Tossups by Kentucky for the 1998 acf regionals

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Tossups by Kentucky for the 1998 ACF Regionals
1. Amidst threats of the presence of the outlaw Mantee a drifter and former author named Alan Squier meets and falls in love with Gabby Maple, and young girl who longs to leave the Arizona desert town where she lives and go to France to be with her mother. When Mantee shows up Squier, who respects his Robin Hood-like nobility, makes an unusual request that Mantee kill him so he can leave his life insurance to Gabby, which Mantee does. This is, FTP, a brief synopsis of what play by Robert Sherwood?

Answer: _the Petrified Forest_

2. In AD 98 this man was made Roman emperor and spent a few years reviewing the military situation in the provinces before undertaking war to conquer Dacian, using the wealth of the gold mines there to finance a renovation of the Roman forum. Though later expeditions against Parthia, depicted in his famous column, were less successful, his respect for the Senate and his fairness led him to be designated as one of the Five Good Emperors. FTP name this emperor, the successor of Nerva and succeeded by Hadrian.

Answer: _Trajan_ (Marcus Ulpius Trajanus)

3. First posited in 1928, this principle is in agreement with the de Broglie theory of matter-waves in its assertion that certain phenomena, such as light and electrons, can be described in terms of waves or in terms of particles. As such, a complete understanding of these pheneomna can never be achieved by describing them as one or the other, but must employ both descriptions of their properties. his is, FTP, an extremely simplistic summary of what tenet, the brainchild of Niels Bohr?

Answer: the _complementarity_ principle

4.According to legend this man was the first bishop of Ephesus who was martyred when he tried to stop the orgiastic celbrations of Diana there and was beaten to deth with sticks by the natives there. Son of a Gentile father and a devout Jewish mother named Eunice, he was responsible for the founding of the Christian community at Berea with Silas and did missionary work in Macedonia and Thessalonika with the Apostle Paul. FTP name this missionary, whose letter from Paul is one of the Pastoral epistles.

Answer: Saint _Timothy_

5. After breaking her engagement to Simon Andresson she marries the adventurer Erlend Nikalausson, and after surviving an attempt on her life by one of Erlend's former lovers she lived with him at Husaby and bore him seven sons. Erlend's irresponsibility causes the breakup of their marriage, however, and after the death of her father she returns to her home at Jšrungaard before entering a convent, where she later dies of the Plague. This is, FTP, the title character of what four-part saga by Sigrid Undset?

Answer: _Kristin Lavransdatter_

6. A forester named Max longs for the hand of Agathe, the daughter of the chief forester Cuno, but his lack of success in marksmanship contests puts the marriage in jeopardy. Another forester, Caspar, offers his assisstance in the form of seven magic bullets cast by the his friend Black Huntsman, which Max accepts, not knowing that six will hit whatever they are aimed at but the seventh belongs to the Black Hunstman, who intends to direct the bullet at Agathe. Such is the premise of, FTP, what opera by Carl maria von Weber?

Answer: _Die FreischŸtz (The Free-shooter)_

7. The name of this element comes from the Arabic for "gold", a name given to the compound from which it was first obtained by Martin Klaproth in 1789. Commonly found with Hafnium, which occurs in all its compound, this substance is resistant to acids and is highly transparent to neutrons, leading to its use in cladding fuel rods as well as for the purpose for which it is most famous. FTP name this element, atomic number 40, familiar to who lack funds to buy an actual diamond engagement ring.

Answer: _zirconium_

8. Lying south of the Carpathians on the Russian platform, this nation is amply supplied with water from a network of rivers including the Prut, which flows into the Danube and forms its border with Romania, and the Dneistr. To the south the Budzhak plain forms its southern boundary, which, like its boundaries to the north and west, is shared with the Ukraine. FTP name this former Soviet republic whose capital is Chisninau.

Answer: _Moldova_

9. On one bank of a small stream stands what appears to be the ruin of a brick-constructed bridge and a young man carrying a staff and fashionably dressed in a red jacket, yellow hose. He is looking across the stream at a woman sitting in a grove wearing only a small cape and suckling a child. FTP name this painting by Giorgione, originally lacking a title, whose depiction of a bolt of lightning illuminating a grey sky in the background is the only evidence of the storm from which the painting gets its present name.

