Analyze the extent to which conservatives in continental Europe were successful in achieving their goals in the years between 1815 and 1851. Draw examples from at least two states.
The question is addressing the success of conservative governments in comparison to liberal uprisings in Europe during the time period of 1815-1851. To answer this question, we need to find out what triggered the conservative mindset of continental Europe, how conservatism overcame liberal uprisings, and in doing so, how it achieved its purpose.
Timeline of Conservative Achievements
1789-1799: French Revolution
Led to unstable society (Committee of Public Safety and the Reign of Terror led by Robespierre). Resulted in the Thermidorian Reaction
1790: Edmund Burke publishes Reforms on the Revolutions in France
Summed up England’s point of view of the French Revolution calling it an anarchist state with no stability. Advocated conservatism to restore order.
1804: Napoleon declares himself emperor of France
Gave himself absolute power and cast away the First Republic of France.
1814: Congress of Vienna
Saw the instability and chaos inflicted upon Europe by the French Revolution. Main goal was to balance powers of European states and to maintain that balance through conservative governments.
Created the Concert of Europe (Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria) as a model of conservative states.
1819: Peterloo Massacre
English army sent to St. Peter’s Field to disrupt protests for better working conditions among urban laborers, killing and injuring many in the process. Marks a conservative stand against a liberal uprising.
1819: Six Acts were passed
Forbade unauthorized public meetings, sped up the trials of political agitators, and increased newspaper and stamp taxes.
1819: Metternich issues Carlsbad Decrees
Broke up the liberal group of German students trying to unify the nation. Also censored press.
1825: Decembrist Revolt in Russia
Russian citizens demanded a constitutional government and abolition of serfdom only to be put down by Nicholas I’s army.
1848: French Revolution
Ends with former President Louis Napoleon declaring himself Emperor Napoleon III.
1848: Italian Revolution
Failed liberal attempts to unify the country by Mazzini and Garibaldi leads to Cavour to unite the nation through realism and a conservative state under Victor Manuel.
1848: German Revolution
Liberalism mixed with nationalism as citizens of the German Revolution wanted a unified state. The Frankfurt Parliament drafted a constitution for King Frederick William IV only for it to be rejected.
During the early 1800's, idealistic nationalism and liberalism threatened the conservative order. The conservative backlash from 1815 to 1851 was seen to be successful in Austria, where the strong conservative movement was lead by Metternich, but less successful in France, where Revolutions in 1830 and 1848 made it hard for conservatism to take hold.
From 1815 to 1851, Europe saw a backlash of conservative reform as a result of the nationalist movements of the late 1700's. The conservative movement is seen in Austria and Prussia dominating the Congress of Vienna.
The goals of the Congress of Vienna were to establish legitimacy in the governing system of continental Europe and to maintain a balance of power; nationalism and liberalism threatened the success of both goals.
The strongest surge of conservative idealism is seen in Austria, led by Prince Metternich.
French government was fragile, and it could not maintain a conservative government as well as other European powerhouses.
The cause of a conservative continent of Europe was due to liberalism failing to meet the standards of a stable government.
The liberal idea of German unification was continuously held in check by the conservative backlash from the Congress of Vienna.
The conservatives of Europe succeeded in creating an era between 1815 and 1851 without war.
Britain’s conservatives were not very somewhat successful. The Chartist movement was going on in Britain. The movement was largely supported by the people in Britain. The conservative Tory government tried to weaken liberals in Britain by outlawing unions and events like the Peterloo Massacre tried to stop the movement. Eventually, more people in Britain would support the movement and more people would be able to vote.
France’s conservatives were successful for a short time. The rise of ultra royalists and the returned monarchy would rule France with conservative ideas, before the Second French Revolution. The second republic in France became conservative in response to the workers in France rebelling, which would lead to the June Days. France would later be ruled by Louis Napoleon which would dissolve the Second Republic and name himself president.
