Historical Context of the Overview - The Industrial Revolution, developing first in eighteenth-century Britain, gave rise to economic changes that have had an enormous impact on society. An obvious result was urbanisation, but the Industrial Revolution also contributed to other population movements such as the slave trade, emigration and convict transportation. The Industrial Revolution also encouraged European nationalism and imperialism. While the Industrial Revolution created wealth for some and support for capitalism, it also created a new class of urban workers who were forced to endure poor living and working conditions. The resulting social discontent created support for new political ideas such as socialism. At the end of this period, a build-up of tensions among Europe's great powers contributed to the outbreak of World War I, the first global war.
Key Inquiry Questions -
The highlighted historical skills are targeted in this unit:
What were the changing features of the movement of peoples from 1750 to 1918?
How did new ideas and technological developments contribute to change in this period?
What was the origin, development, significance and long-term impact of imperialism in this period?
What was the significance of World Wars I and II?
Comprehension: chronology, terms and concepts
Read and understand historical texts
Use historical terms and concepts in appropriate contexts (ACHHS165, ACHHS183)
Sequence historical events to demonstrate the relationship between different periods, people and places (ACHHS164, ACHHS182)
Analysis and use of sources
Identify different types of sources
Identify the origin, content, context and purpose of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS169, ACHHS187)
Process and synthesise information from a range of sources as evidence in an historical argument (ACHHS170, ACHHS188)
Evaluate the reliability and usefulness of primary and secondary sources for a specific historical inquiry (ACHHS171, ACHHS189)
Perspectives and interpretations
Identify and analyse the reasons for different perspectives in a particular historical context (ACHHS172, ACHHS173, ACHHS190, ACHHS191)
Recognise that historians may interpret events and developments differently (ACHHS173, ACHHS191)
Interpret history within the context of the actions, values, attitudes and motives of people in the context of the past (ACHHS172, ACHHS173, ACHHS190, ACHHS191)
Ask and evaluate different kinds of questions about the past to inform an historical inquiry (ACHHS166, ACHHS167, ACHHS184, ACHHS185)
Plan historical research to suit the purpose of an investigation
Identify, locate, select and organise information from a variety of sources, including ICT and other methods (ACHHS168, ACHHS186)
Explanation and communication
Develop historical texts, particularly explanations and historical arguments that use evidence from a range of sources (ACHHS174, ACHHS188, ACHHS192)
Select and use a range of communication forms, such as oral, graphic, written and digital, to communicate effectively about the past for different audiences and different purposes (ACHHS175, ACHHS193)
What is an Industrial Revolution? What are the key features of the Industrial revolution?
What were the short and long term impacts of the Industrial revolution?
Did the Industrial Revolution help to make a better world?
Focus Historical Concepts -
explains and assesses the historical forces and factors that shaped the modern world and Australia HT5-1
sequences and explains the significant patterns of continuity and change in the development of the modern world and Australia HT5-2
explains and analyses the causes and effects of events and developments in the modern world and Australia HT5-4
uses relevant evidence from sources to support historical narratives, explanations and analyses of the modern world and Australia HT5-6
applies a range of relevant historical terms and concepts when communicating an understanding of the past HT5-9
selects and uses appropriate oral, written, visual and digital forms to communicate effectively about the past for different audiences HT5-10
Related Life Skills outcomes: HTLS-3, HTLS-4, HTLS-6, HTLS-8, HTLS-11, HTLS-12, HTLS-1
The following historical concepts are integrated into the lesson sequences:
Continuity and change: During the Industrial Revolution, what features of British and Australian life changed over time and what features remained the same.
Cause and effect: The reasons for and the impact of the Industrial Revolution upon the Global landscape.
Perspectives: What were the differing views and experiences of the benefits of migration of labour, cheap labour and child labour in the industrialisation of Britain.
Empathetic understanding: the ability to understand another's point of view, way of life and decisions made in a different period of time or society. Understanding why people accepted the conditions of industrialisation and the difficulties they faced.
Significance: the importance of the changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution;
Contestability: Did the Industrial revolution make the world a better place?
Key Historical Language -
Site Study -
Derbyshire, Britain - Cromford Mill – Sir Richard Arkwright’s contribution to the industrial revolution.
