Topic Exploration Pack Germany 1925-1955: The People and the State De-Nazification



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Topic Exploration Pack

Germany 1925-1955: The People and the State - De-Nazification




Topic Exploration Pack 1

Germany 1925-1955: The People and the State - De-Nazification 1

Instructions and answers for teachers 1

Mapping to spec level (Learning outcome) 2

Introduction 2

Suggested activities 5

Activity 1: Education 5

Activity 1: Education 10

Activity 2: Allied approaches to De-Nazification 11

Activity 2: Allied approaches to De-Nazification 12

Activity 2: Allied Approaches to de-Nazification 17

Activity 3: Nuremberg Trials 18



Activity 3: Nuremberg Trials 18


Instructions and answers for teachers


This pack provides teacher guidance about the delivery of Germany 1925-1955: The People and the State (J410/02). In particular this pack will provide guidance on ‘De-Nazification’ a new topic within this depth study.


ABC – This activity offers an opportunity for English skills development.

When distributing the activity section to the students either as a printed copy or as a Word file you will need to remove the teacher instructions section.

Mapping to spec level (Learning outcome)


Key Topics

Content – Learners should have studied the following.

War and its legacy 1939–1955

Initial reaction to outbreak of war; changing fortunes of Germany in the war (initial gains and colonisation in East); growing impact of war, including bombing; extent of support for war effort; opposition during war; escalation of racial persecution leading to the Final Solution; defeat and occupation; Allied policy of de-Nazification (methods and impact); the differing experiences of people in East and West Germany 1945–1955.


Introduction



De-Nazification was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnant of the National Socialist ideology (Nazism).
As a result of the enormous suffering inflicted upon the world by the Nazi regime, and especially Europe, a number of European countries have enacted laws criminalizing both the denial of the Holocaust and the promotion of Nazi ideology. The aim of these laws is to prevent the resurrection of Nazism in Europe by stamping out at the earliest opportunity – or to use the phrase “to nip it in the bud” – any public reemergence of Nazi views, whether through speech, symbols, or public association.

The anti-Nazi laws do not exist in every European country. Presently, the following European countries have some legislation criminalizing the Nazi message, including denial of the Holocaust: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Spain and Switzerland. Holocaust denial is also illegal in Israel. Some of these countries, like Germany and Austria, take these laws very seriously and vigilantly prosecute both speech and behavior having any reference to Nazis and Nazism.

Professor Michael J. Bazyler, ‘Holocaust Denial Laws and Other Legislation Criminalising Promotion of Nazism’, 2006, located at: http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/holocaust/insights/pdf/bazyler.pdf (accessed 17th September 2015).




After the Allied victory in the Second World War in 1945, a programme of de-Nazification began. Many surviving Nazi leaders were arrested and tried by the international military tribunal at Nuremberg for conspiracy against peace and crimes against humanity. However, at a lower level, de-Nazification only had varying degrees of success. As Nazi party members could be found at every level in society, removing Nazis from key positions in business and politics was often difficult as it left huge gaps behind that could not always be filled.

The key issues underpinning the depth study can all be investigated by examining methods and impact of de-Nazification by the state (which at this time was led by different Allied powers):

the policies of the state, including their aims and implementation

the impact of the state on different groups throughout the period, including different social classes, women, young people, religious and ethnic groups

the reasons for, and extent of, support and/or opposition to the state from different groups throughout the period

the ways in which source material from the time can be used to investigate the issues above, and the challenges presented by the use of primary source material.

All of the activities in this document allow you to use ICT. However, they could also be used offline.

Suggested activities

Activity 1: Education


For teachers

This activity introduces the topic of de-Nazification in education to students and asks them to think about:



  1. What kind of influence the Nazi party had over education

  2. How (and how far) this influence was removed

The skills that students will need to use in this activity are the same skills that students will need to show in the examination:

  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the key features and characteristics of the period studied

  • Explain and analyse historical events and periods studied using second-order historical concepts (in particular for this activity, cause, similarity, difference, consequence and significance)

  • Analyse, evaluate and use sources (contemporary to the period) to make substantiated judgements, in the context of historical events studied.



For students

Background

Education was very important for the Nazi Party. In order to maintain and grow their power, it was important that the Nazis win control over the hearts and minds of young people. Education in Nazi Germany was therefore designed to indoctrinate young people into the principles and ethos of the Nazi Party.

After the Allied Victory in 1945, steps had to be taken to remove the influence of Nazism from Education altogether.

The Task


  1. Make some notes in the table below of the key policies that the Nazi Party brought in that had an effect on education in the classroom. Think about what effects these changes might have had on young people.

We’ve made a start for you on the following page.



What changed in the classroom?

Second-order concept targeted: Cause/Similarity/Difference



What effects might this have had?