German conservatives in Austria would be successful. Klemens von Metternich was a successful Conservative who was a very important leader in the Congress of Vienna and politician in Austria. The passing of the Carlsbad decree would stop nationalism in the German states for a period of time.
The necessary steps to answer the question is researching Conservatism during 1815 to 1851, Finding countries in this period where conservatives were in power, research which countries where conservatives were successful, or not successful and finding specific examples from these countries.
The conservatives initially triumphed in a reactionary manner during the century following 1815. There were no major wars for 100 years. In France, the Bourbon Kings were restored in the form of Louis XVIII who ruled 1814 – 1824. Louis issued a new constitutional charter in 1814 establishing a constitutional monarchy. The monarchy was in place for 10 years until Charles X became leader of France.
When Germany wanted to unite, Metternich passed Carlsbad Decrees in September. In so doing, he dissolved nationalistic gymnastic clubs and censored free thought at the nation’s universities.
Additionally, these decrees ordered press censorship. They were successful at repressing liberal and nationalist ideas in Germany until 1848.
The conservatives of Europe succeeded in creating an era between 1815 and 1914 without war.
FRQ #2 Jackie Marie
The question is asking us to find similarities and differences in Metternich and Bismarck’s political ideas and accomplishments.
Step 1: Understand who Metternich and Bismarck are, their positions in power, what they believe, and support. Step 2: How did either deal with other countries in war and in peace [and in neutrality, if any time should it happen]? Step 3: Did they establish anything between countries such as: an embargo, treaty, declared war, etc.? Step 4: What happened after they did said thing to said country? Step 5: How did Metternich and Bismarck’s actions affect Prussia/Germany and (if they managed to live through it or still maintain power) did they do anything to change their country’s situation? Timeline
1620- 30 years war
1789- The French Revolution
1799- Napoleon comes to power
1806- Holy Roman Empire comes to an end
1809- Austrian War
1809- Metternich becomes prime minister of Prussia
1861- Austro-Prussian War: Bismarck is appointed prime minister
As leaders, Otto von Bismarck and Austrian Prince Metternich sought political goals and powerful ambitions. Both being conservative leaders, they took hold of the reigns in accomplishing their priorities. Yet, they differed as Metternich dealt with international affairs and Bismarck kept his focus on Germany’s unification.
Focused on maintaining their place, both political figures were determined to keep conservatism alive.
As both Bismark and Metternich centralized their goal nationally, one was more international than the other.
Taking hold of their position, Bismarck and Metternich were set on going through with their goals, which some were in fact, successful.
Metternich sought to prevent any liberal actions such as revolutions. Bismarck, a realpolitik, led the German unification movement, a liberal movement. While both had different political beliefs and actions, both tried to maintain peace throughout Europe
Metternich and Bismarck both believed in an equal power throughout Europe and had similar “real politick” ideas.
Metternich was not for big changes in Europe, while Bismarck was pushing for new political reforms and big, fast changes like uniting
Metternich was a devoted servant of the Hapsburg emperor along with Britain’s viscount Casttereagh, the chief of architecture of Vienna settlement. It was Metternich who seemed to experience chief control over the forces of European reaction.
For Metternich, the recognition of the political rights and aspirations of any of the various national groups wailed mean the probable dissolution of the empire.
The Congress of Vienna had created the German confederation to replace the defunct Holy Roman Empire. Austria was determined to prevent any movement toward constitutionalism.
Bismarck was against colonizing Africa and imperialism because he wanted to keep focus on problems in Europe. Metternich was also focused on European issues and did not partake in many global issues.
Metternich was against liberal movements and large changes. He tried to suppress any liberal movement in the Congress of Vienna. He was a major conservative. Bismarck, a real politick, took part in large change movements such as the unification of Germany.
While both Metternich and Bismarck had different political views and actions, they both tried to preserve peace through the balance of powers.
During Bismarck’s time in power he tries to increase nationalistic power in German states and Prussia to unite Germany. While Metternich was more focused on Europe as a whole, making sure outbreaks like the French Revolution do not happen again, or hostile takeovers like reign of Napoleon.