Answer: The _Tempest_

10. Various legends state that this name was originally derived from the name of the builder of the Great Northern railroad who was notorious for his rage or from that of a murderous chimney sweep who was the subject of a popular British song of 1849. Another study shows that the name was mentioned even earlier, possibly taken from name of the the Angel of Death, but in all cases mentioned in substitute for a less agreeable word. FTP give this name, no relation to a Mike Judge-created patriarch, often used in oaths in place of "hell".

answer" _Sam Hill_

11. The orphaned daughter of a doctor is able to use her father's formula to cure the illness of the king of France, who in payment decrees that she can marry anyone she wishes. She chooses the reluctant Count of Rousillon, who marries her but deserts her with the marriage unconsummated, declaring that she will never be his wife until she gets his ring and carries his child; this she accomplishes with the help of Diana, and in the end everything turns out for the best. Such are the exploits of Helena and Bertram in, FTP, what Shakespeare play?

Answer: _All's Well That End's Well_

12. It was founded by Chao K'uang-Yin, the military inspector general of the Chou dynasty, who in in AD 960 assumed the throne in a coup and established a new capital at kaifeng.By 1125 the north was conquered by the Khitan, who ruled from Beijing, though the south continued to be ruled by this dynasty from Linan until the conquest of both North and South by Genghis Khan. FTP name this dynasty, which supplanted the Five Dynasties before falling to the Mongols in 1276.

Answer: _Song_ (or _Sung_) dysnasty

13. The name is derived from that of a French geologist and was originally applied to a section of the French Alps he explored, being applied to type of limestone of which the mountains are almost entirely composed and later to the specific mineral which constitutes the limestone. The mineral, also found in schist and most forms of marble, is also known as calcium magnesium carbonate, with the formula CaMg(CO3)2. FTP name this mineral, whose name is phonetically the same as that of an overweight blaxploitation hero played by Rudy Ray Moore.

Answer: _dolomite_

14. Though she did not actively murder him, this woman was responsible for the death of Meleager, the slayer of the Calydonian Boar, whose determination to give her the spoils in reward for her being the first to wound the beast led to tragic results. Daughter of king Schoneus of Scyros, she was later responsible for many murders until Aphrodite helped Hippomenes put an end to her homicidal game. FTP name this mythlogical woman who challenged any man who wanted to marry her to a race and killing all losers, finally beaten by her desire for golden apples thrown by Hippomenes which caused her to lose to him.

Answer: _Atalanta_

15. Her undoing begins when an affair with Senator Brander results in pregnancy and the birth of her daughter, Vesta. Brander dies before he can marry her and she is instead drawn into a relationship with the wealthy playboy Lester Kane, who is later forced to leave her due to his family's disapproval, and though he marries Letty Gerald they remain in love until his death. These are, FTP, the misfortunes of title character of a work by Theodore Dreiser?

Answer: _Jenny Gerhardt_

16. While studying law in Springfield, Illinois ths man met Abraham Lincoln, whom he served as private secretary from 1861 to 1865 before serving in various diplomatic posts before retiring to become a writer for the _New York Tribune_ in 1874. Returning to ploitics, he served as ambassador to Great Britain before being named Secretary of State in 1898, remaining in that office until his death in 1905. FTP name this statesman, a chief architect of the Open Door policy and known for a series of treaties involving the Panama canal.

Answer: John _Hay_

17. A lake in Saskatchewan and the most common form of calcium silicate is named for this man. Born in 1766, this man was trained to be a doctor and practiced medicine until 1800, when he and fellow chemist Smithson Tennant entered into a partnership to produce pure platinum, a process kept secret until shortly before until his death which made him wealthy and which lead to his most famous discoveries. FTP name this chemist whose research enabled him to discover rhodium and platinum.

Answer: William _Wollaston_

18. Sociologist Robert K. Merton has made extensive studies of this condition, which he relates to the rise in crime in modern industrial societies due to frustration caused the inability of individuals to achieve their cultural and material goals. First studied by ƒmile Durkheim, this condition arises when the deterioration of societal and legal boundaries to human wants and desires leads to a limitlessness of want which can leads to violence and suicide. FTP name this state, whose name derives from the greek for "lawless".

