barometer. A barometer measures changes in the pressure of the atmosphere. Evangelista Torricelli invented the barometer in the 1640s. Torricelli filled a glass tube with a heavy liquid called mercury. Then he placed the tube upside down in a dish.
Over the next few days, Torricelli watched the tube. He saw that the height of the mercury did not stay the same. The column of mercury moved up and down as the pressure in the atmosphere changed. The barometer soon proved to be a valuable tool in studying and predicting the weather.
Galileo likely made the first thermometer. In the early 1700s, a German scientist, Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, made thermometers more accurate. He put mercury in a glass tube. As the mercury grew warmer, it expanded and rose up the tube. The height of the mercury provided a measure of temperature. Fahrenheit also designed a new temperature scale. In the United States, we still measure temperature using Fahrenheit degrees.
With new tools and the scientific method, scientists made rapid advances in their understanding of nature. Their work had many practical results, such as the invention of the steam engine. As new technologies developed, Europeans used them to become the commercial and industrial leaders of the world. Science is one of the most powerful forces shaping our world today. (Caption)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek observed microorganisms through microscopes that he designed. (Vocabulary)
microscope an instrument that uses lenses to make small objects appear larger
barometer an instrument used for measuring changes in the pressure of the atmosphere
thermometer an instrument used for measuring temperature Page 397
34.8 Chapter Summary
In this chapter, you learned about the Scientific Revolution. This movement marked a major shift in the way people thought about the natural world.
Several factors contributed to the Scientific Revolution. Renaissance thinkers questioned traditional learning and observed nature for themselves. Translations of classical texts exposed scholars to new ideas. Discoveries by explorers showed that accepted ideas could be wrong.
The Scientific Revolution began when Copernicus proposed the daring idea that Earth and the other planets traveled around the sun. Kepler built on this work by correctly describing the planets’ orbits. Galileo’s discoveries supported the Copernican theory.
Newton took all this work a giant step forward. His law of gravity explained why planets orbited the sun. Newton also showed that the same laws applied everywhere in the known universe.
The ideas of Bacon and Descartes helped to shape the scientific method, which proved to be a powerful way of testing ideas about nature. New tools like the microscope and the thermometer also aided scientific progress.
Europeans were dazzled by rapid advances in science. Many were inspired to take a similar approach to problems of human life and society. You’ll learn about these thinkers in the next chapter. (Caption)
Today’s high-powered microscopes are based on the first designs from the 1600s. Scientific research would not be possible without such inventions.
History Alive! The Medieval World and Beyond Timeline 414 Atlas
Physical Map of the World 416
Political Map of the World 418
Physical Map of Africa 420
Political Map of Africa 421
Physical Map of Asia 422
Political Map of Asia 423
Physical Map of Europe 424
Political Map of Europe 425
Physical Map of North America 426
Political Map of North America 427
Physical Map of Oceania 428
Political Map of Oceania 429
Physical Map of South America 430
Political Map of South America 431 Online Resources 432
State Correlations 460
Credits 467 Page 414-415
History Alive! The Medieval World and Beyond Timeline
• Internet research projects and links to related Web sites for more in-depth exploration
• enrichment essays and activities
Below are brief descriptions of the biographies and excerpts from primary sources and literature for each unit. Unit 1: Europe During Medieval Times
Biography: Empress Theodora (c. 497–548).
A peasant by birth, Theodora became the wife of Justinian I and empress of the Byzantine Empire. She is credited with saving Justinian’s dynasty and with creating many laws protecting women’s rights. (Chapter 6: The Byzantine Empire) Primary Source: Medieval Fairs and Markets. This is an account of the Great Fair at Thessalonica, in Greece, as it was in the mid-12th century. (Chapter 4: Life in Medieval Towns) Literature: The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1340–1400). During the Middle Ages, religious faith led many people to make a pilgrimage, or journey to a holy site. This work by English writer Geoffrey Chaucer is a book of verse about a group of fictional pilgrims. (Chapter 3: The Role of the Church in Medieval Europe) Unit 2: The Rise of Islam
Biography: Suleyman I (c. 1494–1566). The Ottoman Empire reached its peak in the 16th century under Suleyman I. He expanded the empire and was a great supporter of the arts. (Chapter 11: From the Crusades to New Muslim Empires) Primary Source: Travels in Asia and Africa by Ibn Battutah (c. 1304–1368). Ibn Battutah was a Muslim with an incredible passion for travel. His book taught many people about the Muslim world. (Chapter 10: Contributions of Muslims to World Civilization) Literature: Shahnama (Epic of Kings) by Ferdowsi (c. 940–1020). This epic history of Persia, written by poet Ferdowsi, is part legend and part history. (Chapter 10: Contributions of Muslims to World Civilization) The Rubaiyat by Omar Khayyam (1048–1123). Khayyam, a Sufi mystic, is credited with writing and compiling this collection of poetic verses. The Rubaiyat is one of the most widely translated pieces of literature in the world. (Chapter 10: Contributions of Muslims to World Civilization) Unit 3: The Culture and Kingdoms of West Africa