In the end, Metternich and Bismarck both manipulated other countries and people to get what they wanted and needed to push their bills, which made both leaders very successful.
FRQ Group Assignment #2
Ulyana, Angel, Danah, and Mabel
Identify the social and economic factors in preindustrial England that explain why England was the first country to industrialize
The question asks why England was the first country to industrialize. The necessary to steps to answer the question is to use some of your background knowledge that we learned in class like: they had natural resources like coal and iron and rivers, and England is an island and didn't have and as many wars as other countries. Then you would use the timeline to state that because of farming advances there was an abundance of food which led to population growth. You would have to back the statement up with examples. After that you would say that because of the population growth people were moving to the cities, and because people needed jobs and products had to be developed quicker and at big amounts, it led to the industrialization of England. You would have to space all those out into 3 body paragraphs and finish with a conclusion summarizing all the facts used.
1563 Rev. William Lee, born at Woodborough near Nottingham, invents the Stocking Frame, a mechanical device for knitting stockings.
1708 Jethro Tull's mechanical seed sower permits large-scale planting in rows, for easier cultivation between the rows.
1709 Abraham Darby uses coke to smelt iron ore, replacing wood and charcoal as fuel.
1712 Thomas Newcomen builds first commercially successful steam engine. Which is able to keep deep coal mines clear of water, becoming the first significant power source other than wind and water.
1733 John Kay's flying shuttle is invented.
1758 First threshing machine.
1761 James Brindley's Bridgewater Canal opens. Barges carry coal from Worsley to Manchester.
1765 James Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny, automating weaving the warp (in the weaving of cloth).
1769 Arkwright's water powered frame automates the weft.
1772 Bridgewater Canal extended to the Mersey, thus connecting with Liverpool. Its success kicks off extensive canal construction ("canal mania").
1775 Watt builds the steam engine, much more efficient than the Newcomen’s version.
1777 Grand Trunk Canal establishes a cross-England route connecting the Mersey to the Trent and connecting the industrial Midlands to the ports of Bristol, Liverpool, and Hull.
1779 First steam powered mills. Crompton's "mule" combines Hargreaves' and Arkwright's machines, fully automating the weaving process.
1786 Arkwright puts a Watt engine in the Albion cotton mill, Blackfriars Bridge, London.
1787 Cartwright builds a power loom.
1789 Thames-Severn Canal links the Thames to the Bristol Channel.
1792 William Murdock (James Watt's assistant) lights his home with coal gas.
1793 Eli Whitney develops his cotton gin (a device to clean raw cotton).
1801 Robert Trevithick demonstrates a steam locomotive.
1807 Robert Fulton's Clermont first successful steamboat is launched.
1811-15 Luddite riots: laborers attack factories and break up the machines they fear will replace them.
1821 Faraday demonstrates electro-magnetic rotation, the principle of the electric motor.
1825 Marc Brunel invents a tunneling shield, making subaqueous tunneling possible.
1826-42 Brunel builds the first subaqueous tunnel, under the Thames.
1827 Berkeley Ship Canal connects Sharpness (on the Severn) to Gloucester.
1830 The Liverpool and Manchester Railway begins first regular commercial rail service.
1831 Faraday discovers electro-magnetic current, making possible generators and electric engines.
1834 Charles Babbage develops his analytic engine—the forerunner of the computer. Fox Talbot produces photographs.
1837 Morse develops the telegraph and Morse Code. Great Western is the first ocean-going steamship.
1838 Daguerre perfects the Daguerreotype.
1839 Fox Talbot introduces photographic paper.
1843 Great Britain launches first large, iron, screw-propelled steamship.
1846 Pneumatic tire patented First telegraph cable laid under the Channel.
1849 Monier develops reinforced concrete.
1850 Petrol (gasoline) refined is first used.
1851 Singer invents first practical sewing machine. 1853 Elisha Otis invents the elevator safety brake making skyscrapers possible
1854 Bessemer invents steel converter.
1855 Regius Chair of Technology founded at Edinburgh.
1857 Pasteur begins his experiments with fermentation.
1858 First Trans-Atlantic Cable completed Cathode rays discovered.
1859 Charles Darwin publishes his book, The Origin of Species. Etienne Lenoir demonstrates the first successful gasoline engine.