Answer: _anomie_

19. Born in South Africa in 1892, in 1921 this man made his film debut in _Innocent_ and went on to earn Academy Award nominations in 1936 for roles in 1936's _Romeo and _Juliet_ and 1938's _If I Were King_. His unusual elegant good looks often made him ideal for roles as aristocratic villains in films like _Robin Hood_, _The Mark of Zorro_, _Tower of London_, and _Captain Blood_, but he manage to break out of type with a character he portrayed in 14 films between 1939 and 1946. FTP name this actor best known for his portrayal of Sherlock Holmes.

Answer: Basil _Rathbone_

20. Its origins came in the depradations caused by English mercenaries following the battle of Poitiers and a series of tax hikes made by the future Charles V in the effort to ransom Jean II. On May 1358 violence erupted in Compigne when forces under Guillaume Cale slaughtered a large number of arostocrats and by June it had spread to Paris before it was crushed by Gaston Phoebus de Foix and Charles II of Navarre. FTP identify this uprising, named for the contemptuous name given to peasants by aristocrats, a term which was later applied to any peasant revolt.

Answer: the _Jacquerie_

21. When we first encounter this character he is an idealistic youth who longs to be a great artist, and though he lacks discipline he displays generosity towards a gypsy girl named Mignon, whom he rescues from an abusive guardian. Sobered by the eventual death of Mignon, and guided by the machinations of the secret Tower society, he matures and eventually comes to use his intellect as a surgeon. FTP name this character, whose Apprenticeship and Travels form a two-part bildungsroman by Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe.

Answer: _Wilhelm Meister_

22. Ignited by the repression of the Council of Blood this war broke out in 1568, and after a series of reverses success came in 1576, when the mercenary armies of William the Silent and the sea power of the Beggars managed to capture much of Holland and Zeeland. After William's assassination in 1588 defeat seemed imminent, but the respite allowed by the Twelve Year's Truce allowed the rebels to fortify the Dutch frontier, and fear of the Franco-Dutch alliance led to peace in 1648. FTP name this conflict, which led to Dutch independence from Spain.

Answer: _Eighty Years' War_

23. This philosophy was later very influential to such existentialists as Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Martin Heideggar, who uses the word in the title of several of his works. It espouses the scientific analysis of observation by epoche, or liberation of preconceived notions, eidetic reduction, where the essence of a thing is intuited, and the sorting of the different aspects of a thing into one unified observation. FTP name this philosophical doctrine, the brainchild of Edmund Husserl.

Answer: _phenomenology_

24. In later life this man worked with William Thomson Lord Kelvin, describing the cooling created by the expansion of gasses, the effect named for them. Born in 1818, in 1835 this man studied under Dalton at the University of Manchester before publishing his study of the mathematical description of the rate at whhich resistance in a circuit converts electrical energy into heat, P=Isquared R, the law also named for him. FTP name this physicist, after whom the standard unti of work is also named.

Answer: James P. _Joule_

26. From the Greek for reed, this word has several definitions applying to Church matters: the part of the Mass following the Sanctus, a clergyman serving in a Cathedral, the law of the church, and the list of saints accepted in Catholicism are all described by it.. Musically it is applied to a composition which features the strict repetition of a theme either simultaneously at the same pitch or consecutively in a different key, and in general parlance it is used to describe an entire list or genre of things. FTP identify this word, popularised by Harold Bloom and Johann Pachabel.

Answer: _canon_

27. Its major inlets are the Korea Bay and the Gulf of Chilhi, to which it is connected by the Chilhi peninsula. Lying North of the East China Sea, from which it is separtated by an east-west line connecting Cheju Island with mainland China, it's major harbors include Tsingtao, Shanghai, Inchon, and Port Arthur. FTP name this body of water into which drain such rivers as the Yang-tze, Yalu, and Hwang-Ho, from whose silt deposits it gets its name.

Answer: _Yellow Sea (Hwang Hai)_

28. From 1938 to 1953 this scientist headed the Cavendish Laboratories at Cambridge, where he provided support for the work of Watson and Crick. In 1912 he formulated the law named for him which describes the relation between the spacing of atomic planes in crystals and the angles of incidence at which they produce the most intense reflections of electromagnetic radiations and particle waves, and it is for his work in X-Ray crystallography that he won a Nobel Prize in 1916. FTP name this man, who shared the prize with his father.

