denomination known as Lutheranism. The new church emphasized study of the Bible. Luther translated the Bible into German. He also wrote a baptism service, a mass, and new hymns (sacred songs) in German.
Having rejected the church’s hierarchy, Luther looked to German princes to support his church. When a peasants’ revolt broke out in 1524, the rebels expected Luther to support their demands for social and economic change. Instead, Luther denounced the peasants and sided with the rulers. He needed the help of Germany’s rulers to keep his new church growing. By the time the uprising was crushed, tens of thousands of peasants had been brutally killed. Many peasants rejected Lutheranism.
Several princes, however, supported Luther, and Lutheranism continued to grow. Over the next 30 years, Lutherans and Catholics were often at war in Germany. These religious wars ended in 1555 with the Peace of Augsburg. According to this treaty, each prince within the Holy Roman Empire could determine the religion of his subjects.
The Peace of Augsburg was a major victory for Protestantism. Christian unity was at an end, and not only in Germany. As you will learn next, by this time a number of other Protestant churches had sprung up in northern Europe. (Caption)
At the Diet of Worms, Charles V declared Luther a heretic and forbade the printing of his writings. (Vocabulary)
denomination a particular religious grouping within a larger faith; for example, the Lutheran church is a denomination of Christianity Page 354
31.5 Other Early Leaders of the Reformation
The movement begun by Martin Luther soon swept across much of Europe. Many people who were dismayed by abuses in the church remained loyal Catholics. Others, however, were attracted to new forms of the Christian faith. The printing press helped spread new ideas, as well as translations of the Bible, faster than ever before. In addition, government leaders had learned from Luther’s experience that they could win religious independence from the church. The Reformation succeeded most where rulers embraced Protestant faiths.
Many reformers contributed to the spread of Protestantism. Let’s take a look at four early leaders of the Reformation.
Huldrych Zwingli (1484–1531)Huldrych Zwingli was a Catholic priest in Zurich, Switzerland. Zwingli was influenced by both Erasmus and Luther. After reading Luther’s work, he persuaded the local government to ban any form of worship that was not based on the Bible. In 1523, Zurich declared its independence from the authority of the local Catholic bishop.
Zwingli wanted Christians to focus solely on the Bible. He attacked the worship of relics, saints, and images. In Zwinglian churches, there were no religious statues or paintings. Services were very simple, without music or singing.
Zwingli took his ideas to other Swiss cities. In 1531, war broke out between his followers and Swiss Catholics. Zwingli died in the war, but the new church lived on.
John Calvin (1509–1564) In the late 1530s, John Calvin, a French humanist, started another Protestant branch in Geneva, Switzerland. His book, Institutes of the Christian Religion, became one of the most influential works of the Reformation.
Calvin emphasized that salvation came only from God’s grace. He said that the “saved” whom God elected (chose) lived according to strict standards. He believed firmly in hard work and thrift (the careful use of money). Success in business, he taught, was a sign of God’s grace. Calvin tried to establish a Christian state in Geneva that would be ruled by God through the Calvinist Church. (Caption)
Booksellers helped to spread the ideas of the Reformation by selling books and pamphlets in public marketplaces. Page 355
Calvin influenced many other reformers. One of them was John Knox, a Scotsman who lived in Geneva for a time. Knox led the Protestant reform that established the Presbyterian Church in Scotland.
King Henry VIII (1491–1547) England’s Protestant Reformation was led by King Henry VIII. In 1534, Henry formed the Church of England (also called the Anglican Church), with himself as its head.
Unlike Luther and Calvin, King Henry did not have major disagreements with Catholic teachings. His reasons for breaking with the church were personal and political. On a personal level, he wanted to end his first marriage, but the pope had denied him a divorce. On a political level, he no longer wanted to share power and wealth with the church. In 1536, Henry closed down Catholic monasteries in England and took their riches.
William Tyndale (About 1491–1536) William Tyndale was an English priest, scholar, and writer. Tyndale traveled to Germany and met Martin Luther. His views became more and more Protestant. He attacked corruption in the Catholic Church and defended the English Reformation. After being arrested by Catholic authorities in the city of Antwerp (in present-day Belgium), he spent over a year in prison. In 1536, he was burned at the stake.