1863 Siemens-Martin open hearth process (along with the Bessemer converter) makes steel available in bulk. Steel begins to replace iron in building: steel framing and reinforced concrete make possible "curtain-wall" architecture—i.e., the skyscraper.
1867 Alfred Nobel produces dynamite, the first high explosive which can be safely handled.
1873 Christopher Sholes invents the Remington typewriter. James Clerk Maxwell states the laws of electro-magnetic radiation.
1876 Bell invents the telephone.
1877 Edison invents the phonograph.
1878 Microphone invented.
1879 Edison invents the incandescent lamp.
1884 Maxim invents the machine gun, making possible mass slaughter and beginning the mechanization of warfare.
1885 Benz develops first automobile to run on internal- combustion engine.
1888 Hertz produces radio waves.
1892 Rudolf Diesel invents his namesake.
1895 The Lumière brothers develop Cinematograph. Roentgen discovers X-rays.
1896 Marconi patents wireless telegraph.
1897 Joseph Thomson discovers particles smaller than atoms.
1899 Aspirin invented.
1900 The first Zeppelin built.
Eight Pieces of Evidence:
England is an island which was rich in natural resources to supply the need for coal and steam power, as well as water travel.
Due to its isolation during the revolutions that spread across Europe, England gained political stability.
Since it had a more stabilized government then other European countries, economic stability followed, allowing a flourishing community to thrive.
Agricultural revolution of the eighteenth century, which brought new methods of farming and stock breeding that led to a significant increase in food production, which in turn fed more people at lower prices with less labor, which allowed people did have the potential to buy manufactured goods.
England had a high concentration in urban population versus the rural, allowing factories to exploit a possible work force.
Many of the inventors and such of the time would go to England because of the social and intellectual freedom, allowing it to gain access to technology much earlier on.
England had enough consumers that were rich enough to afford the mass-produced goods that were being produced or imported, due to a rising middle class.
High numbers of unemployed people looking for jobs, which coincided with many factories springing up during the time, allowing a lot of people to actually work and help mass produce.
England has been at the forefront of technology and in the world’s view, despite it isolative qualities. There are many reasons why England was the first to become industrialized before the rest of Europe. One is the fact that, because it was an island, and thus away from the mainland of Europe, it wasn’t affected by the revolutions of the French and 1848, giving it a more stable lead over the rest of Europe. Another was because its large urban communities, which helped supply a need for workers in their factories. Add the fact that England was abundant in all the natural resources needed to help power an industrialized nation, then it becomes clear why they took the lead.
England was isolated during the turbulent years of revolution, eliciting a stability that the rest of Europe did not have.
Its large urban community gave the country a huge supply of workers in need of a job to the factories, which in turn, needed cheap labor.
England was rich in coal, water, and other natural resources, a complete must to sustain industrialization.
England has always been a nation of progress, which helped it become the first country to become industrialized before the rest of Europe. An agriculture revolution that helped strengthen their urban community and the nation as a whole, their intellectual freedom that allowed them to get breakthrough technology first, and of course, a huge onset of the rising middle class, who could actually afford the goods that they were mass producing. In combination, England would become a powerhouse to be reckoned with.
The agricultural revolution of the 18th century helped feed an entire nation, and strengthen the urban comminutes, which would be needed to produce workers for cheap labor.
Intellectual freedom and encouragement helped England get technology way before most of Europe.
A rising middle class that could actually afford the goods they were being massed produced help the economical stability.