Biography: Askia Muhammad Toure (?–1538). Toure was the ruler of the Songhai empire at its height. (Chapter 14: The Influence of Islam on West Africa) Primary Source: Account of Ghana by Abu Ubayd Al-Bakri. Al-Bakri was a Muslim geographer who wrote about Ghana. (Chapter 13: Ghana: A West African Trading Empire) Page 433
Literature: West African Oral Story. Oral stories can be very entertaining. They are also used to pass along history and to teach young people morals and values. This one is about a hyena. (Chapter 15: The Cultural Legacy of West Africa) Unit 4: Imperial China
Biography: Empress Wu Chao (625–705). The first woman to rule as emperor in Chinese history, Wu Chao made many contributions to the Tang dynasty and is known for her ruthless political tactics. (Chapter 16: The Political Development of Imperial China) Primary Source: The Travels of Marco Polo told by Marco Polo (1254–1324). Italian merchant and adventurer Marco Polo was one of the most famous travelers to China. He claimed to have served Kublai Khan, the ruler of the Mongol Empire. (Chapter 19: China’s Contacts with the Outside World) Literature: Poetry from the Tang Dynasty. This explores a poem by Wang Wei, one of the most famous poets of the Tang dynasty. (Chapter 19: China’s Contacts with the Outside World) Unit 5: Japan During Medieval Times
Biography: Lady Murasaki Shikibu (c. 978–1030). Shikibu is the author of The Tale of Genji, often called the first novel ever written. (Chapter 21: Heian-kyo: The Heart of Japan’s Golden Age) Primary Source: The Seventeen Article Constitution by Prince Shotoku (574–622). Japan’s earliest code of law, this work is based on ideas from Chinese philosopher Confucius. (Chapter 20: The Influence of Neighboring Cultures on Japan) Literature: Poems About Warriors. This piece explores a Japanese haiku and an excerpt from Beowulf, an English epic poem. (Chapter 22: The Rise of the Warrior Class in Japan) Unit 6: Civilizations of the Americas
Biography: Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (1438–1471). This Inca ruler expanded the empire, built roads, and made many reforms. (Chapter 26: The Incas) Primary Source: Excerpt from Popul Vuh. This Mayan document is part mythology and part history and includes a Mayan creation story. (Chapter 23: The Maya) Literature: Poem by Nezahualcoytl (1402–1472), an Aztec leader and poet. (Chapter 25: Daily Life in Tenochtitlan) Unit 7: Europe’s Renaissance and Reformation
Primary Source: Renaissance Children. This is an excerpt from Hugh Rhodes’ Boke of Nurture, a well-known book about child rearing published in 1577. (Chapter 30: Leading Figures of the Renaissance) Literature: Don Quixote by Miguel Cervantes (1547–1616). Cervantes is best known for this comic novel. (Chapter 30: Leading Figures of the Renaissance) Unit 8: Europe Enters the Modern Age
Primary Source: Freedom of Thought and Religion by Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677). This is an excerpt from the Jewish philosopher’s writing. (Chapter 35: The Enlightenment) Literature: Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe (c. 1660–1731). This story of a shipwrecked sailor was published in 1719. (Chapter 33: The Age of Exploration) Page 434
Teal words are defined in the margins of History Alive! The Medieval World and Beyond.
Red words are key concepts in the chapter introductions. A
Abassid member of a Muslim ruling family descended from Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad
absolute monarchy a monarchy in which the ruler’s power is unlimited
achievement an accomplishment
adaptation a change in a way of life that allows people to survive in a particular environment
agricultural techniques farming methods
agriculture the business of farming
alchemy a combination of science, magic, and philosophy that was practiced in medieval times
algebra a branch of mathematics that solves problems involving unknown numbers
alliancea group of countries, city-states, or other entities who agree to work together, often to fight common enemies
almsgiving the giving of money, food, or other things of value to the needy
amulet a piece of jewelry or other object used as a charm to provide protection against bad luck, illness, injury, or evil
Anatolia a large peninsula at the western edge of Asia; also called Asia Minor
Anglicanism a Protestant sect of the Christian faith
anti-Semitism prejudice toward Jews
appliqué a technique in which shaped pieces of fabric are attached to a background fabric to form a design or picture
apprentice a person who works for an expert in a trade or craft in return for training
aqueduct a pipe or channel built to carry water between distant places
Arabian Peninsula a peninsula located in southwest Asia, between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf
architecture the art of designing buildings
aristocracy a ruling class of noble families
armada a large fleet of ships
armor a covering, usually made of metal or leather, worn to protect the body during fighting
art human creations intended to express beauty and convey messages
artist a person who creates art
astrolabe an instrument used to observe and measure the position of the sun and other heavenly bodies
astronomy the science of the stars, planets, and other objects in the universe