Indicator 3: Analyze the influence of industrialization and technological developments on society in the United States before 1877
Objectives: A. Describe changes in land and water transportation, including the expanding network of roads, canals, and railroads, and their impact on the economy and settlement patterns.
C. Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of early industrialization on the economy and society.
Era 7: An Age of Revolutions 1750-1914
Standard 2: The Causes and Consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions 1700-1800.
The student understands early industrialization and the importance of developments in England.
Grade Level 7-12: Assess the relative importance of geographical, economic, technological, and political factors that permitted or encouraged the rise of mechanized industry in England.
Grade Level: An 8th grade Modern World History class.
Unit Title: Industrializing the West.
Length of Unit: This unit will be ten instructional days long.
Description: My class at full capacity is comprised of thirty students. Ability level ranges from the highly competent to struggling. The struggling students are as such not due to lack of ability, but because of domestic issues (I know concretely that two are classified as “homeless”, and more than half obtain free and reduced meals). Despite this fact, many of the students are enthusiastic to learn and raise their hands often to questions. The largest problem for this class is being able to motivate them on their “off” days. In the classroom student apathy is contagious. Sometimes all it takes is one or two students to have their heads down in order for others to replicate their behavior. In this case the teachers response should be two-fold: they have to be able to have popular motivation activities, and the teacher has to be attentive enough in order to catch students who are
My first assessment for this unit will be pre-assessing prior student knowledge of the topic. Though students may not know much about the Industrial Revolution, they should be able to at least pull something from previous history courses they encountered. If not, it will at least make them start thinking about the topic. For the pre-assessment I will construct a “graffiti wall”. The graffiti wall is a pieced-together assortment of poster board that goes on one wall of the classroom. Students are each given a marker (ideally use a multitude of colors), and are asked to write either a word, person or sentence on what they know about the Industrial Revolution. Over the course of the unit, the students will add to the wall as their knowledge of the topic expands. I think the students would like this due to the artistic nature of the project. Despite what school officials and parents would like to believe, most students think graffiti is “cool”. If the students find a technique such as this popular, and it can be translated into good classroom instruction, then it should be used. My formative assessments will primarily be in the form of short answer responses, KWL’s and exit tickets. Brief responses seem to be the best format for a student to display what they learned about the Industrial Revolution, since this Revolution is concerned primarily with “what” Industrial technology did to western society. If a student is able to pursue this question using examples of what they learned and reach a viable conclusion, then they have learned what I wanted them to learn. Major concepts that students should be cognizant of throughout this lesson directly pertain to the NCSS and the Maryland State Standards. For instance, the importance of Industrialization rising in England, and what this did to the other nations. I want my students to not only grasp why this spate of technology began in England, but how it put other nations under pressure to compete. My summative assessment will be in the form of a test featuring multiple choice questions and one BCR. A sample multiple choice question would be:
What was burned to produce steam during the Industrial Revolution? A. oil B. sand C. gasoline D. Coal
My BCR will consist of a question that pertains directly to everything that had been covered in the Industrial Revolution Unit. A sample BCR question would be: Pollution was a common problem throughout the Industrial Revolution. Name two types of common pollution the Revolution produced, and explain how it affected the environment and the human population. Use examples from what we learned in class.
My rubric for this BCR would be as follows:
O: The student did not write anything.
1: The student constructed an erratic response that had no examples or focal point.
2: The student response identified one type of pollution the Revolution produced, but failed to elaborate how it effected the environment and society.
3: The student identified two types of pollution the Industrial Revolution produced, but failed to elaborate on how it affected the environment and society.
4: The student identified two types of pollution the Industrial Revolution produced, and explained how it affected the environment and society by using examples from what they learned in class.
JPTAAR Lesson Format 1
Grade Level: 8th
Topic: Industrial Revolution Day 6: Working Life
I will pre-assess my students by putting up two warm up questions on the board. The first one will ask them what they think life was like in the Industrial Revolution in terms of overall health. The second question would ask if they think being a worker during the Industrial Revolution was dangerous. If it was, how so?
Purpose and relevance:
This lesson is vital to the larger unit on the Industrial Revolution. Without understanding the life of an average worker, the students would have little idea on how difficult it was for the majority of people to survive. While the Industrial Revolution would eventually bring incredible wealth and prosperity, it was created through a large amount of suffering. Students need to be aware of this dichotomy.
