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(your creation, with a transitional word or phrase) =

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1 (your creation, with a transitional word or phrase) = SHINGLES


2 (your further development of the paragraph’s main emphasis) = ROOF


3 (historian’s evidence or primary source is examined and cited here. This backs you up!) = WALLS


4 (your analysis and/or account of what that evidence was and why it was important) = ENTIRE HOUSE---it all rests on your overall presentation of what you have examined.

THAT MEANS: first plainly state your ideas. Then, move on to support it with evidence from historians or primary documents. Think of this metaphor: You are the roof (your ideas are on top of everyone else's supports) and other historians and primary documents are the walls (they hold you up).

*At least the first time, be sure to introduce (or at least acknowledge the relevance of) your sources/authorities; for example, in an essay on analyzing the ineffectiveness of the Nazi regime’s preparation against the Allied D-Day invasion in 1944, I would write:
Stephen Ambrose, the noted WWII historian and biographer, argued that “the Atlantic Wall must therefore be regarded as one of the greatest blunders in military history” (Ambrose, 577).

*My point is for you to compose meaningful topic sentences and then prove/expound/support them with evidence and reasoning.

6. UNDERLINE YOUR THESIS STATEMENT. This will focus you (and the reader) upon your main point. 

7. MLA (or another method) is MANDATORY. Please LEARN it and USE it. For example, after your quoted

AND/OR paraphrased sentence(s) put (Author’s last name, page number) to complete an in text citation.

8. Typically, you should have at least one in text citation per paragraph. Rarely should you use a cited

statement as a topic sentence. Use transitional words/phrases like "On the other hand," "Although,"

"Furthermore," "In addition to" 

9. Large quotes (block quotes of more than 1 or 2 sentences) obscure your understanding and hide your style.

Avoid them. Only directly quote what you can't say better as a paraphrasing. Both ways require in text

citations. Don’t quote too much from one source in one paragraph. Rely on several sources, when you can.

******Nothing in historical or scholarly writing is self-evident, so prove it. Use cogent explanations, sufficient evidence, and a variety of reliable resources to help you do so.****** I hope these "Writing Hints" help you. Print and use them. 

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