Tyndale was especially important for his translations of books from the Bible. To spread knowledge of the Bible, he translated the New Testament, and parts of the Old Testament, into English. In the early 1600s, his work was used in the preparation of the King James, or Authorized, Version of the Bible. Famed for its beautiful language, the King James Bible had an enormous influence on English worship and literature. 31.6 Chapter Summary
In this chapter, you learned how the Reformation began. By the Late Middle Ages, the Catholic Church had been weakened by corruption and political struggles. Early reformers hoped to purify the church. Martin Luther, however, broke with the church completely. Luther started the first Protestant church. Other reformers soon followed.
In the next chapter, you’ll take a closer look at three Protestant faiths: Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anglicanism. You will also learn how the Catholic Church responded to the challenge of Protestantism. (Caption)
Writer and scholar Tyndale was burned at the stake for his Protestant views. (Vocabulary)
New Testament the second part of the Christian Bible, which includes the Gospels and other writings of the early Christian church
Old Testament the first part of the Christian Bible, corresponding to the Jewish Bible Page 357
The Spread and Impact of the Reformation (Caption)
Catholic leaders worked to strengthen the church in response to the Reformation. 32.1 Introduction
In the last chapter, you learned how the Reformation began. Now you’ll learn more about the Protestant churches that emerged in the 1500s. You’ll also explore the impact of the Reformation on the Catholic Church and on the history of Europe.
As Protestantism spread, it branched out in a number of directions. By the start of the 1600s, there were many different Christian churches in Europe.
Each Protestant sect, or group, had its own beliefs and practices. But all Protestants had much in common. They shared a belief in the Bible, individual conscience, and the importance of faith. They were also united in their desire to reform Christianity.
The growth of Protestantism helped to spur reform within the Catholic Church as well. This Catholic reform movement is called the Counter-Reformation. Church leaders worked to correct abuses. They clarified and defended Catholic teachings. They condemned what they saw as Protestant errors. They also tried to win back areas of Europe that had been lost to the church.
The many divisions among Christians led to a series of wars and persecutions (violent attacks on groups of people). Catholics fought Protestants, and Protestants fought one another. These struggles involved political, economic, and cultural differences as well as deep religious beliefs.
The Reformation brought much strife to Europe, but it also created many new forms of the Christian faith. In this chapter, you’ll learn more about the varieties of Protestantism by exploring the beliefs and practices of three important sects: Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anglicanism. Next you’ll learn about the Catholic Counter-Reformation. Finally, you’ll look at some of the lasting effects of the Reformation. (Caption)
Use this illustration as a graphic organizer to discover the origins, beliefs, and practices of three Protestant churches of the Reformation. Page 358
The first major Protestant sect was Lutheranism. As you learned in Chapter 31, Lutheranism began in Germany after Martin Luther was excommunicated by the Catholic Church in 1521.
Luther was a Catholic priest and scholar. He taught scripture and theology (the study of religious truth) at the University of Wittenberg. As he studied the Bible, Luther became troubled. He could not find a basis in the Bible for many church teachings and practices. He was also upset about corruption in the church, especially the sale of indulgences.
Luther tried to work out his differences with the church. But after his views were condemned, he started the movement that became Lutheranism.
Beliefs About Sin and SalvationLuther and his followers disagreed with the Catholic Church about sin and salvation. Catholics believed that people earned salvation by following the teachings and practices of the church. Taking part in the sacraments was essential. For example, the sacrament of baptism wiped away original sin. In Christian belief, this was the sinful state passed on to all people by Adam, the first man created by God in the Bible. Once they were baptized, people needed to pray, take the sacraments, follow rules laid down by the church, and perform good works.