Students will be able to analyze the lives of a worker during the Industrial Revolution by examining passages from Upton Sinclair’s Novel, “The Jungle” and creating their own “Packingtown” factory.
Indicator 3: Analyze the influence of industrialization and technological developments on society in the United States before 1877
Post-Assessment: For the post-assessment I will have each student answer the two questions I put on the board on a loose leaf sheet of paper and have them turn it in to me. Before they turn it in, I will call on several to see what they found. I don’t expect the students to answer these questions with complete accuracy, seeing as how they’ve only had several days of instruction on the Industrial Revolution.
Instructional Materials: PowerPoint presentation, five sheets of large posterboard, two dozen markers, twenty-five copies of “The Jungle” and a sample passage from the novel to model.
Teacher Preparation and Resources :
At this time I should already have read the Sinclair novel, taken enough notes to become familiar with its concepts and structure, and have written out and analyzed at least three passages from the text. I should also know about certain conditions in factories workers experienced, and some government mandates that helped ameliorate these conditions.
Media and Technology:
Need to complete a small PowerPoint presentation on Upton Sinclair’s novel, “The Jungle”.
Possible Modification of Plans:
If the lesson exceeds the timeframe, I will have the students finish their posters for the following day, and will have them construct their brief response for homework.
These are the sequential steps you design to scaffold the students’ understanding of the skills or concepts necessary to achieve the objectives.
Sequential Scaffolding Steps:
I will begin my lesson by showing my students a PowerPoint presentation on the book, “The Jungle” by Upton Sinclair. The students will be shown the conditions of an average factory in an East Coast city during the 1890’s. The PowerPoint will also display some of the
Guided Practice: At the end of the PowerPoint I will show my students what I require of them for the day’s lesson. I will do this by displaying a passage from the Sinclair novel
on the PowerPoint presentation. I will model the passage, and read it aloud to them. I will then find two specific things Sinclair mentioned that pertains either to
Independent Practice: Each student will silently read through and search for a passage within “The Jungle” that they find interesting, and will begin to analyze it for two key factors that describe workers feelings, or the factory working conditions themselves.”
Students will then be organized into randomly assigned groups of five. Each group will obtain a poster. The students have to design what they think the interior of a factory would look like, complete with grisly details of the conditions. They then, have to collaborate and write down two facts from their passages on the poster. After we share them in class, the students will be required to write a “letter” to their friend on what life is like in their factory. They are assuming the role of this factory worker. This BCR will serve as their assessment.
JPTAAR Lesson Format 2
Grade Level: 8th Grade Modern World History
Topic: Industrial Revolution Day 7: Pollution
Prior to Teaching
I will pre-assess my student’s knowledge on the pollution created during the Industrial Revolution by giving them a warm up activity on the overhead. The Warm up will present the students with two follow up questions learned from the previous lesson. One questions would say: “What were some major social issues raised during the Industrial Revolution?” The second would ask, “What other problems do you think massive factories produced in human society and on the land?” These questions will get the students thinking about more problems caused by the Industrial Revolution.
Purpose and relevance:
The purpose of this assessment is to get the students contemplating what other problems the Industrial Revolution generated. This ties in specifically with today’s lesson, since it further discusses problems of the revolution, namely, pollution (water pollution, air pollution, smog, and deforestation and urban living conditions).
Students will be able to assess the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the environment and on human health by constructing pollution chart.
VSC: Era 7: An Age of Revolutions 1750-1914Standard 2: The Causes and Consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions 1700-1800.
Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of early industrialization on the economy and society.
I will call on several students to determine their answers to the questions in the warm up. I will list several of their answers on the overhead. I will then tell the students that in the previous lesson we learned about the harsh life in the factories during the revolution. Now we will be learning about the social and environmental toll the Revolution took on modernizing countries.
Instructional Materials: Five sheets of poster board, two dozen markers, five readings (ten each) on five different kinds of pollutants.
Teacher Preparation and Resources :
What preparation is necessary to be knowledgeable about the content of the lesson? I will need to familiarize myself with the five different kinds of pollutants that occurred in cities and in the natural world, as well as the consequences this had on economies and the population.
Multicultural and Diverse Perspectives:
I can consider how these different pollutants affected different segments of scoeity. For example, was pollution concentrated throughout the entire city, or was it pushed away and concentrated in poorer sections where minorities lived?