Question: In February 1848, the middle classes and workers in France joined to overthrow the government of Louis Philippe. By June the two groups were at odds in their political, economic, and social thinking. Analyze what transpired to divide the groups and describe the consequences for French politics How to approach the question. What the question is asking here is what ended the unity between the two groups of in France, including the middle classes and the workers in 1848. The steps to answering this question and how the FRQ is going to be grouped is by first separating the paragraphs. One paragraph should include all the details pertaining to why the two groups decided to revolt in 1848 in the first place. Then it is necessary to why those two groups were joined forces in the first place, then explain what caused them to split. In the last paragraph what should be discussed is how France was effected by it. Explain how the revolution ended the constitutional monarchy reign of Louis Phillipe. And how Louis Napolean came and set up the French second republic. the consequence to that was that he later ended the republic by proclaiming himself as emperor. TIMELINE 1814- Louis XVIII ruled France while it was a constitutional monarchy 1814-1815: Congress of Vienna formed 1820: Louis XVIII's nephew (the Duke de Berry) assassinated 1824: Louis XVIII dies, Charles X becomes French king July 1830: Charles X passes "Four Ordinances" in France July 1830: July Revolution in France. Charles X abdicates, Louis Philippe becomes
French king 1845-47: Bad harvests took place throughout Europe, and the rise of food prices was bad
for the economy. • January 1848: Marx and Engels publish Communist Manifesto February 1848: February Revolution in Paris, barricades in the streets 1848: Louis Napoleon Bonaparte becomes President of France. THESIS STATEMENTS
1. The year of 1848 was one of the most significant years in the 19th century in terms of politics. There was national unrest of how Louis Phillipe was running his country through his constitutional monarchy. The working men and the men of the middle class were both groups tired of having a king and wanted a republic to be set up. After having over thrown Louis Phillipe, Louis Napoleon took his place with the creation of the second republic. however this turned out badly due to the fact that quickly after this Louis Napoleon declared himself the emperor of France and the consequences to that were that the men lost their rights gain from the republic of France. 2. "The enemy of my enemy is my ally." During the revolutions of 1848 the middle class and the workers joined forces in effort to overthrow the government of Louis Philippe. However by June they were not on such terms. The two groups were divided by politics, economic need, and social class. The workers were social republicans and wanted a social government whereas the middle class were political republicans who supported universal suffrage however this was the most radical step they were willing to take in terms of equality. The workers wanted money to simply be distributed more equally while the middle class solely wanted more to themselves. A republic would offer the workers workshops in which the workers could become more skilled and move up in society whereas the middle class didn't care about the workshops because they were already skilled and just wanted more power for themselves. The workers were the lowest on the totem pole so they wanted the betterment of everyone because no matter what they would be pulled up as well whereas the middle class was looking out for themselves in order to compete with the aristocracy and this was the last straw in which division was inevitable. EVIDENCE Suffrage: The lower bourgeoisie (middle class) and workers both wanted the right to vote. Louis-Philippe unfortunately was opposed to electoral reform, and made achieving universal suffrage impossible. The lower bourgeoisie and the workers proceeded and joined together and had reform banquets to talk about there need for reforms. Louis-Philippe did not like these banquets and cancelled them whenever possible.
Economy: There were bad harvests all overEuropearound this time. In France Louis-Philippe was doing nothing to help the starving poor. The drought caused food prices to rocket and while workers wages were low or non-existent. This cause food riots to take place.
Rural areas:In the 1840sFrancewas mostly rural country, with 76% of its population living in the countryside. The people in the countryside could barely support themselves, meaning a surplus was going to be expensive to those in the cities, which didn’t have much money to begin with. This will lead to riots and even more riots when Louis Philippe does nothing to help.
Policies (foreign): There was not enough military victories and people were frustrated with Louis-Philippe’s lack of power over international things and uprisings were breaking out all overFrancebecause of it.
Policies (domestic): The problem was that Louis-Philippe wasn’t doing anything to compromise with the peoples needs and were hardly and reforms taking place inFrance.