Students undertake a research task that involves perspectives and continuity and change skills. Students can undertake a range of tasks including:
Creating a map of Cromford village in the 1770’s and indicating how it was designed as a model for industrial revolution cotton mill communities.
Creating a blue-print of Arkwright’s factory, complete with water mill and features on its practical development for industry, mass production, etc.
How inventions were included in these mills.
An empathy and perspectives task whereby different students look at the perspectives of Richard Arkwright, the Arkwright family, a rival business entrepreneur, a cotton merchant, a worker in the factory, a wife of a factory worker, a child living in the village, etc.
Relevant internet sites:
Suggested Adjustments: consideration given to the task the student selects; provide text at appropriate reading level with access to speak/ read functionality; provide scaffolds and models
See web sites
Pearson History 9 (Australian Curriculum); Pearson Australia;Melbourne (2013)
Retroactive 2: Stage 5 History the making of the modern world and Australia (NSW Australian Curriculum); Jacaranda; Sydney (2013)
Richart, R, Making Thinking Visible: How to promote engagement, understanding and independence for all learners, Jossey-Bass, 2011.
Just the Facts: The Industrial Revolution (2007) http://www.amazon.com/Just-Facts-The-Industrial-Revolution/dp/B000UUX2I2/ref=pd_bxgy_mov_text_y
Mill Times (2006) http://www.amazon.com/Mill-Times-David-Macaulay/dp/B000EOTEKE/ref=pd_sim_sbs_mov_2?ie=UTF8&refRID=1CN69A4JMFPV5P4T8GB6
Students with special needs:
Adjustments: the adjustments in this unit are suggestions only. Adjustments are measures or actions taken in relation to teaching, learning and assessment that enable a student with special education needs to access syllabus outcomes and content on the same basis as their peers. The types of adjustments made will vary according to the needs of the individual student.
Assessment: Students with special education needs should be provided with a range of opportunities to demonstrate achievement of identified outcomes. Evidence of achievement can be based on a range of assessment for learning experiences, such as observation during teaching and learning, work samples or planned assessment experiences. They will require adjustments to assessment practices in order to demonstrate what they know and can do in relation to syllabus outcomes and content. In some cases alternative assessment strategies may be needed. In this unit, an alternate assessment experience may be offered instead of the structured essay.
Depth Study 1
Making a Better World: The Industrial Revolution 1750 – 1914
Term 1, Week 10
Assessment for learning
Assessment as learning
Assessment of learning
Top ten reasons activity (cause and effect)
Analyse maps and collate analysis tables (cause and effect)
Analytical time-line activity (continuity and change)
Cotton Industry analytical report (perspectives/cause and effect)
Group discussions using statistical data (significance)
Contestability debate on Industrial Revolution impact on Australia (Contestability)
A film spectacular – students create a contestability film that highlights perspectives of factory conditions
Site study – Cromford Mill
Ability to work individually and in a group on creating a graph to represent the benefits of the coal and iron industry
In groups, students synthesize a political cartoon on factory conditions
Cotton millionaire on-line game
Structured Essay Task:
Students will undergo a research essay task, which consists of a comprehensive analysis of cause and effect of changes that occurred during the industrial revolution. They will explore the ways in which significant changes such as urbanisation, working conditions and the development of transport infrastructures helped or hindered the development of ‘a better world’.
Outcomes:HT5-1, HT5-4, HT5-6, HT5-10
Teaching and learning strategies –
including opportunities for extension activities & adjustments
the nature and significance of the Industrial Revolution and how it affected living and working conditions, including within Australia
the nature and extent of the movement of peoples in the period (slaves, convicts and settlers)
Map exercise featuring global migration patterns. (Continuity and Change) Voluntary Migration &. Involuntary migration. Students to determine patterns in migration movements, looking at extent of British Empire by 1914, the triangular trade in the Atlantic and the penal colonies of Britain. Also examine extent of Imperialism from European powers. Blank map needed for student group work. Different groups to present to class different people movements listed above.
Suggested Adjustments: pre- teach key vocabulary and relevant historical terms; use of a partially completed map; consideration to group placement; peer support
What is a revolution? Definition search in pairs, then a discussion in class. Class to agree on a universal definition they can use during the Depth Study.
