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barometer. A barometer measures changes in the pressure of the atmosphere. Evangelista Torricelli invented the barometer in the 1640s. Torricelli filled a glass tube with a heavy liquid called mercury. Then he placed the tube upside down in a dish.

Over the next few days, Torricelli watched the tube. He saw that the height of the mercury did not stay the same. The column of mercury moved up and down as the pressure in the atmosphere changed. The barometer soon proved to be a valuable tool in studying and predicting the weather.

Galileo likely made the first thermometer. In the early 1700s, a German scientist, Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, made thermometers more accurate. He put mercury in a glass tube. As the mercury grew warmer, it expanded and rose up the tube. The height of the mercury provided a measure of temperature. Fahrenheit also designed a new temperature scale. In the United States, we still measure temperature using Fahrenheit degrees.

With new tools and the scientific method, scientists made rapid advances in their understanding of nature. Their work had many practical results, such as the invention of the steam engine. As new technologies developed, Europeans used them to become the commercial and industrial leaders of the world. Science is one of the most powerful forces shaping our world today.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek observed microorganisms through microscopes that he designed.

microscope an instrument that uses lenses to make small objects appear larger

barometer an instrument used for measuring changes in the pressure of the atmosphere

thermometer an instrument used for measuring temperature
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34.8 Chapter Summary

In this chapter, you learned about the Scientific Revolution. This movement marked a major shift in the way people thought about the natural world.

Several factors contributed to the Scientific Revolution. Renaissance thinkers questioned traditional learning and observed nature for themselves. Translations of classical texts exposed scholars to new ideas. Discoveries by explorers showed that accepted ideas could be wrong.

The Scientific Revolution began when Copernicus proposed the daring idea that Earth and the other planets traveled around the sun. Kepler built on this work by correctly describing the planets’ orbits. Galileo’s discoveries supported the Copernican theory.

Newton took all this work a giant step forward. His law of gravity explained why planets orbited the sun. Newton also showed that the same laws applied everywhere in the known universe.

The ideas of Bacon and Descartes helped to shape the scientific method, which proved to be a powerful way of testing ideas about nature. New tools like the microscope and the thermometer also aided scientific progress.

Europeans were dazzled by rapid advances in science. Many were inspired to take a similar approach to problems of human life and society. You’ll learn about these thinkers in the next chapter.

Today’s high-powered microscopes are based on the first designs from the 1600s. Scientific research would not be possible without such inventions.

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(Backmatter TOC)

History Alive! The Medieval World and Beyond Timeline 414

Physical Map of the World 416

Political Map of the World 418

Physical Map of Africa 420

Political Map of Africa 421

Physical Map of Asia 422

Political Map of Asia 423

Physical Map of Europe 424

Political Map of Europe 425

Physical Map of North America 426

Political Map of North America 427

Physical Map of Oceania 428

Political Map of Oceania 429

Physical Map of South America 430

Political Map of South America 431
Online Resources 432

Glossary 434

Index 446

State Correlations 460

Notes 466

Credits 467
Page 414-415

History Alive! The Medieval World and Beyond Timeline

(Timeline nomenclature)
500 B.C.E. 250 B.C.E. 0 250 C.E. 500 C.E. 750 C.E. 750 C.E. 1000 C.E. 1250 C.E. 1500 C.E. 1750 C.E. 2000 C.E.
Medieval Europe

About 800 C.E. Scholars begin to write with lowercase letters.

1054 C.E. Schism leads to two separate Christian churches: Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox.

1066 C.E. William the Conqueror introduces feudalism to England.

1194 C.E. Construction of present-day Chartres Cathedral begins in France.

1215 C.E. King John puts his seal to the Magna Carta.

1346 C.E. English archers use longbows to defeat the French at Crecy in the Hundred Year’s War.

About 570–632 C.E. Muhammad's teachings lay the foundation for the spread of Islam.

700–1250 C.E. Islamic culture produces great works of art, literature, and science.

About 750 C.E. Muslim bookmakers begin printing volumes of poetry, prose, and the Qur’an.

About 750 C.E. Muslims begin using water power.

1096–1291 C.E. A series of crusades are fought in the Middle East.

1492 C.E. The Spanish conquer Granada, the last Muslim-held city in Spain.
Imperial China

618–907 C.E. Buddhist religion expands under the Tang dynasty.

850 C.E. Tang Dynasty invents gunpowder.

920 C.E. First record of foot binding.

About 1050 C.E. Movable type is invented in China.

1065 C.E. Song dynasty begins regular civil service exams.

405–1433 C.E. Zheng He’s voyages gain new tributary states for China.

552 C.E. Buddhism is introduced to Japan.

593–628 C.E. Prince Shotoku rules Japan.