Possible Modification of Plans:
If this lesson exceeds the time frame, we will finish sharing the posters tomorrow, and I will have the students complete their BCR’s for homework.
Sequential Scaffolding Steps:
These steps should:
I will model one of the readings that the students have to do, but I will model a different example so one group doesn’t have an advantage over the others. I will model water pollution in the Chesapeake bay. First, I will show them a reading of the Chesapeake Bay Pollution on the overhead. I will underline specific concepts, such as causal factors of pollutants, then and possible consequences it has on Bay life and human use.
Independent Practice: It will now be the students turn to silently read one of the five articles they are assigned. Each will be required to underline key pieces of information they find interesting. I will check for their understanding by walking around the room, making sure they are on task, and answering any questions that they may have concerning the reading.
I will then organize the students into new groups of five using random numbers. The students will then use the posterboard and their markers in order to draw the type of pollution they read about. I want them to label five issues and problems associated with their pollution. For instance, the water pollution group can draw a river being polluted by toxic waste. They can then draw fish dying the river, and how this may effect the local economy. They students are making connections through their drawings. For their assessment, the students will create a BCR answering two specific questions: How was their pollution initially caused, and what consequences does it have for either people or the environment?
PowerPoint Slides for “The Jungle Intro”
Slide 1 Introduction: “The Jungle” by Upton Sinclair.
Slide 2: What is “The Jungle?”
-Sinclair was a factory worker that had immigrated to the United States
-“The Jungle” is an account of the horrible working conditions he experienced.
Slide 3: Grim Observations
-Sinclair kept a journal about the horrible practices of the factory.
-The workers would have to pickle rotten meat and still package it.
-Rats would often fall in with the food mixers
-This meant that rat poison was put into sausage
Slide 4: “Shut your mouths”
-Despite these horrors, the workers were under order not to speak
about the things they saw, or they would be fired.
Slide 5: The Novel
-Sinclair wrote the novel because he hoped people would see
The terrible things about the factory.
-The government eventually passed laws like the Federal Meat Inspection Act,
a direct result of Sinclair’s novel.
The Jungle Quote I will Model:
With one member trimming beef in a cannery, and another working in a sausage factory, the family had a first-hand knowledge of the great majority of Packingtown swindles. For it was the custom, as they found, whenever meat was so spoiled that it could not be used for anything else, either to can it or else to chop it up into sausage. With what had been told them by Jonas, who had worked in the pickle rooms, they could now study the whole of the spoiled-meat industry on the inside, and read a new and grim meaning into that old Packingtown jest – that they use everything of the pig except the squeal.
Lesson Plan 2 Resources:
The growth of the major industrial cities also caused water pollution. All too often, rivers that pass through urban areas became a receptacle for human waste products, both domestic and industrial. Sewage, as in most cities, was washed out into the streets where it found its way to the rivers with disastrous consequences.
In the first half of the 18th century, both London and Paris, the largest cities in Europe with respectively 1 and 2.4 million inhabitants by 1850, experienced a series of recurring epidemics of cholera and typhoid. In 1832 over 20,000 Parisians died in a cholera outbreak; London experienced similar outbreaks. This was caused by increasing amounts of sewage dumped into the Seine and Thames rivers.
London was one of the first cities in the world to build a sewer system and improve the quality of its drinking water supply. The London Board of Health eliminated cesspools in the late 1840s, and a Metropolis Water Act of 1852 forced water companies to move their intakes upstream and regulate their filtration and storage. Drinking water showed significant improvement by the 1850s, yet the problem of the Thames hit daily by 260 tons of raw sewage by the late 1850s-caused the most stir in the popular press as well as debate in parliament. Plans for a central drainage system were stalled through much of that decade by the uncertainties of medical science and the obstruction by London’s local parish councils, which disliked the idea of a centralized authority or systems of any kind. Joseph Bazalgette was the civil engineer responsible for a project that took about 16 years (1858-74) to complete. Cholera was by then a thing of the past and the general health or the population improved spectacularly.
London’s example of building adequate sewer systems and treatment plants was soon followed by other cities making urban environments much cleaner. However, much sewage was still discharged in open water outside cities and air pollution continued unchecked until the mid-20th century.
With increasing industrialization there was a string of Parliamentary Acts in the mid 1800s designed to do something about the polluting effects of industrial and domestic smoke.
