the CSA.
EMANCIPATION = to set free
The Emancipation Proclamation guaranteed the British & French would stay out of the war. The CSA was alone.