Suggested Adjustments: find pictures of a revolution to contribute to the class discussion; use of a visual dictionary
Overview of the Industrial revolution. Mind map of influences – Rise of Capitalism; factory system; trade and transport; growth of cities; living conditions; working conditions. Discussion between teacher and class on these influences and how they might inter-relate. Cause and effect exercise. Students to create a visual symbol for each of the above influences. They are to draw the symbols and with arrows demonstrate how the influences are connected. Next to the arrows, they are to write a 1 sentence explanation that demonstrates cause and effect.
Suggested Adjustments: provide a mind map scaffold, reduced number of influences to relate; watch video clip to develop background knowledge and gain an overview; student creates a mind map about key features/influences
Extension Activity: Students are to take one of the influences above and research a one paragraph summary of a specific example of one of the influences above, complete with its own original visual symbol. Example would be Richard Arkwright’s first factory and its contribution to the emerging factory system
The technological innovations that led to the Industrial Revolution, and other conditions that influenced the industrialisation of Britain (the agricultural revolution, access to raw materials, wealthy middle class, cheap labour, transport system and expanding empire) and of Australia
outline the main reasons why the Industrial Revolution began in Britain
describe key features of the agricultural revolution in Britain, including the emergence of a cheap labour force
10 reasons activity (cause and effect). Teacher prepares the top ten reasons for why the industrial revolution began in Britain. In pairs, students use and read the provided internet site and collate as many reasons why the industrial revolution began in Britain. They then prioritise their list from most important to least important. Once finished, each pair volunteers to the class their top reason that hasn’t been mentioned yet. Teacher collates responses on the board. Once every pair has contributed, class discusses, argues and evaluates the list into a compromised top ten list. Teacher then reveals how many of the top ten points were on their own list.
Suggested Adjustments: 5 reasons for the industrial revolution provided on cards for student to order / prioritise; provide text at appropriate reading level with access to speak/ read functionality
Agricultural revolution study (continuity and change exercise). Students are to examine the site featuring the British agricultural revolution. They are to weigh up the strengths and weaknesses of the following:
Open Field Farming
Discussion about the students’ findings.
Suggested Adjustments: provide pictures of open farming and enclosures; discuss the difference and possible reasons; complete Venn organiser to record thoughts
Students then look at the continuity and change of this agricultural revolution. In groups of 4-5 they examine ONE of the following 5 areas:
The Four Field Crop Rotation System
Jethro Tull's Seed Drill
The Rotherham Plough
A Business approach to Farming
Student groups are to create a fact sheet on their topic. They are to research using the provided site and the internet. On this fact sheet they are to include:
Picture with caption
Two sentence description of what the invention/innovation is about.
Two sentence description about what has changed and is different from before.
One sentence description of what has essentially stayed the same.
Two sentences on how the change leads to improvements in agricultural production.
For a short term consequence of the agricultural revolution, students are to explain in one or two sentences why their area of change would help to bring about the emergence of a cheap labour force.
Students can present or email findings to the rest of the class.
Suggested Adjustments: consideration to group placement and chosen topic, peer support, provide text at appropriate reading level with access to speak/ read functionality; provide detailed scaffold to present fact sheet; facts can be present in an alternate format - oral, written, visual or digital forms
Extension Activity: A real study of the village of Appleby. Using the two maps and the text, explain five ways that enclosures and the agricultural revolution changed the way that the village of Appleby in England was altered over time.
Map exercise. (Cause and effect). Examine a map of the British Empire in 1763 and a map of the British Empire c.1900. Students to complete a table such as:
Country Added To British Empire
Main Exported Raw Materials
Significance for Industrial Revolution
Sugar, cocoa, coffee
Manufacturing of raw products in factories to mass produce and distribute processed product. Increase in transport and machinery technology in Britain to process these luxury perishables. Increase in need for labour leads to involuntary movement of cheap labour (slaves) to plantations in West Indies.
Students will need to research the main exports from the various colonial countries and then extrapolate from that the significance for the industrial revolution in Britain.
Suggested Adjustments: provide a partially completed table for completion or cards with simplified information for students to sort and paste into the correct column of chart; reduce the number of main exports student will research or allow student to select one main export to research; provide student with directed questions i.e. why did Britain need to get sugar and coffee from the west Indies?