Answer: _L_awrence _Bragg_ (prompt, of course, on "Bragg")

29. Though he is loved his neighbor Laetitia Dale, the title character chooses to become engaged first to Constantia Durham, who runs away with the the soldier Harry Oxford, and then to Clara Middleton, who chooses to marry his cousin Vernon Whitford. Defeated, he courts Laetitia, and though she no longer who consents to marry him if he willfund his relative Crossjay's entrance to the Marines. Such are the adventures of self-centred Willoughby Patterne in what novel by George Meredith?

Answer: _The Egoist_

30. A member of the Apiaceae family, this plant is known by many names, such as Devil's Plague, in reference to its stubborn hardiness, and Wild Carrot, in reference to its relationship to the cultivated carrot of which it is an ancestor. Eurasian in origin but now almost cosmoplitan, it has divided leaves, an enlarged, edible but bitter root, and umbrels which contain a purple flower in the middle surrounded by the white flower resembling the fabric from which it gets its most famous name. FTP name this plant associated with the successor of William III.

Answer: _Queen Anne's Lace_

Bonuses by Kentucky for the 1998 ACF Regionals
1. The Caesars and the cinema are two great tastes which go great together. Identify the following actors who portrayed a Caesar from a description, 10 points each; if you need another clue, you'll only get 5.

1. 10 pts: This British actor portrayed Marcus Aurelius in the 1964 picture _The Fall of the Roman Empire_.

5 pts: He is better known for his roles in _Bridge on the River Kwai_ and the _Star Wars_ trilogy.

Answer: Sir Alec _Guinness_

2. 10 pts: This actor was nominated for an Oscar for his role as Julius Caesar in 1963's _Cleopatra_.

5 pts: He actually won an Oscar for his role in _My Fair lady_.

Answer: Rex _Harrison_

3. 10 pts: This actor played Nero in the truly awful _Quo Vadis?_

5 pts: He also appeared as a slave owner in _Spartacus_, but is better known for portraying Hercule Poirot in about 1000 films.

Answer: Peter _Ustinov_

2. Identify the following character from legend.

30 pts: One legend has it that Lancelot was raised by this person, from which his surname is derived.

20 pts: Also known as Nineve, in some legends she is the wife of King Pelleas, but in others she is the lover of Merlin.

10 pts: The most famous legend about her is her giving Excalibur to Arthur from the dwelling from which she gets her most famous name.

Answer: the _Lady of the Lake
3. Identify the following literary figures from clues, 15-10-5 per person.

1. 15 pts: This man attempted to make it in music, penning the largely unsuccessful opera _The Village Soothsayer_.

10 pts: He is more famous for such literary works as _Julie, or the New Heloise_ and _ƒmile_.

5 pts: He is best known for _The Social Contract_ and _Confessions_.

Answer: Jean-Jacques _Rousseau_

2. 15 pts: This man made a small splash in the musical world with the opera _Undine_.

10 pts: He is better knwon for such works as the novels _The Devil's Elixir_ and _The Serapion Brothers_.

5 pts: He is best known for his short stories which were themselves the inspiration for an opera by Offenbach.

Answer: E.T,A. _Hoffman_
4. Identify the cities involving the following treaties from European history from descriptions on a 5-10-15 point basis.

1. 5 pts: Among the many treaties signed here were those of 1763, which ended the Seven Years War, and 1856, which ended the Crimean War.

Answer: _Paris_

2. 10 pts: Actually a series of treaties, these were primarily concerned with Greece and Greek autonomy. Especially significant were those signed in 1913, which ended the Balkan Wars, and in 1915, which brought Italy into World War I.

Answer: _London_

3. 15 pts: In 1809 a Treaty here was signed between Austria and Napoleon following the battle of Wagram. Of more historical significance were the signed in 1735 and 1738, which ended the War of Polish Succession.Answer:

5. Identify the following about magnetism, 10 points each.

1. Named in 1845 by Michael Faraday, this type of magnetism is exhibited by materials weakly attracted by a strong magnet. A characteristic of compounds of palladium, platinum, and other rare earth elements in which atoms have incomplete inner electron shells which cause the electrons to spin like tops, it is gradually decreased by an increase in temperature.