Second-order concept targeted: Consequence/Significance



Teachers had to swear an allegiance to Hitler and the Nazi Party

Young people had to begin their class by saying ‘Heil Hitler!’









2. The Nazi Party also had an influence on Education outside of the classroom. Complete the tables below with information about the different youth groups.



Youth group

Nazi or Anti-Nazi?

Typical age of members

What kinds of activities did these groups do?

What makes this group significant?

German Young People













Hitler Youth













Edelweiss Pirates













League of German Maidens













League of Young Girls













The White Rose Group













3. Using what you have learned, write an answer to the following question. This question is in the same format as one that you might see in your exam. In the exam, this type of question would be worth 18 marks, so you should spend about 20-25 minutes on it.

‘How far was de-Nazification in Education successful?’




Activity 1: Education


Sources you could use to help with this activity:
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/Nazi_Education.htm
Information about Education in Nazi Germany.
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/adolf_hitler_education.htm
Information on Hitler’s views of Education.
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/adolf_hitler_schools.htm
Information on Adolf Hitler Schools.
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/league_of_german_girls.htm
Information about the League of German Maidens.
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/edelweiss_pirates.htm
Information about the Edelweiss Pirates.
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/hitler_youth.htm
Information about the Hitler Youth.
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/young_girls_league.htm
Information on the League of Young Girls.
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/white_rose_movement.htm
Information on the White Rose Group.
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/nazi-germany/sophie-scholl/

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/nazi-germany/hans-scholl/

Information on Hans and Sophie Scholl.



Activity 2: Allied approaches to De-Nazification


For teachers
This activity asks students to think about the methods and impact of de-Nazification in the different Allied-occupied zones, in particular:

  1. Why methods of de-Nazification differed across zones

  2. What the impact of de-Nazification was in different zones

The skills that students will need to use in this activity are the same skills that students will need to show in the examination:

  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the key features and characteristics of the period studied

  • Explain and analyse historical events and periods studied using second-order historical concepts (in particular for this activity, cause, similarity, difference, consequence and significance)

  • Analyse, evaluate and use sources (contemporary to the period) to make substantiated judgements, in the context of historical events studied.

Activity 2: Allied approaches to De-Nazification


For Students
Background

In an attempt to formalise the process of de-Nazification, the Western Allies, prompted by the US military governor, General Lucius Clay, decided that all German adult citizens should fill in a detailed questionnaire comprising 131 questions (although this was not applied by the Soviet authorities). This resulted in their categorisation into five groups:

Major offenders

Offenders incriminated

Less incriminated offenders

Fellow-travellers – sympathisers

Exonerated persons

The people who were categorised into the first three classes had to appear in front of a court for further interrogation and a possible punishment.

Reference: Geoff Layton, Democracy and Dictatorship in Germany 1919-63 for OCR, Hodder Education, 2009, p.269



The Task: Part 1
Analyse the sources and answer the questions that follow.

These questions are in the same format as those that you might see in your exam. In the exam, these types of questions would be worth 5 marks, so you should spend about 5 minutes on each of them.



good and bad german\'s in the sunday dispatch, 1943

Caption: ‘Good and bad Germans’: a British cartoon in the Sunday Dispatch, 1943.

Reproduced by permission of the Express Newspapers Group.


  1. What is the message of this source?

copyright info geoff layton, democracy and dictatorship in germany 1919-63 for ocr, hodder education, 2009, p. 270

Geoff Layton, Democracy and Dictatorship in Germany 1919-63 for OCR, Hodder Education, 2009, p. 270



  1. Explain how this source is useful to a historian studying de-Nazification.

General Clay, the military governor of the American Zone, in a communication to the War Department in Washington sums up the problems caused by large scale de-Nazification.



15 December 1946

On my return to Germany I find that as a result of my talk with the Laenderrat [sic] [Council of States] there has been a vigorous upswing in execution of the denazifiction program. However, it has become apparent that due to the large number of people chargeable under the law (estimated at approximately three million) the administrative difficulties will require at least two years and perhaps longer for full completion of the program. Obviously, political stability in Germany cannot be obtained fully until the program is completed. Therefore, it appears most desirable to reduce the numbers chargeable under the law, emphasising that this reduction is to permit German administration to concentrate on the punishment of active Zazis who were or are in places of prominence in German life.

J E Smith (ed.), The Papers of General Lucius Clay: Germany 1945-1949, vol 1, Bloomington, Indiana Free Press, 1974, p.265



  1. Explain how this source is useful to a historian studying de-Nazification.






Part 2

You’ve looked at a source that shows information about de-Nazification in the US, British and French occupied zones. Now think about the Soviet occupied zone. Write some notes in the table below.





Questions

Notes

How did methods of de-Nazification differ in the Soviet zone?