Students search for map of British Empire in1763 and a map of the British Empire c.1900 using Google images.
Map of raw materials of Empire in Pearson History 9 (Australian Curriculum) pages 70-71. Otherwise research from internet.
identify key inventors and their inventions and discuss how some of these inventions affected transport and manufacturing in this period
(Continuity and Change) Case Study: The importance of cotton. Students to create an annotated time-line on the development of the cotton industry, from the cottage industry pre-1750 until about 1850. Students are to place the following, in correct chronological order and with an approximate date, on their timeline:
Cottage industry (domestic system)
Roberts’ Power Loom
For each of the above, students are to sketch a little picture/icon next to the title, and provide a 1 sentence summary of significance of the development in the cotton industry. They can use the listed internet sites to help them.
Suggested Adjustments: provide a dated timeline to student to fill in the development; student adds a picture next to each development or pictures of each development is provided for student to sort along dated timeline.
explain how industrialisation contributed to the development of Britain and Australia in this period.
(Perspectives/Cause and effect) Once the above activity is finished, students can complete a report to the British Minister of Finance in 1850 about the growth and development of the Cotton Industry. They are to write it as an official government inspector in Britain 1850.They are to include the following:
The original state of affairs with the cottage industry (domestic system) and its inherent weaknesses.
How each invention improved output and production in the cotton industry.
Some of the long term benefits of the development of the cottage industry. (i.e. transport, mass production, etc.)
Some of the long term negative aspects of the development of the cotton industry (i.e. slavery in colonies, working conditions, etc.).
A final judgement as to whether the development of the Cotton Industry has made Britain a better place.
Suggested Adjustments: student prepares a report on one invention only; provide detailed scaffold for report structure, allow report to be present in an alternate format - oral, written, visual or digital forms
Extension Activity: Students are to complete a research report on the inventor and their invention from the above list. They are to account for the strengths and weaknesses of the invention and to identify the significance of the invention in the context of the industrial revolution. They are to analyse the inventor and attempt to identify why they were able to come up with such an invention.
Site Study: Cromford Mill, Derbyshire, England. See site study at top of program.
Coal and Iron in the industrial revolution:
Students to create a graph showing the rise in production of coal. They are also to make the same type of graph for the rise in production of iron. They are to analyse three points from the graphs they made about these industries during the years of the British Industrial revolution. Are they similar or different?
In pairs, students create a mind map of the impact that increased iron and coal have upon Britain during the industrial revolution years. One student does a mind-map for coal and the other a mind map for iron. Once completed, the pair compares their mind maps. Can they see a pattern or commonalities? What specific industries, inventions and areas of life did they impact?
Class discussion on results.
Suggested Adjustments: student provided with a graph and key questions to answer to support them to compare coal and iron
Extension Activity: (Significance) students can research the ‘Iron Bridge’. They can write a paragraph answer to the following question; “How is the iron bridge a symbol of the industrial revolution?”
Transport. Start with mystery for students, to be discussed in pairs. What invention of the Industrial Revolution scared people into believing:
That it put too much stress on the human body
Would frighten livestock with their noise, making cows dry and hens to stop laying eggs
Potentially involve horrendous casualties
Answer: The Train!
Introduce Transport. Focus will be on development of the canals, the railways and the steamships.
Teacher to create a source portfolio and use information from a textbook on these areas for students to complete a PLUS – MINUS – INTERSTING (PMI) analysis of the various new methods of transport. The students are to look at the Positives of the form of transport, including travel time, distances covered, efficiency, comparison to roads, etc. For Negatives, students can look at cost, labour and maintenance, pollution, employment issues, etc. For Interesting, students are encouraged to add facts that they cannot categorise or think are worth discussing further.
Class discussion and mind-map on impact of industrial revolution on transport and vice-versa.
Suggested Adjustments: teacher to ensure that the source portfolio contains suitable material that meets the readability level of student; pre-prepared statements are given to the student to sort into the correct columns for PLUS – MINUS – INTERSTING (PMI) analysis of the various new methods of transport.
Textbook pages on transport. Pearson History 9 (Australian Curriculum) pages 75-77.
Retroactive 2 NSW Australian Curriculum History. Stage 5, pages 55-57.
Google image for various source depictions of transport.