Answer: _paramagnetism_

2. Also named by Faraday, this type of magnetism is characteristic of materials that line up at right angles to a nonuniform magnetic field and that partly expel from their interior the magnetic field in which they are placed. First observed in 1778 by S.J. Brugmans in bismuth and antimony, it is actually exhibited by all materials as the strong external magnetic field speeds up and slows down according to Lenz's Law, but it is masked by stronger magnetic attractions, like ferromagnetism and paramagnetism.

Answer: _diamagnetism_

3. This type of magnetism is found in materials in low temperatures which adjacent ions behave as tiny magnets spontaneously aligning at relatively low temperatures into opposite arrangements so that the substance exhibits almost no gross external magnetism. Observed especially in manganese oxide, it disappears abovethe NŽel point named after the 1970 Nobel Laureate who studied the phenomena.

Answer: _antiferromagnetism_
6. Identify the founders of the following ancient philosphical schools on a

5-10-15 points basis.

1. 5 pts: Cynicism

Answer: _Diogenes_ of Sinope (accept _Antisthenes_)

2. 10 pts: Stoicism

Answer: _Zeno 0f Citium_ (prompt, of course, on Zeno)

3. 15 pts: Hedonism

Answer: _Aristippus_

7. Given a description of a work by Robert Browning, name it, 10 points each.

1. This is the story a poor Italian girl who works at a silk mill who encounters people at critical points in their lives and changes their lives with her song. It contains the famous lines "God's in His Heaven/All's right with the world!"

Answer: _Pippa Passes_

2. In this poem the painter of _Madonna with Saints_ encounters street guards in Florence at night and tells them of his life and restlessness in his monastery.

Answer: _Fra Lippo Lippi_

3. In this poem a medieval religious figure talks about old age.

Answer: _Rabbi Ben Ezra_
8. This bonus will test your knowledge of the American statesman John Bell. Answer the following questions about Bell, 10 points each.

1. Originally a Jacksonian Democrat, Bell became a member of this party in opposition to Jackson's destruction of The bank of the United States. Name the party, in whose fold he rose to Speaker of the House in 1836 and, later, Secretary of War in 1841.

2. In October of 1841 Bell resigned, as did most of the rest of the Cabinet, from the administration of this President, who broke with the Whigs when he killed the proposed third Bank of the United States.

Answer: _John Tyler_

3. In 1860 Bell led this party, consisting of old Whigs who refused to support the Republicans, in a bid for the White House.

Answer: _Constitutional Union_ party

9. Identify the following seemingly-unrelated diseases, 10 points each.

1. Also by the names rubeola or morbilli, this illness is characterised by such symptoms as fever, redness and watering of the eyes, runny nose, and fever. Though in rare cases it can lead to pneumonia and it causes sensitivity to light which can damage the eyes, it mostly causes the mild discomfort generated by the temporary disfigurement which its most visible symptom causes.

Answer: _measles_

2. Also known as varicelli, a reference to the varicelli virus which causes it, this disease is a highly contagious disese which can cause respiratory illness and in rare cases can lead to encephalitis, Reye's Syndrome, and hepatitis. For the most part, however, it is distinguished by a rash and severe but temporary physical discomfort for which it is most famous.

Answer: _Chicken Pox_

3. Caused by a strain of a Bordetelle virus, this illness can lead to pneumonia and can even cause brain damage due to the severe nature of the respiratory problems it causes. Distinguished by severe coughing and breathing problems , for which it gets its name, it is rarely encountered now due to the effective vaccines developed against it.

Answer: _Whooping cough_ (accept, of course, _pertussis_)
10. Identify the following African nations from clues, 10 points each.

1. Paleontologists will remember that the coelecanth makes its home in the waters of this nation. Located in the Mozambique channel, this nation claims the island of Mayotte as well as the three islands of which it consists: Moheli, Anjouan, and the main Island on which its capital, Moroni, is located .