Socialism: Writers like Louis Blanc, Proudhon and Marx’s were all publishing their writings around this time. The main factor of Socialism was the rise of workers issues, things like low wages, long hours and poor working and living conditions. Because of the exposure of socialism ideas there were uprising inLyonsin 1831 and 1834.
Compare and Contrast political liberalism with political conservatism in the first half of the 19th century in Europe
What You Should Ask Yourself?
What is liberalism?
What is conservatism?
What was going on during this time period?
Who was involved?
*1793-Execution of Louis XVI: The execution of Louis XVI at the hands of radical democrats convinced most monarchs they could trust only aristocratic governments or governments of aristocrats in alliance with the wealthiest middle-class and professional people.
1814- Bourbon rule in France (monarchy restoration in France). The new king was a brother of Louis XVI.
1815-Concert of Europe (Congress of Vienna): The great powers (Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain) sought to maintain conservative domestic governments and regulate their international relations.
1815-War of Liberation: Fredrick William III promised form of constitutional government but went back on promise and created diets and exercised advisory functions
1819- England: Six Acts Attempted to prevent radical leaders from agitating and to give the authorities new powers.
1819-Germany: Carlsbad Decrees- It was a set of reactionary restrictions that provided for university inspectors and press censors of the student Burschenschaften after they killed Sand
1819-England: ThePeterloo Massacrewhere cavalry charged into a crowd of about 80,000 that demanded reform of parliamentary representation.
1820: Spanish Revolution
1825-Russia: Decembrist Revolt: Liberals wanted a constitutional government and abolition of serfdom
1827-France: Liberals gained seats in the Chamber of Deputies: This was part of the Charter in France which guaranteed most of the rights of Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens and promised not to challenged property rights
1829-Great Britain: Catholic Emancipation Act- Granted full political rights to Roman Catholics- Liberal measure for the conservative purpose of preserving order in Ireland
1830-Belgium: Authorities and propertied class try to set up government and then failed, and then British Prime Minister persuaded representatives of London to declare independence
1832- England: Reform Act of Parliament that introduced changed to electoral system of England and Wales
1848-Revolutions of 1848: Some were liberal because they demanded the protection of rights such as property and called for constitutions, representative governments, and economic structure.
1848-Realpolitik: triumph of nationalist goals by means of conservatism
During the first half of nineteenth century, two major conflicting ideologies were liberalism and conservatism. These ideologies are polar opposites but do have one thing in common which is the drive for what they believe is a better way; liberalism supports a representative government that protects the people who are deemed equal by law and has minimal interference in the economy, Conservatism on the other hand, supports legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and established churches and accepted gradual change.
Liberalism had challenged the conservative order established by the Congress of Vienna’s attempt to settle territorial disputes and French Revolution turmoil. Liberalist sought moderate political reform and a freer marker
Despite the challenges of liberalism , Conservatism(Conservatives) managed to remain in power due to their support in legitimate monarchies landed aristocracies, and established churches…etc
Conservatism and Liberalism, although very different, do have at least one similarity which is the drive to push for the way each believes government and society should be operated.
The Congress of Vienna established a dominant conservative political order in Europe. Conservatism supported monarchies, aristocracies, established churches, and favored gradual change. It was challenged by liberalism which, unlike conservatism, favored the middle class and more radical change. Both however were strongly concerned over the good and wellbeing of a country.
Conservatives supported the monarchy, aristocracy, church and the old ways of Europe.
Liberalists challenged conservatives and sought to reform Europe by supporting radical change with a representative government and minimal government interference.
Although they had their differences, conservatism and liberalism both wanted what they believed was best for their country.
Benjamin Constant (Liberal)
Swiss born French politician and writer
Wrote on politics and religion and on psychological novels
Although criticized the French revolution, works still tried to find a middle ground for monarchy and liberty.
Created many theories, such as a constitutional theory, which intended for royal power to be a neutral power to protect, balance, and restrain other excess powers.