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/indrevtabs1.asp & http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/INDREV6.asp (good site for various statistics for European countries during the industrial revolution.)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qwQanYJFPAw (simple summary of transport in IR)
http://www.makingthemodernworld.org.uk/learning_modules/history/04.TU.03/?section=1 (impact on lives for ordinary people for railways).
The Impact on Australia of the Industrial revolution
Contestability challenge. Teacher presents a statement to the class as such: “The Industrial Revolution had no real impact on Australia until after World war One”.
Students are to create a response to this statement, either agreeing, disagreeing or having degrees of agreement/disagreement. They are to make 3-4 headings such as:
Wool and Wheat
Railways & other transport
For each of these headings, they are to read/research and collate 3 pieces of evidence they could use to justify their position.
Suggested Adjustments: student explores the statement in relation to one topic; support provided in collating evidence; provide text at appropriate reading level with access to speak/ read functionality on chosen topic
Once students have had time to complete this, have a class debate arguing out the position that students have taken in regards to the central statement above.
Teacher to administer the debate. At end of debate, teacher to give feedback on the quality of argument and evidence to support the argument. Discuss if students have changed their opinion as to the statement over the course of the lesson, and what factors made them change their minds (constructivist theory).
Textbook work for collation of argument/evidence.
Retroactive 2 NSW Australian Curriculum History. Stage 5, pages 58-61.
The population movements and changing settlement patterns during this period(ACDSEH080)
outline and explain population movements in Britain, eg movement from country villages to towns and cities, and emigration to other countries
Teacher introduction. Migration and population movements. Teacher gets students to read the small article from the school history site on migration. In pairs, they need to quickly identify 5 different ways that people migrated from their original home. (should be international migration, forced transportation, British countryside to British cites, etc). Quick discussion to follow.
Suggested Adjustments: provide text at appropriate reading level with access to speak/ read functionality on chosen topic
The experiences of men, women and children during the Industrial Revolution, and their changing way of life(ACDSEH081)
describe the changes to the way of life of men and women who moved from the country to towns and cities
Numeracy exercise. Students are to examine a range of statistical graphs. Use the BBC bitesize site, the slideshare, the blaengwawr and the globalregents prep site. They are to answer the following question in a paragraph:
“How do the statistics explain the population movements within Britain during the Industrial revolution?”
Suggested Adjustments: provide one graph; use a series of closed question to support student to answer wider question
http://globalregentsprep.wikispaces.com/Decode+the+Regents+and+Flashcards+(Industrial+Revolution) (use the “population of selected British cities” table)
How did factories help to create towns (and explain the population migration from city to country). Download the powerpoint on the mrbuddhistory site entitled “How did factories create towns. Students to complete the create a town exercise on slide 9.
Perspectives: Did life improve for those who moved from the countryside to the city?
Students split into pairs. One student is to be a real estate agent who needs to sell a typical workers house in an industrial city of Britain c.1850. They are to create a brochure that highlights all of the positive qualities they can think of or put a ‘spin on’ to help ensure they can sell the house. The other student is to write a letter to the city council about this house they have just bought off the real estate agent and make a claim that they have been misled and why the house is such an undesirable house. Once finished, the class is to have a discussion as to how perspectives can alter a source and use examples from their pairs work to illustrate their points. Volunteers can present or read their work to the class.
Teacher leads discussion about whether people would be better off in the city or the country. Why did people move in the first place?
Suggested Adjustments: consideration given to whether the student takes the role of estate agent or house buyer; scaffolds and models used to guide student in task; allow task to be present in an alternate formats - oral, written, visual or digital forms
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/industrial_revolution_towns.htm (mainly negative effects of urbanisation).
use a variety of sources to investigate working conditions in factories, mines and other occupations, with particular emphasis on child labour
Introduction to working conditions in factories.
Teacher presents image of “tremendous sacrifice” cartoon to class. Students to do a Colour/Symbol/image reaction to the cartoon (Making thinking visible book activity page 119). Alternatively, students to make a list of adjectives that come to mind when they see this cartoon. Teacher leads discussion, introducing more complex questions concerning cartoon analysis.
Suggested Adjustments: to build knowledge of factory working conditions, student watch selected video clips and complete a ‘W’ chart.