Answer: _Comoros_

2. Lying 1000 miles east of Kenya, this nation consists of two island groups of which the one, a series of about seventy corals islands, supplies the guano which plays an important role in its economy, while the other contains the islands of Silhouette, Aride, La Digue, and MahŽ, on which its capital, Victoria, is located.

Answer: _Seychelles_

3. Lying in the Gulf of Guinea, this nation consists of two islands separated by 90 miles of sea. Named for these two islands, on the larger lies its capital which also bears the name of the island. Name this nation, 5 points per answer.

Answer: _S‹o TomŽ_ and _Pr’ncipe_
11. Identify the following painters from similarly-titled works, 10 points each; if you need more works, you'll only get 5 points.

1. 10 pts: _Yellow Curtain_

5 pts: _The Music lesson_, _The Joy of Life_, _Two Girls in a Red and Yellow Interior_

Answer: Henri _Matisse_

2. 10 pts: _Yellow Christ_

5 pts: _Vision after the Sermon_, _Tahitian Women [On the Beach]_

Answer: Paul _Gauguin_

3. 10 pts: _Yellow Sweater_

5 pts: _Reclining Nude_, _Portait of Max Jacob_, _The Caryatid_

Answer: Amadeo _Modigliani_

12.In 1893 a hominid was discovered and was given the name Pithecanthropus. Answer the followinf questions about this Hominid on a 5-10-15 point basis.

1. 5 pts: Identify this hominid, named for the Indonesian place where it was located.

Answer: _Java Man_

2. 10 pts: java Man was actuallty this type of hominid, which lived between 1.5 million to 300,000 years ago with a brain capacity of about 1000 cc. Name this creature, an ancestor of man.

Answer: _Homo erectus_

3. 15 pts: Name the discoveror of this the first example of Homo erectus, a Dutch soldier who discovered the Java Man.

Answer: Eugene _Dubois_
13. Identify the Lillian Hellman play from a description, 10 points each.

1. In this play Julian Bernier and his child-like bride confront the over-protectiveness of Julian's older sisters.

Answer: _Toys in the Attic_

2. This play deals with the turmoil caused by a young girl's a accusation that two of her teachers are lesbians.

Answer: _The Children's Hour_

3. In this play a German refugee hunted by the Nazis is recognised by an informer at the German Embassy, who is killed by the refugee in an act of self-preservation.

Answer: _The Watch on the Rhine_
14. In 1471 a deciding battle was fought in which the Lancastrian forces of Henry VI were crushed by the Yorkists. Answer the following questions about this battle, 10 points each.

1. Name the battle.

Answer: _Tewkesbury_

2. Name the victor, the son of York who ended the winter of discontent at Tewkesbury.

Answer: _Edward IV_

3. Henry VI's madness prevented him form leading the army against Edward IV at Tewksbury, which was led by this woman. Name this leader, the wife of Henry and Queen of England.

Answer: _Margaret_ of Anjou
15. Answer the following questions about the strong force, 10 points each.

1. The strong force affects particles which have this property, such as quarks, having no effect on particles like electrons and leptons, which do not have it. Name this property, which actually has no effect on the appearance of the particles.

Answer: _color_

2. The strong force is primarily carried by these particles, so named for their ability to bind quarks together.

Answer: _gluons_

3. The strong force weakens as particles get closer together, occasionally diminishing to the point where quarks can act as independent particles. Name this state of strong force diminishment.

Answer: _asymptotic freedom_
16. The Great Ennead of the Egyptian Pantheon were the nine gods who were the most honored. However, many of the most importatnt gods lay outside the Ennead. Given a description of such an Egyptian diety, name him, 10 points each.

1. The son of Osiris and Nepthys, this jackal-headed god was the god of funerals and was responsible for weighing the hearts of the dead with the Feather of Truth. he invented mummification and embalming.

Answer: _Anubis_

2. The sovereign god of Memphis, this god, represented as a man with a shaven head and malformed, is the god of craftsmen, artsians, and smiths. He is the father of the bull Apis, which is actually himself in bovine form.

Answer: _Ptah_

3. The son of Amon and Mut, this god is sometimes presented, like Horus, with a falcon's head, but is most often portrayed as a pale man with a princely crook and flail. The god of the Moon, he is familiar to readers of comic books as the source of power of Moon Knight.