607 C.E. Construction of the oldest surviving five-storied pagoda begins.

800–900 C.E. Hiragana writing develops.

794–1185 C.E. Aristocrats lead a golden age of culture during the Heian period.

1192 C.E. The first shogun is appointed.
The Americas

About 50 B.C.E. The Maya begin to createa system of hieroglyphs.

About 300–900 C.E. Mayan Classic period social structure is headed by the halach uinic.

1325 C.E. The Aztecs begin building Tenochtitlan using chinampas.

1325–1519 C.E. The Aztecs practice human sacrifice in religious rituals.

1438–1532 C.E. The Incas create a system of roads.

Early 1500s C.E. The Inca Empire stretches over 2,500 miles with an estimated 10 million people.
Renaissance and Reformation

About 1450 C.E. Johannes Gutenberg begins using the printing press.

1469–1492 C.E. Florence is ruled by Lorenzo de Medici.

1504 C.E. Michelangelo completes his sculpture David.

1517 C.E. Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses.

1525 C.E. William Tyndale translates the Bible into English.

1545–1563 C.E. Council of Trent reaffirms Catholicism.
Modern Europe

1492 C.E. Columbus sails to discover the Americas.

1519–1521 C.E. Cortes conquers the Aztec Empire.

1543 C.E. Copernicus’s theory of the universe is published.

1609–1610 C.E. Galileo uses the telescope.

1690 C.E. Locke argues for people’s rights.

1748 C.E. Montesquieu argues for separation of powersin three branchesof government.
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(Beginning of Atlas) (Map Titles)

Physical Map of the World
Page 418-419

Political Map of the World
Page 420

Physical Map of Africa
Page 421

Political Map of Africa
Page 422

Physical Map of Asia
Page 423

Political Map of Asia
Page 424

Physical Map of Europe
Page 425

Political Map of Europe
Page 426

Physical Map of North America
Page 427

Political Map of North America
Page 428

Physical Map of Oceania
Page 429

Political Map of Oceania
Page 430

Physical Map of South America
Page 431

Political Map of South America
Page 432

Online Resources

The Online Resources at www.teachtci.com/historyalive provide the following resources and assignments linked to the content of each unit in History Alive! The Medieval World and Beyond:

biographies of people important in the history of each area of the world

excerpts from primary sources and literature

Internet research projects and links to related Web sites for more in-depth exploration

enrichment essays and activities

Below are brief descriptions of the biographies and excerpts from primary sources and literature for each unit.
Unit 1: Europe During Medieval Times

Biography: Empress Theodora (c. 497–548).

A peasant by birth, Theodora became the wife of Justinian I and empress of the Byzantine Empire. She is credited with saving Justinian’s dynasty and with creating many laws protecting women’s rights. (Chapter 6: The Byzantine Empire)
Primary Source: Medieval Fairs and Markets. This is an account of the Great Fair at Thessalonica, in Greece, as it was in the mid-12th century. (Chapter 4: Life in Medieval Towns)
Literature: The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1340–1400). During the Middle Ages, religious faith led many people to make a pilgrimage, or journey to a holy site. This work by English writer Geoffrey Chaucer is a book of verse about a group of fictional pilgrims. (Chapter 3: The Role of the Church in Medieval Europe)
Unit 2: The Rise of Islam

Biography: Suleyman I (c. 1494–1566). The Ottoman Empire reached its peak in the 16th century under Suleyman I. He expanded the empire and was a great supporter of the arts. (Chapter 11: From the Crusades to New Muslim Empires)
Primary Source: Travels in Asia and Africa by Ibn Battutah (c. 1304–1368). Ibn Battutah was a Muslim with an incredible passion for travel. His book taught many people about the Muslim world. (Chapter 10: Contributions of Muslims to World Civilization)
Literature: Shahnama (Epic of Kings) by Ferdowsi (c. 940–1020). This epic history of Persia, written by poet Ferdowsi, is part legend and part history. (Chapter 10: Contributions of Muslims to World Civilization)
The Rubaiyat by Omar Khayyam (1048–1123). Khayyam, a Sufi mystic, is credited with writing and compiling this collection of poetic verses. The Rubaiyat is one of the most widely translated pieces of literature in the world. (Chapter 10: Contributions of Muslims to World Civilization)
Unit 3: The Culture and Kingdoms of West Africa

Biography: Askia Muhammad Toure (?–1538). Toure was the ruler of the Songhai empire at its height. (Chapter 14: The Influence of Islam on West Africa)
Primary Source: Account of Ghana by Abu Ubayd Al-Bakri. Al-Bakri was a Muslim geographer who wrote about Ghana. (Chapter 13: Ghana: A West African Trading Empire)
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Literature: West African Oral Story. Oral stories can be very entertaining. They are also used to pass along history and to teach young people morals and values. This one is about a hyena. (Chapter 15: The Cultural Legacy of West Africa)
Unit 4: Imperial China