Lutherans denied that people could do anything to earn their salvation. Salvation, they said, was God’s gift, which people received in faith. People would be “justified,” or saved, if they sincerely believed in Jesus Christ, were sorry for their sins, and accepted the words of the (Caption)
The Augsburg Confession, or statement of faith, was prepared by German reformer Melanchthon in 1530 with Luther’s approval. The Confession spelled out Lutheran beliefs. In its modern form, it is the basis of Lutheranism for millions of people around the world. (Vocabulary)
scripture sacred writings; in Christianity, the Bible
original sin in Christian belief, the sinful state into which all people are born Page 359
Bible as truth. Luther called this “justification by faith.” Those who have faith perform good works and avoid sin because God commands them to, not in order to earn salvation.
Ultimate Source of Authority Lutherans rejected traditional sources of religious authority, such as church councils and the pope. They believed that the Bible was the only true source of religious guidance. Reading the Bible was the only way to learn how to lead a good life and gain faith in God. Lutherans published the Bible in several languages so that people could read it for themselves.
Rituals and Worship Lutheran church services combined Catholic practices with new Lutheran ones. Lutherans met in church buildings that had originally been Catholic. Like Catholics, they used an altar, candles, and a crucifix (a representation of Jesus on a cross).
In many ways, Lutheran services resembled the Catholic mass. The services included Holy Communion (the Eucharist), Bible readings, and sermons, in which clergy explained the day’s lesson from the Bible. Like Catholics, Lutherans sang hymns. Luther believed in the power of music. He wrote hymns for his followers to sing. He used German words and often set hymns to popular tunes so everyone could sing them.
Other parts of Lutheran worship were different from Catholic practice. Prayers were written and spoken in German, not in Latin, so that everyone could take part. Instead of having seven sacraments, as Catholics did, Lutherans had just two: baptism and the Eucharist. Luther believed that these were the only two sacraments that are clearly named in the Bible.
Community Life Luther gave his followers certain rules for how to live. Over time, he preached less about the Bible. He began to put more importance on strict discipline and strong families. He said that fathers should teach their children religion by having them pray before meals and before bed. “Unless they [pray],” he said, “they should be given neither food nor drink.” He also thought that women should get married and give birth to as many children as possible. He believed that these rules would help Lutheran communities to grow and to be strong.
Unlike Catholic priests, Lutheran ministers (clergy) were free to marry. Luther himself married a former nun. (Caption)
This painting of a Reformation church shows Lutheran clergy ministering the sacraments of baptism (far left) and the Eucharist (center). Luther preaches from the altar at right. (Vocabulary)
Holy Communion in Christian ritual, the sharing of bread and wine that has been consecrated by a priest or minister (also called the Eucharist) Page 360
Calvinism was founded by John Calvin, a French humanist who did his most influential work in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1541, Calvin took over the leadership of the church reform movement in Geneva. He tried to make Geneva a model Christian state.
Beliefs About Sin and Salvation Calvinists agreed with Lutherans that people depended entirely upon God to be saved. No one deserved salvation, and no one could “force” God to grant salvation by doing good works. Instead, God chose certain people—the “elect”—to be saved and to enjoy eternal life. Religious faith and salvation were God’s gifts to the elect. Everyone else was doomed to spend eternity in hell.
Calvin maintained that God knew from the beginning of time who would be saved and who would be condemned. This idea is called predestination. There was nothing people could do to change their destiny. Everything, Calvin said, is under God’s control.
Calvinists believed that the elect could be known by their actions. The world, they believed, was full of opportunities to sin. But only people who were destined not to be saved would actually sin. Good behavior showed that a person was one of the elect who was destined for heaven. The reason for good behavior was to honor God, not to “buy” one’s salvation.
Calvinists had many strict rules defining what good behavior was. For example, singing, dancing, playing cards, and wearing fancy clothing were all forbidden. Many people followed these rules to show that they believed they were saved.
Ultimate Source of Authority Like Lutherans, Calvinists thought that the Bible was the only true source of religious guidance. Part of the task of church leaders was to interpret the Bible and make laws from it. Calvinists believed that all of life should be lived accord- (Caption)
John Calvin led a Reformation church in Geneva, Switzerland. Calvinists lived by strict rules to help them be good Christians. (Vocabulary)
predestination the belief that the fate of each soul was decided by God at the beginning of time Page 361
ing to God’s law. Consequently, in a Calvinist state, religious rules also became laws for the government. Anyone who sinned was also committing a crime. A lawbreaker was punished first by Calvinist clergy and then by the local court system. Sins such as blasphemy (showing disrespect to God) were punished as serious crimes.
