Title: Chapter 21 The Revolution in Politics 1775-1815 Answer key Liberty-and-Equality

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Title: Chapter 21 The Revolution in Politics 1775-1815

Answer key


  1. What sparked the Era of Revolution?

Ideas of liberty and equality

  1. During the Era of Revolution, list the freedoms and demands that the people called for?

  1. Freedom of worship

  2. End to censorship

  3. Freedom from unjust laws

  1. Examine the quotation on p692 state using your own words what the ”Declaration of the Rights of Man”, issued at the beginning of the French Revolution proclaimed?

Citizen’s rights should not be limited as long as they did not harm another person

  1. Why in the context of 18th century monarchical and absolutist form of government were the revolutionary idea of equality and liberty viewed as radical?

Prior to this the king held absolute power and people did not have a say in making the laws the call for liberty and equality was a call for self-determination that is the right of the people to make the laws. These ideas challenged the king’s absolute power.

  1. Explain what did the idea of equality meant for all classes of people?

No special privileges

  1. In regards to the ideas of liberty and equality list two established distinctions accepted by the elite liberals?

  1. Equality between men and women not practical especially politically

  2. Did not believe in economic equality but believed everyone should have an equal chance by law to gain wealth

  1. Explain what 18th century French liberals mainly criticized?

Criticized laws and privileges that caused economic inequality

The Roots of Liberalism (p-692)

8. Explain where the roots of the idea of Liberalism took shape? (Use bullet points /3 key points)

-Roots in Western \History-Ancient Greeks and Judaeo-Christian’s


-End 17century-18th Century during the Era of Enlightenment

  1. What were the main ideas established during the Enlightenment Era? (Bullet points-Facts)

-Faith in science, rational, and progress

-Better government

  1. Compare and Contrast the following two Enlighten figures and their ideas when it came to people and government;

  1. John Locke; personal freedom, legal equality, the role of the government was to protect the natural rights of life, liberty and private property

  1. Montesquieu: protecting liberty against despotism

The Attraction of Liberalism

  1. Why did the Bourgeoisie favour representative institutions?

Believed they could protect their liberty and interest

  1. Explain how a Representative type government different from a Democracy?

Democracy all people had a say in government

Representative government only people who were well educated and owned property were represented in government

  1. Why was Democracy seen as a type of, “Mob Rule”?

All people had a say in government did not have to be well educated

  1. Provide two reasons why Liberalism lacked strong popular support?

  1. Regular people were more concerned about feeding themselves and their family rather than political concerns

  2. Liberals wanted to a abolish institutes that were traditional and precious to the regular people

The American Revolution

  1. Why did some historians consider the American Revolution a “Radical Revolution”?

Fought on the ideas of liberty and equality and democracy

  1. Explain what is meant by the following quotation, “Taxation without representation is tyranny”?

British government is acting as a tyrant by taxing the American colonists without their consent

  1. Explain how British North America was different from homeland England?(4 significant facts)

-No powerful church existed freedom of religion

-Right to vote extended in the colonies

-Greater political equality

-Greater social and economic equality-no hereditary nobility/ no serf-population

  1. Why was Thomas Paine a significant figure in the revolutionary movement?

Freedom and a republican government

  1. During the 18th century explain what the idea of, “Classical Liberalism” meant?(3 key significant facts)

-Individual liberty political safeguards

-Representative government


  1. In regards to the American Revolution, explain what the following quotation means, “Radicalism of liberal revolution in America was primarily legal and political not economic or social”?

The above quotation means that the liberal revolution that occurred within America, i.e. the revolution for liberty and equality, was fought mainly for legal and political reasons not for economic or social reasons.

I agree with the above quotation that is that the colonists fight for freedom and equality was more for legal and political reasons rather than economic reasons. The fight began as an economic fight in that the American colonist were angry that the king was taxing them, but they were angry not so much because of the taxes but because they had no legal or political say in the passing of the taxation law. The colonist was angry because they did not have any colonial representatives representing their position on the issue of taxes in British Parliament. They were informed that they had virtual representation in that because they were subjects of the king the members of the British Parliament did represent them. The colonist disagreed and thus the revolution was mainly for political and legal reasons.

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