Extension Activity: Students to research other political cartoons or images surrounding factory labour during the industrial revolution. They are to synthesize and create their own political cartoon. They are then to write 1 paragraph explaining their cartoon and why it is satirical.
Assessment For Learning:
This task provides the teacher an assessment FOR learning task, whereby feedback and measureable targets will assist the students in their ability to work to criteria, research adequately and combine evidence for the purposes of constructing an empathetic perspective
There is a strong opportunity for peer marking as all the films produced will be viewed by the class as a whole.
Teacher feedback and targets should consider the end of topic Assessment OF learning task and its requirements.
The short and long-term impacts of the Industrial Revolution, including global changes in landscapes, transport and communication(ACDSEH082)
discuss positive and negative consequences of the Industrial Revolution, eg the growth of cities and pollution and the development of trade unions
assess the short-term and long-term impacts of the Industrial Revolution, including:
global changes in landscapes
Perspectives and empathy task :A film spectacular!
Students are to be split into two halves.
One half is going to have the perspective of a factory owner who is happy to exploit his workers and focus upon the positive factors of factory production.
The other half is going to be from the perspective of reformers and/or children who want to highlight the cruelty of the working conditions in factories of the industrial revolution.
No matter which perspective the student has, they are to complete a researched source portfolio of the teachers devising. For their perspective they should select original written sources from the time (there are a lot surrounding the 1833 factory Act reform movement), pictures, photos, political cartoons, and documented witness accounts (from parliamentary hearings). These collected sources need to analysed and have annotations and summaries made of them that encourage the student’s greater understanding of their perspective and some kind of usefulness evaluation attached to them. This research portfolio can be collected and marked.
Suggested Adjustments: consideration given to whether the student takes the perspective of a factory owner or workers; researched source portfolio should contains suitable material that meets the readability level of student; scaffolds and models provided to guide student to annotate and summarise sources
The Spartacus site and the national archives site above are both excellent starting sites for this research endeavour.
Teacher shows the class a horror film trailer and an ideal advertising clip. Students are to list features of the trailers they can duplicate for their film.
Using similar techniques, the student is to create a short film, using movie maker, which creates one of the following.
For those looking at the perspective of reformers and child workers, they are to create a 1-2 minute film trailer, using the techniques of a horror film trailer, entitled; “The industrial revolution: A Horror Story!” (or they can make up their own title). They can use creepy, doom-laden music and various clips and pictures showing the horrors of factory life during the industrial revolution.
For those looking at the perspective of factory owners who exploited children and saw the factory as a great thing for Britain, they are to create a 1-2 minute promotional film entitled “The Factory; Making your life better” (or they can make up their own title). They can use jolly, heroic music and various clips and pictures showing factories as great places to work and bringing great benefit to society.
Students can then present their films over a couple of lessons. Teacher can mark them as an assessment task, or award various “academy awards” in different areas.
Suggested Adjustments: student to work in small group to produce film trailer; targeted teacher support
Extension Activity: As a challenging follow up to these lessons, each student is to write up a diary entry that is written from the perspective that THEY DIDN’T make a film about. They are to empathise with their character and explain to a parliamentary enquiry details about their experiences in the factory and why they believe working in the factory is a good/bad thing.
(Students have already looked at positive/negative consequences above during experiences of city life activities)
The short and long term impacts of the Industrial revolution. Class discussion about what a short term and long term impact of an event or movement or period of time might be. Teacher to provide an example or two.
Students are divided into groups for the following topics:
Impact of factories mines and cities: Population distribution and growth
Rise of the middle class and/or consumerism
The growth of trade unions
Violent protests: the Luddites
For each group, they are to create a mini-lesson and present their ideas to the class in a 3 minute lesson. This mini-lesson should be presented on a power-point and should include:
Photos and evidence demonstrating both short and long term impacts.
An explanation of why each point is a short or long term impact.
Two multiple choice questions to check if the class was paying attention.
A small homework activity.
Suggested Adjustments: consideration given to the topic the student chooses; consideration given to the peers in group; scaffold for mini lesson provided; provide suitable material that meets needs of student
Extension Activity: Students to attempt one or more of the ‘homework activities’ (not their own groups).
Fun final activity:
Students to play the game “Cotton Millionaire”.
Pearson History 9 (Australian Curriculum) pages 94-97.