Rituals and WorshipCalvinist churchgoers attended services up to five times a week. Services included sermons that lasted for hours. The sermons explained how to live according to the Bible.
Calvinist church buildings showed Calvin’s belief in simplicity. Churches were paneled in plain wood, and people sat on long wooden benches. There were no paintings, statues, or stained glass windows. The minister preached from a pulpit in the middle of the room. Men sat on one side, and women and children sat on the other side. Children had to be ready to answer questions from the minister at a moment’s notice. Failure to answer correctly would bring shame or even punishment.
Like Lutherans, Calvinists used only the two sacraments they found in the Bible: baptism and the Eucharist, or Communion. Calvinists were not allowed to sing any words except those found in the Bible. At services, they sang verses from the Bible set to popular tunes. Some Bible songs had new melodies written for them. These verses could also be sung during prayers at home.
Community Life Calvinists believed that each community should be a theocracy, or a state governed by God through religious leaders. Calvinists had a duty to try to establish communities in which church and state were united.
Calvinist communities had strict laws based on the Bible. Parents could name babies only certain Christian names from the Bible. Guests at local inns had to be in bed by nine o’clock at night. They were not allowed to swear, dance, play cards, or insult anyone else at the inn. Inn owners had to report anyone who broke these rules. The same rules applied to people in their homes. Church leaders could inspect homes yearly to see whether families were living by the strict Calvinist laws. Offenders were punished severely. Some were even banished from their hometowns. (Caption)
Calvinist churches were simple and practical with no decorations. (Vocabulary)
blasphemy an act of disrespect toward God
pulpit a platform or other structure in a church from which a priest or minister preaches
theocracy a government or state in which God is the supreme ruler and religious officials govern in God’s name Page 362
Anglicanism was founded in 1534 by King Henry VIII in England. Recall from the last chapter that Henry was not a religious reformer like Luther or Calvin. Instead, he broke away from the Catholic Church for political and personal reasons.
Politically, Henry did not want to share either his power or his kingdom’s wealth with the church. Personally, he wanted to get a divorce so that he could marry another woman, Anne Boleyn. Not only was he fascinated with Anne, but he wanted a son for an heir, and he and his wife had failed to have a male child.
When the pope refused to grant permission for a divorce, Henry took matters into his own hands. He had Parliament, England’s lawmaking body, declare him the head of the English church. So began the Church of England, or Anglican Church, with the king at its head.
Under Henry, the Church of England greatly resembled the Catholic Church. Over time, it blended elements of Catholicism and Protestantism.
Beliefs About Sin and Salvation Anglican beliefs had much in common with those of the Catholic Church. Like Catholics, Anglicans believed that baptism washed away original sin and began the Christian life. Anglicans, however, were also influenced by Protestant ideas. Unlike Catholics, they accepted Luther’s idea of justification by faith. To go to heaven, all people needed was to believe in God, regret their sins, and receive God’s mercy.
Anglicans believed that people should have privacy in how they practiced religion. It was up to individuals to figure out how to live by their religious beliefs.
Ultimate Source of Authority Anglicans based their beliefs on the Bible. However, the English monarch, as head of the church, was the main interpreter of the Bible’s meaning. The highest-ranking bishop in England, the Archbishop of Canterbury, helped the monarch with this task.
Beneath the archbishop, other clergy helped spread the monarch’s ideas about religion. In practice, local clergy and churchgoers could interpret church beliefs in their own ways as long as they were loyal to the king or queen. (Caption)
Despite the pope’s refusal to grant Henry VIII a divorce from his first wife, Henry secretly married his second wife, Anne Boleyn, in early 1533. Their marriage signaled Henry’s clear break with the Catholic Church. Page 363
Rituals and Worship Anglican services had similarities to both Catholic and Lutheran services. Two versions of the Anglican Church service developed. The High Church service was much like the Catholic mass and very formal. The Low Church service was similar to the Lutheran service. The style of Low Church services varied from place to place, depending on the beliefs of the local pastor, or minister.