London was infamous for its combinations of smoke and fog, combined in the word smog, and therefore earned the nickname “the Big Smoke”. All major cities suffered from smoke pollution and Edinburgh’s nickname, “Auld Reekie” refers partly to the sanitary situation of the town as well as to smoke pollution. The effects of air pollution brought cities to a halt, disrupting traffic but more dangerously also causing death rates to rise. During a week of smog in 1873 killed over 700 people in London. However, the largest air pollution disaster in Britain was the Great London Smog of December 1952 which killed approximately 4,000 people.
Following the Great London Smog legislation was introduced and the first Clean Air Act was passed in 1956 which moved power stations and heavy industry to more rural sites. The reduction of domestic and industrial coal burning and the use of smokeless coals has led to a reduction in the levels of emission of sulphur dioxide, one of the main contributors to acid rain, the emissions falling between 1970 and 1994 by 60 percent in British cities. Similar developments can be observed in many industrialized countries.
Deforestation was not new during the time of the Industrial Revolution. Humans were using timber from forests much earlier, but especially during the reign of the British empire, when it navy required huge amounts of wood to build ships. However, when the Industrial revolution took off, forests were cut down faster than ever before. This was because wood was a significant source of energy to keep the cogs of Industrialism turning.
In order to understand this, one has to think about how the machines of the Industrial Revolution worked. In order to keep steam engines moving, they needed steam. This sounds pretty basic, until you realize you can’t just make steam out of thin air (even though it is air). You need two other sources: water, and heat. Water was easy to come by for places like Great Britain, that happened to be an island. In order to get the steam coal was required. Coal was burned at incredible hot rates in order to heat up the water, which would produce the steam. While coal was a major source of this heat, industrializing nations would also use massive amounts of timber.
This led to entire swaths of forests in the United States and Great Britain to be destroyed. The animals in these forests were either killed or displaced. Deforestation also led to the depletion of clean oxygen, since trees absorb CO2 and produce oxygen. This fact turned out to be a double-dose problem: less trees meant less oxygen, but more coal burning meant CO2. In this sense, deforestation led to increased air pollution. Deforestationa also meant that huge swaths of land were eroded by the rain. Without tree canopies and roots, rain would wash out places where forests once settled. Without the precious soil that allowed plants to grow, the ground would be reduced to clay beds, and would be rendered useless for decades to come.
While human crowding may not seem like a source of pollution, anyone who lived in a city in the nineteenth century would declare otherwise. We have already learned why so many people lived in cities at this point in time: they abandoned their farms in order to find better jobs within the large urban centers. However, many who had dreams of a better life would soon find their dreams broken by reality. A huge influx of immigrants had also entered the East Coast at this time, which more than doubled the Coast’s population. This meant one thing: cities began to get very crowded, very fast. Cities are naturally dirty places: the more humans, typically the more social problems. Industrial Revolution city life was no different, with the exception of one big aspect: the lack of flush toilets and public restrooms. Most people who worked in factories lived in tiny apartment buildings that were stacked shoulder-to-shoulder in long rows. If there even was a working toilet in the apartment, there were times where there could be one hundred people to one toilet. Many people would simply dispose of food waste and toilet refuse on the streets. This eventually led to diseases, such as cholera: a fatal bacterial sickness.
Day 1: Origins in Britain
Students will trace the origins of the Industrial Revolution in England by assessing England’s geography and natural resources by constructing a geographical map of the country.
Lesson: England was able to jumpstart the Industrial Revolution due to the massive concentration of raw materials within the island country, as well as the agricultural base to support a move to industrialization.
Assessment: Students will be given a blank map of England, and compare this map to the one in their geography Atlas that will be provided. Then they will create a key that contains the natural resources of the country (including timber, coal and rivers). The students will then write a short answer on why they think these materials helped to jumpstart industry in Britain.
Day 2: Urban Migration
Students will be able to explain the move of agricultural workers to the cities after reading the article “Migration During the Industrial Revolution”.
Students will read the article, which is a short summation of this movement, silently. Then they will be organized into groups of four to discuss why they think the farmers made such a shift. I will call on each group to voice their opinion, and list as many as I can on the overhead.
Assessment: Students will write a brief response as an exit ticket explaining what they think was the primary motive in the shift of farmers to London.
Day 3: The Move to US
Objective: Students will create a chart displaying three major inventions in the United States that aided in creating the Industrial Revolution.
