-Why its called this?
-How did people live then?
-What did they hunt?
-What did they gather?
Men jobs (list):
How did their method of killing animals change?
Women jobs (list):
What was relationship between men and women?
The Invention of Tools
List several ways in which Paleolithic people adapted to their environment:
Fire Sparks Changes:
List the various uses of fire:
What were the advantages to having a spoken language?
Describe the early art work found in the cave.
Why might they have been drawn?
The Ice Ages:
What changes came with the ice ages? List them.
How did the Ice Ages affect humans? List them.
The stone age – time when people used stone tools
People moved around in search of food
In groups of 20-30 members
People who regularly move from place to place to survive.
Buffalo, bison, wild goats, reindeer – fished along water
Wild nuts, berries, fruits, wild grains, green plants
Hunted large animals sometimes far from camp
-learned animal behaviors in order to hunt
-learned how to track animals
-used clubs or drove off cliffs to kill
-eventually used traps and spears to capture/kill
women stayed in camp close to water
-looked after children
-gathered near camp
-both helped to make decision
-some women hunted in pairs with men (monogamous pairs)
the way of life for a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs.
-a particular way of doing something
-tools and methods used to perform tasks
-early – sticks, stones, and tree branches
-next – later tools made from rock called flint – which could be chipped to make sharp edges.
-later – flint used to make spear tips, arrow heads, - used bows, harpoons, fishhooks, early hoes from flint, rock scraping tools to scrape hides
-end of Paleolithic – bone needles for making nets and baskets, sewing of hides for clothing.
In cold climates:
-animal skins for clothing
-sought shelter in caves or rock overhangs
-later construction of tents and huts – animal skin, brush, wood, bones from woolly mammoths.
In warm climates:
-few clothes necessary
-lived in caves/huts for safety mostly from wild animals
Easy to get or use, present or ready for use
-to physically build or make something, such as a building
-warmth from cold
-light in darkness
-used to scare animals
-used with spears to scare animals out then kill/capture
-social gathering to cook and share stories
-cooked food easier to chew and digest
-smoked meat would keep longer
-friction of rubbing two pieces of wood together
-later used drill like pieces of wood to start easier
-striking rocks, pyrite, created sparks to start fire.
-used to communicate information and emotion
-makes it easier to work together and pass on knowledge
-used to express thoughts and feelings
to give information about something to someone by speaking, writing, moving hands, facial expression, etc.
-staying the same, not changing.
-used crush stone of different colors to make paint by adding to animal fat
-used fingertips and twigs on early paintings
-later – animal hair brushes used
-maybe thought animal drawings brought good luck
-maybe early recording of group history
-maybe early form of enjoyment – earliest movie or tv show
-large sheets of ice covered the earth
-water level of oceans dropped as ice increased
-dry land was exposed making travel easier between Asia and N. America – land bridge
-People travelled over land bridge into N. Am. from Asia. –they eventually move southward in the Americas.
-cold threatened human life
-adaptations needed to survive-
-eating more fat,
-made warmer clothing using furs
-use of fire for warmth – saving energy
-What was this time period called, why?
Where did people begin farming?
-Where did some of the first communities develop?
-Why did they have shrines?
What were the benefits of a settled life?:
List several benefits of people living and working together:
List the various technological advances:
-What is bronze and why was it important?
Cities and Government:
Where did the first civilizations develop? Why?
Why did people form governments?
Why did religions develop?
What is social structure?
Who is on top, in the middle, and at the bottom?
Writing and Art:
Why was writing important?
Why did civilizations create art?
New Stone Age - Greek
growing of food on a regular basis – instead of hunting and gathering, stop being nomads
Agricultural Revolution – there were changes that impacted human in a dramatic way
-Tamed animals for food and eventually labor
-Produced constant food supply – allowed them to stay in one place
-Population grew more rapidly
Southwest Asia – wheat, barley, pigs, cows, goats, sheep – then moved to southeastern Europe by 4000B.C.
Egypt – Nile R. – by 6000BC – to central Africa – grew tubers (yams), bananas,
India – wheat by 5000BC
China – millet by 6000BC
Southeast Asia – rice by 5000BC
Americas – corn , squash, potatoes, chickens, dogs by 5000BC
Along rivers and other bodies of water
-in same areas as above
-Jericho one of oldest – Israeal/Jordan (today)
-Catalhuyuk – Turkey – probably doors in roof
-holy places – indicated that religion played role in Neolithic people
-Shelter – provided safety from weather and wild critters
-Stable food supply – helped health and population growth
-Trade developed as food supply became greater than demand
-Specialized jobs – since not all people were needed to grow food
artisans to make weapons, jewelry, tools, pottery, plant fiber
woven baskets and cloth
-Men’s jobs changed – field workers and herders, protection of village
-Women’s jobs changed – raised children, stayed in village, wove cloth
from sheep’s wool, made clothing from skins, managed food supply
-Better tools: hoes (digging), sickle (cut grain), millstone (grind grain)
-Copper – metal used for tools and weapons
-A metal alloy (mixture of metals) of copper and tin.
-It is stronger than copper
-Bronze Age – period of increased use of bronze – 3000BC to 1200 BC
-Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, China
-They all developed in river valleys – for farming, fishing, drinking water, transportation for trade
Monarchies – establishing queen or king were first governments set up to:
-create armies for protection
-made laws to keep order
-appointed government officials to manage food supply
-government officials to build public buildings
Formed to help people make sense of themselves and their suroundings:
-forces of nature
-role of human beings in the world
-belief that gods were responsible for community survival – so needed to make them happy for survival
-rulers believed their power came from gods
-organization of people into groups – usually determined by type of jobs people do and/or their wealth:
-highest class (rulers): priests, rulers, government officials, warriors.
-middle class: free people including farmers, artisans, craftspeople
-lowest class: enslaved people, many captured enemies
-to pass on information – using symbols – to keep records and preserve stories.
-for enjoyment and practical purposes:
-paintings/sculptures of gods/nature