Writings mostly portrayed self-sacrifice and warmth of human emotions for social living.
While pleading for individual liberty, he felt that egoism and self-interest were deficient as part of a true definition of individual liberty.
Work of Benjamin Constant
Written in 1806, published in 1815
Writing consists of principles that should guide institutions and politics into a liberal democracy
Highlights risks of despotism and defends the opposite power would be strictly limited in its function.
"The error of those who, in good faith in their love of freedom, gave the sovereignty of the people unlimited power comes from the way in which ideas are formed in politics. They saw in history a small number of men, or even one in possession of immense power, which was very hard, but their wrath is directed against the possessors of power, and not against the power itself. Instead of destroying it, they have thought that move." In the policy principles he sees in the idea of absolute sovereignty of the people developed by Rousseau "the most terrible of all auxiliary kinds of despotism."
Liberal Revolution of 1820
A Portuguese political revolutions that lasted from 1820 to 1826
After French defeat in 1814, Portugal experienced political turmoil
Porto, place of strong, dynamic bourgeoisie and liberal tradition was a great place for Liberal Revolution to being
Immediate return of royal court to continental Portugal to restored “metropolitan dignity.”
A constitutional monarchy to be set up in Portugal
Restore trade with Brazil
Prince Miguel managed to close parliament
Trigger 6 years of civil wars, which pitted him against his brother, Pedro IV of Portugal, head of liberal faction.
Reform Act 1832
Act of Parliament that introduced changed to electoral system of England and Wales.
Proposed by Whigs, led by Lord Grey
Act granted seats in the House of Commons to large cities that sprung up during the Industrial Revolutions
Took away seats from the “rotten boroughs”, those of the smaller populations
Increased number of people entitled to vote, increasing the size of electorate, allowing 1 out of 6 males to vote in a population of about 14 million
Klemens Von Metternich
a German politician and statesman of Rhenish extraction
one of the most important diplomats of his era, serving as the Foreign Minister of the Holy Roman Empire and the Austrian Empire
led the Austrian delegation at the Congress of Vienna which divided post-Napoleonic Europe between the major powers
According to Metternich, the liberal revolutions of the 1820s and '30s in Spain and parts of Italy and Germany were “unhistorical” and unrealistic
a major influence in Austria and in Europe generally, devoted his energies to erecting an antirevolutionary chain of international alliances throughout Europe
François Pierre Guillaume Guizot
was a French historian, orator, and statesman
a dominant figure in French politics prior to the Revolution of 1848, a conservative liberal who opposed the attempt by King Charles X to usurp legislative power
worked to sustain a constitutional monarchy following the July Revolution of 1830
famous as the originator of the quote "Not to be a republican at 20 is proof of want of heart; to be one at 30 is proof of want of head"
as a leader of the "Doctrinaires", committed to supporting the policies of Louis Phillipe and limitations on further expansion of the political franchise
earned the hatred of more left-leaning liberals and republicans through his unswerving support for restricting suffrage to propertied men
British statesman, parliamentary orator, and political thinker prominent in public life from 1765 to about 1795 and important in the history of political theory
He championed conservatism in opposition to Jacobinism in Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790)
In his own day, Burke's writings on France were an important inspiration to German and French counterrevolutionary thought
The central claim of the book was that not only must revolutionary France be defeated militarily but, in a break with other British politicians who did not support the revolution, that the ancien regime must be reinstated as well
The tract has been used as a defining piece of modern conservatism as well as an important contribution to international theory
Joseph de Maistre
French polemical author, moralist, and diplomat who, after being uprooted by the French Revolution in 1789, became a great exponent of the conservative tradition
He defended hierarchical societies and a monarchical State in the period immediately following the French Revolution
According to Maistre, any attempt to justify government on rational grounds will only lead to irresolvable arguments about the legitimacy and expediency of any existing government, and that this, in turn, will lead to violence and chaos