Second-order concept targeted: Similarity/Difference







What was the Soviet attitude towards de-Nazification?

Second-order concept targeted: Cause/Similarity/Difference







What was the impact of de-Nazification in the Soviet occupied zone?

Second-order concept targeted: Consequence/Significance








Activity 2: Allied Approaches to de-Nazification


Sources you could use to help with this activity:

http://motherearthtravel.com/history/germany/history-15.htm

Information about post-war occupation and division.

http://www.germanculture.com.ua/library/history/bl_nuremberg_trials_denazi.htm

Information about the Nuremberg Trials and de-Nazification

http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=2304

Analysis of de-Nazification categories.

http://users.stlcc.edu/rkalfus/PDFs/126.pdf

Information about the re-education of the German people.

http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/exhibitions/nuremberg/images/pdf/nuremberg.pdf

Nuremberg proceedings.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allied-occupied_Germany

The Wikipedia entry for Allied occupied Germany.



Activity 3: Nuremberg Trials


For teachers

This activity asks students to think about the methods and impact of de-Nazification through studying the Nuremberg Trials. In particular, students should think about:



  1. The extent of Nazi cruelty

  2. Show-trials

  3. Justice?

The skills that students will need to use in this activity are the same skills that students will need to show in the examination:

Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the key features and characteristics of the period studied

Explain and analyse historical events and periods studied using second-order historical concepts (in particular for this activity, cause, consequence and significance)

Analyse, evaluate and use sources (contemporary to the period) to make substantiated judgements, in the context of historical events studied.




Activity 3: Nuremberg Trials


For Students

Background

The Nuremberg Trials were a series of military tribunals that took place between November 1945 and October 1946. They were notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military and economic leadership of Nazi Germany.

The Task

Explore the following websites about the Nuremberg Trials.

http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/nuremberg-trials

http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007722

Watch this video on the Nuremberg Trials. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O7XW4US5Af8

You should think about the impact of these trials. Work in small groups and use the following as discussion points.



Questions for discussion

Notes

How much can these trials teach us about the extent of Nazi cruelty?


Remember to think about reliability, usefulness, accuracy and purpose of the testimony

Second-order concept targeted: Significance







Were these trails fair or were they ‘show trials’?

Second-order concept targeted: Significance







What was the impact of these trials inside and outside of Germany?

Second-order concept targeted: Consequence/Significance








We’d like to know your view on the resources we produce. By clicking on ‘Like’ or ‘Dislike’ you can help us to ensure that our resources work for you. When the email template pops up please add additional comments if you wish and then just click ‘Send’. Thank you.

If you do not currently offer this OCR qualification but would like to do so, please complete the Expression of Interest Form which can be found here: www.ocr.org.uk/expression-of-interest



OCR Resources: the small print
OCR’s resources are provided to support the teaching of OCR specifications, but in no way constitute an endorsed teaching method that is required by the Board, and the decision to use them lies with the individual teacher. Whilst every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the content, OCR cannot be held responsible for any errors or omissions within these resources.
© OCR 2015 - This resource may be freely copied and distributed, as long as the OCR logo and this message remain intact and OCR is acknowledged as the originator of this work.

OCR acknowledges the use of the following content: n/a

Please get in touch if you want to discuss the accessibility of resources we offer to support delivery of our qualifications: resources.feedback@ocr.org.uk

We’d like to know your view on the resources we produce. By clicking on ‘Like’ or ‘Dislike’ you can help us to ensure that our resources work for you. When the email template pops up please add additional comments if you wish and then just click ‘Send’. Thank you.

If you do not currently offer this OCR qualification but would like to do so, please complete the Expression of Interest Form which can be found here: www.ocr.org.uk/expression-of-interest





OCR Resources: the small print
OCR’s resources are provided to support the teaching of OCR specifications, but in no way constitute an endorsed teaching method that is required by the Board, and the decision to use them lies with the individual teacher. Whilst every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the content, OCR cannot be held responsible for any errors or omissions within these resources.
© OCR 2015 - This resource may be freely copied and distributed, as long as the OCR logo and this message remain intact and OCR is acknowledged as the originator of this work.

OCR acknowledges the use of the following content: Caption: ‘Good and bad Germans’: a British cartoon in the Sunday Dispatch, 1943. Reproduced by permission of the Express Newspapers Group. Table reproduced from Geoff Layton (2009) Democracy and Dictatorship in Germany 1919-63 for OCR, Hodder Education, p. 270.

Reproduced by permission of Hodder Education. J E Smith (ed.), The Papers of General Lucius Clay: Germany 1945-1949, vol 1, Bloomington, Indiana Free Press, 1974, p.265

Please get in touch if you want to discuss the accessibility of resources we offer to support delivery of our qualifications: resources.feedback@ocr.org.uk





Version 1 Copyright © OCR 2015



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