Answer: _Khonshu_ (accept _Khons_)
17. Name the playright from works, 30-20-10.

1. 30 pts: _Betrayal_; _The Homecoming_; _Party Time and the New World Order_

2. 20 pts: _The Caretaker_; _The Collection_; _Family Voices_

3. 10 pts: _The Birthday Party_; _The Dumbwaiter_

Answer: Harold _Pinter_
18. In 405 BC the fleet of the Athenians was destroyed by that of Sparta in a naval battle which effectively ended the Peloponnesian Wars. Answer the following questions about this battle, 10 points each.

1. Name the battle.

Answer: _Aegospotomai_

2. Name the Spartan admiral who defeated the Athenians at Aegospotomai.

Answer: _Lysander_

3. After their defeat Lysander forced the Athenians to accept this body, a group of tyrannical oligarchs led by Critias and Thrasybulus which ruled Athens until 403 bc. For 10 points name this body.

Answer: The _Thirty_ Tyrants (prompt on "tyrants")
19. Identify the following chromosomal defects, 10 points each.

1. occuring in males, this defect is characterised by small testes, lack of sperm formations, a delicate and long-limbed physique, and enlarged breasts. Its most common form is caused by an extra female gene attached to the sex gene, usually of the pattern XXY.

Answer: _Klinefelter's_ syndrome

2. Occuring mainly in women, this defect is characterised by a low hairline, webbed neck, a shield-shaped chest with widely spaced nipples and heart malformation. Caused in most cases by damage to the second X chromosome of the sex chromosome resulting in the pattern XO or XXX, its most revealing symptom is the total lack or only rudimentary traces of ovaries, though in many cases affected women are otherwise normal.

Answer: _Turner's_ syndrome

3. Otherwise knwon as trisomy, this defect is generally caused by an addition to the 21 pair of chromosomes causing 47 in total. Its symptoms include a broad, flat face, slanted eyes, and mental retardation.

Answer: _Down's_ syndrome
20. Answer the following about the Russo-Japanese war, 10 points each.

1. The war was started in 1904 with the shelling of this city.

Answer: _Port Arthur_ (accept _Lushan_)

2. This Japanese admiral dominated the war, directing the shelling of Port Arthur and masterminding the battle of Tsushima.

Answer: _Togo_ Heihachiro

3. In 1905 peace was acheived by this treaty, named for the New hampshire city in which it was signed under the mediation of President Theodore Roosevelt.

Answer: Treaty of _Portsmith_
21. This bonus is about liquor, cleverly disguised as a literature bonus.

Answer the following questions about liquor in literature, 10 points each.

1. In a poem of the same name Emily Dickinson describes the wicked buzz she's gotten from this potable of a different vintage than anything currently known, possibly inspiring her to write even more wretched poetry.

Answer: a _liquor never brew'd_

2. In _Richard the III_ the Duke of Clarence is drowned in a butt of this alcohol.

Answer: _Malmsey_ wine

3. Montressor is able to take revenge on Fortunato by luring him with the promise of having some of this type of sherry in a Poe story which mentions it.

Answer: _Amontillado_

22. Identify the nation from clues, 30-20-10.

1. 30 pts: Among the geographical features of this nation is a Staten Island, a Colorado River, and a region called Mesopotamia, which lies between the Uraguay and P‡rana rivers.

2. 20 pts: Other features of this country include the Gran Chaco to the north, the pampas in the middle, and patagonia to the south, as well as partial ownership of Tierra del Fuego.

3. 10: The uraguay river empties into the Rio de la Plata near the capital of this nation, Buenos Aires.

Answer: _Argentina_
23. This bonus will test your knowledge about the history of photography. Identify the men responsible for the advances in photography, 10 points each.

1. Originally a scene painter from paris, this man improved on the photographic technique of Josepf Niepceby capturing a photographic image on a copper plate covered with silver and sensitised to light by iodine vapor, the process which was named for him.

Answer: Louis _Daguerre_

2. Though he was not the first man to produce color photographs, in 1908 this man was awarded for his technique of making color photographs by interference patterns.

Answer: Gabriel _Lippmann_

3. In 1947 this man secured a patent for his development of a process using crystals in a sheet of plastic to make instant photographs, the Polaroid.