Plan: A Jigsaw. The students will be given a worksheet similar to a word web, however the outer branches will be used to write in the three major inventions at the start of the US Industrial Revolution. The students will be given an article on one of these inventions, and fill in one subsequent space. Then they will get into groups with the same assigned reading and share what they had with the group.
Assessment: A brief constructed response on which invention was the most prominent in jumpstarting the US Industrial Revolution.
Day 4: The Factory, the Core of Industry
Students will be able to assess the importance and the working conditions of factories during the Industrial Revolution and debate whether or not the child labor laws were necessary or effective.
Plan: Students will silently read a section of The Factory Inspectors Act of 1893. They will then be assigned into groups of five. Each will be given a poster paper with markers. They will be asked to design a poster either campaigning for or against the child labor laws in 1893. The posters will be hung up around the room, and the students will have to defend their possession with examples from the text.
Assessment: An exit ticket. The students will write a brief explanation on why they made the decision they did on child labor.
Day 5: The Railroads
Objective: Students will be able to assess the importance of railroads during America’s Industrial Revolution by identifying two key changes railroads made to American society.
Lesson: A short video on the railroad via Youtube as a warmup activity. The students will read the article: America’s Rise of the Railroads, highlighting key passages.
Assessment: Students put in groups of five will create a poster of the Railroad as America’s way to the future, listing on the poster two major contributions the railroad has made to society. Possible answers will include: transportation of goods such as Coal, Timber, and luxury goods. Another answer would be the flow of people to other regions of the country to look for work.
Day 6: Workers Lives
Students will be able to explore the lives of an average worker during the Industrial Revolution by examining a primary source of a textile worker, as well as a section from Upton Sinclair’s Novel, “The Jungle.”
Plan: Students begin with a KWL on factory life. They will fill out the “Know” section on what they have learned previously about working conditions, then what they think they know. The students will be assigned one of two articles: either a primary source form a young woman working at a factory, or an excerpt from the Sinclair novel. I will split these two large groups again, coming up with teams of four in order to make group work more manageable. The student groups will share what they have read, and the more pointed observations would be written on the board.
Assessment: The students will complete the “Learned” section of their KWL’s with what they ascertained from the readings.
Day: 7 Environment
Students will be able to assess the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the environment and on human health by listing three types of major pollutants industrialism produced.
Plan: I will start with a warm up video about pollution in a major American city. The students will be familiar with air pollution if they live near or have been in a major city. I will connect air pollution to one type of pollution during the Industrial Revolution. I will then enact a jigsaw by handing out three separate readings one three major pollutants the Industrial Revolution produced.
Day 8 Unions
Students will be able to analyze the rise and significance of a union in the industrialized world as a response to worker exploitation by examining the actions of the American Federation of Labor Union.
Plan: Start with a short video on guilds of the 1700’s, where skilled laborers negotiated contracts and prices at which to sell their goods. Shift the principle into the context of the Industrial Revolution, where workers had little skills and worker in masses. Have the students silently read “How the Workers Rights Movement Began”. Split the students into groups of five and have them discuss what made the workers form into unions, as well as any advantages workers would have in unions.
Assessment: A BCR on what the unions did to improve workers rights and working conditions. An example for each of these concepts.
Day 9: Monopolies
Students will be able to analyze the creation and the rise of monopolies in the Industrial Revolution by assessing the motives of Carnegie Steel.
Plan: The students will be split into three groups. Students will be given a distinct sheet explaining their role in the Industrial Revolution. One group will be the government. Another group will be the workers. Another group will be the wealthy businessmen. The last group will be consumers. Each has different motivations pertaining to what is “fair” when it comes to profits. The students will read their own article and debate whether or not monopolies are good for the economy or not. Afterwards, an examination of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
Assessment: A BCR as an exit ticket determining if the Sherman Anti-Trust Law should have been created, or not.
Day 10 Growth of Cities
Students will be able to examine the major growth of cities and what this meant for their populations by analyzing primary accounts of life in New York City during the industrial revolution by reading an experct of “The Restless City”, by Joanne Reitano.
Plan: Students will be given a reading of “The Restless City”, describing the growth of New York as an industrial power, and what this meant to New York’s social organization. This will include what industrializing did in terms of proximity of social groups, and how the city bloomed into social and ethnic sectors while growing.
Assessment: Students will write a BCR connecting what Industrial factors led to the growth of New York City.