Biography: Empress Wu Chao (625–705). The first woman to rule as emperor in Chinese history, Wu Chao made many contributions to the Tang dynasty and is known for her ruthless political tactics. (Chapter 16: The Political Development of Imperial China)
Primary Source: The Travels of Marco Polo told by Marco Polo (1254–1324). Italian merchant and adventurer Marco Polo was one of the most famous travelers to China. He claimed to have served Kublai Khan, the ruler of the Mongol Empire. (Chapter 19: China’s Contacts with the Outside World)
Literature: Poetry from the Tang Dynasty. This explores a poem by Wang Wei, one of the most famous poets of the Tang dynasty. (Chapter 19: China’s Contacts with the Outside World)
Unit 5: Japan During Medieval Times

Biography: Lady Murasaki Shikibu (c. 978–1030). Shikibu is the author of The Tale of Genji, often called the first novel ever written. (Chapter 21: Heian-kyo: The Heart of Japan’s Golden Age)
Primary Source: The Seventeen Article Constitution by Prince Shotoku (574–622). Japan’s earliest code of law, this work is based on ideas from Chinese philosopher Confucius. (Chapter 20: The Influence of Neighboring Cultures on Japan)
Literature: Poems About Warriors. This piece explores a Japanese haiku and an excerpt from Beowulf, an English epic poem. (Chapter 22: The Rise of the Warrior Class in Japan)
Unit 6: Civilizations of the Americas

Biography: Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (1438–1471). This Inca ruler expanded the empire, built roads, and made many reforms. (Chapter 26: The Incas)
Primary Source: Excerpt from Popul Vuh. This Mayan document is part mythology and part history and includes a Mayan creation story. (Chapter 23: The Maya)
Literature: Poem by Nezahualcoytl (1402–1472), an Aztec leader and poet. (Chapter 25: Daily Life in Tenochtitlan)
Unit 7: Europe’s Renaissance and Reformation

Primary Source: Renaissance Children. This is an excerpt from Hugh Rhodes’ Boke of Nurture, a well-known book about child rearing published in 1577. (Chapter 30: Leading Figures of the Renaissance)
Literature: Don Quixote by Miguel Cervantes (1547–1616). Cervantes is best known for this comic novel. (Chapter 30: Leading Figures of the Renaissance)
Unit 8: Europe Enters the Modern Age

Primary Source: Freedom of Thought and Religion by Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677). This is an excerpt from the Jewish philosopher’s writing. (Chapter 35: The Enlightenment)
Literature: Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe (c. 1660–1731). This story of a shipwrecked sailor was published in 1719. (Chapter 33: The Age of Exploration)
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Teal words are defined in the margins of History Alive! The Medieval World and Beyond.

Red words are key concepts in the chapter introductions.

Abassid member of a Muslim ruling family descended from Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad

absolute monarchy a monarchy in which the ruler’s power is unlimited

achievement an accomplishment

adaptation a change in a way of life that allows people to survive in a particular environment

advance improvement

agricultural techniques farming methods

agriculture the business of farming

alchemy a combination of science, magic, and philosophy that was practiced in medieval times

algebra a branch of mathematics that solves problems involving unknown numbers

alliance a group of countries, city-states, or other entities who agree to work together, often to fight common enemies

almsgiving the giving of money, food, or other things of value to the needy

amulet a piece of jewelry or other object used as a charm to provide protection against bad luck, illness, injury, or evil

Anatolia a large peninsula at the western edge of Asia; also called Asia Minor

Anglicanism a Protestant sect of the Christian faith

anti-Semitism prejudice toward Jews

appliqué a technique in which shaped pieces of fabric are attached to a background fabric to form a design or picture

apprentice a person who works for an expert in a trade or craft in return for training

aqueduct a pipe or channel built to carry water between distant places

Arabian Peninsula a peninsula located in southwest Asia, between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf

architecture the art of designing buildings

aristocracy a ruling class of noble families

armada a large fleet of ships

armor a covering, usually made of metal or leather, worn to protect the body during fighting

art human creations intended to express beauty and convey messages

artist a person who creates art

astrolabe an instrument used to observe and measure the position of the sun and other heavenly bodies

astronomy the science of the stars, planets, and other objects in the universe

aviary an enclosed space or cage for keeping birds

axis an imaginary line drawn through a sphere, or ball, such as Earth

ayllu an Inca clan (group of related families), the basic unit of Inca society

Aztecs a Mesoamerican people who built a vast empire in central Mexico that flourished from 1428 to 1519 C.E.

barbarian a person belonging to a tribe or group that is considered uncivilized

barge a long boat with a flat bottom

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