Answer: Edwin _Land_
24. Identify the authors of the following similarly-titled works of literature, 10 points each; if you need another clue, you'll only get five points.

1. 10 pts: The play _The Knights_

5 pts: He also wrote _The Clouds_ and _The Frogs_

Answer: _Aristophanes_

2. 10 pts: _Knight of the Burning Pestle_

5 pts: He also wrote _The Woman Hater_, as well as such works as _The Philaster_ and _The Maid's Tragedy_ which was co-written with a partner with whom he is often paired.

Answer: Francis _Beaumont_

3. 10 pts: _Knight's Gambit_

5 pts: He also wrote _The Reivers_ and _Intruder in the Dust_

Answer: William _Faulkner_

25. Identify the following mathematical constructs from clues, 10 points each.

1. From the Greek for "shell form", this form was studied and named by the Greek minor mathematician Nicomedes in 200 BC in relation to the problem of duplication of the cube. It has a Cartesian equation of formula x minus b, quantity squared, times the quantity x squared plus y squared, minus the quantity a squared times x squared equals zero, with x equals b as an asymptote and it was used in the construction of ancient buildings with the vertical section of columnstaking this shape.

Answer: _conchoid_

2. First studied by Cusa and named by Galileo, who had studied it for forty years, this construct is the locus of a point at distance h from the centre of a circle of radius a that rolls along a straight line. If h < a it is known as a curtate, while if h is greater than a it is known as a prolate form of this figure.

Answer: _cycloid_

3. It can be defined either as the locus of the focus of a parabola rolling along a straight line, the evolute of the tractrix, and the locus of the mid-point of the vertical line segment between the curves Òe to the xÓ and Òe to the negative xÓ. It is best defined, however, as the the shape of a perfectly flexible chain suspended by its ends and acted on by gravity, hence the name given to it by Huygens, which is from the Latin for "chain".

Answer: _catenary_
26. Identify the author from works, 30-20-10.

1. 30 pts: The novel _A Portrait of Bascom Hawke_; the collections _From Death to Morning_ and _The Hill Beyond_, the latter published posthumously.

2. 20 pts: The plays _The Return of Buck Gavin_, _Mannerhouse_, _The Third Night_

3. 10 pts: The novels _Of Time and the River_ and _Look Homeward, Angel_

Answer: Thomas _Wolfe_
27. During June 25 through July 1, 1862, a series of battles was fought in Virginia which has since come to be known as the Seven Day's battles. For 5 points each, name any six of the seven Seven day's battles.

Answer: _Oak Grove_, _Mechanicsville_, _Gaine's Mill_, _Peach Orchard_,

_Savage Station_, _Frayser's Farm_, _Malvern Hill_
28. Identify the following Old Testament prophets from clues, 10 points each.

1. This prophet preached against the sexual excesses and moral laxity of Israel, whom he likened to "God's bride", and comparing these excesses to the infidelities of his own wife Gomer.

Answer: _Hosea_

2. A herdsman from the village of Tokea living in the time of Jeroboam II, this prophet foresaw the destruction of Israel in five visions, the last of which foretelling of Israel's resurrection once all the sinners have perished by the sword.

Answer: _Amos_

3. This prophet predicted the fall of Samaria in 722 BC and the troubles incurred by Israel in the time of Hezakiah in 700 BC, as well as a prophesy of the coming of the Messiah.

Answer: _Micah_
29. Identify the Identify the common scientific surname an a 30-20-10 basis.

1. 30 pts: Jeremias was a German chemist renowned for developing stoichiometry as a branch of Chemistry.

2. 20 pts: Burton was an American physicist largely responsible for the Stanford Positron-Electron Accelerating Ring and won the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physics with samuel Ting for the discovery of the J/psi particle.

3. 10 pts: Charles was an American seismologist who invented the scale of determining earthquake magnitude which is named for him.

Answer: _Richter_
30. Identify the composers of the following Variations on a 5-10-15 point basis.

1. Variations on a Theme of Haydn

Answer: Johannes _Brahms_

2. The Goldberg Variations

Answer: Johann Sebastian _Bach_

3. The Diabelli Variations

Answer: Ludwig van _Beethoven_

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