Anglican services were held in former Catholic church buildings. Most of the paintings, statues, and other decorations were removed. The inside of each church was painted white, and the Ten Commandments were painted on a plain white wall. Churchgoers sang simple hymns with English words and easy melodies. The hymns were accompanied by musical instruments.
Like other Protestant groups, Anglicans used only two sacraments: baptism and the Eucharist. English slowly replaced Latin in Anglican services. Under King Edward VI, an official prayer book, the Book of Common Prayer, was published. It provided English-language prayers for services and morning and evening prayers. It also expressed the basic ideas of Anglican doctrine. In the early 1600s, King James I had a committee of scholars prepare a new English translation of the Bible, known as the Authorized Version, or the King James Version.
Community Life Anglican communities were not all alike. High Church communities were made up mostly of wealthy people. Low Church communities were usually made up of middle-class and working-class people.
Henry VIII’s daughter, Queen Elizabeth I, said that no one should be forced to believe or practice a particular kind of Anglicanism. People could choose how to worship as long as they obeyed the laws of England and were loyal to the monarch. Heresy ceased to be a crime. However, citizens had to take care not to attack the monarch or the Anglican Church’s place as the official church of England. (Caption)
Baptism and the Eucharist are the only two sacraments mentioned in the Bible. Page 364
32.5 The Catholic Response: The Counter-Reformation
As Protestantism spread, the Catholic Church responded with a program of serious reform. It clarified its teachings, corrected abuses, and tried to win people back to Catholicism. This movement within the Catholic Church is called the Counter-Reformation.
The Council of Trent A major part of the Counter-Reformation was the Council of Trent. The council was a meeting of church leaders that began in Trent, Italy, in 1545. Pope Paul III summoned the council to combat corruption in the church and to fight Protestantism. The council continued its work in more than 20 sessions over the next 18 years.
In response to Protestant ideas, the council gave a more precise statement of Catholic teachings. It rejected predestination, declaring that individuals do have a role to play in deciding the fate of their souls. The council agreed with Protestants that faith was important and that salvation was God’s gift. But it rejected justification by faith alone. The council insisted that faith, good works, and the sacraments were all necessary for salvation. It reaffirmed the Catholic belief in seven sacraments.
The council acknowledged the importance of the Bible. It insisted, however, on the church’s authority to interpret the Bible. It said that the Latin Bible was the only official scripture.
Besides stating Catholic teachings, the council took action to make needed changes in the church. It required better education and training of clergy. It called for priests and bishops to spend more time preaching. It corrected many of the abuses involving money and church offices. And it set down rules for church services so that they would be more alike everywhere.
The Council of Trent went a long way toward achieving the goals of Pope Paul III. The council’s work brought a higher standard of morality to the church’s clergy and leadership. Its statements of Catholic belief and practices helped unify the church. The reformed church was better able to compete with Protestantism for the loyalties of Christians.
Catholic Reformers and Missionaries The spirit of reform brought new life to the Catholic Church. Many individuals and groups helped to reform the church and spread its message. For example, Teresa of Avila, a nun and mystic, started a new religious order in Spain and helped reform the lives of priests and nuns. Her example and writings inspired many Catholics to return to the values taught by Jesus. (Caption)
The Jesuits became the most important new religious order of the Counter-Reformation. In this 16th-century painting, Ignatius of Loyola kneels before Pope Paul III, who officially recognized the Jesuits in 1540. Page 365
Other new orders were formed to preach, to educate people, and to perform services such as feeding the poor. The most important of these orders was the Society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits.
The Jesuits were founded by Ignatius of Loyola, a Spanish nobleman. As a young soldier Ignatius had his leg shattered by a cannonball in a battle. While he was recovering, he read about the lives of saints. He vowed to become a “soldier for Jesus.”
After years of study, Ignatius started the order that became the Jesuits. The Jesuits were dedicated teachers and