Time allowed One hour and ten minutes. Study the Sources and answer the questions Source a



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Plagues and epidemics in Medieval Europe

Either print the paper or save it in your my work folder and go off line to complete it. Time allowed One hour and ten minutes.


Study the Sources and answer the questions
Source A : Flagellants


Source B
A description of some flagellants in London
"About Michaelmas 1349, over 600 men came to London from Flanders. Sometimes at St Paul's, and sometimes at other points in the city, they made two daily public appearances wearing clothes from the thighs to the ankle, but otherwise stripped bare. Each wore a cap with a red cross in front and behind. Each had in his right hand a scourge with three tails. Each tail had a knot through the middle of it there were sometimes sharp nails fixed. They marched naked in a file one behind the other and whipped themselves with these scourges on their naked bleeding bodies. Four of them would chant in their native tongues and four would chant in response. Three times they would all cast themselves on the ground in this sort of procession, stretching out their hands like the arms of the cross. The singing would go on and on and each of them in turn would step over the others and give one stroke with hiss scourge to the man lying under him. This went on until each of them had observed the ritual"
Source C

A woman having her urine inspected by a medieval doctor





Source D
Extract from "On Surgery" 1363 written by the French doctor Guy de Chaulliac
"Many people were unsure about the cause of the great pestilence. In some places they believed it was the Jews poisoning people. In other places it was cripples or nobles. If they found people carrying powders or ointments, that person was made to swallow them for fear they might be poisonous"
Source E

From Chronicron Helveticum, a history book about Switzerland written by Glig Tshudi in 1560. He included many contemporary documents


"Many wise people think that the Jews were not guilty of poisoning the water with plague, and that some Jews only confessed to doing so because they were tortured. Wise people think the plague was due to the great earthquake which took place in January of last year, 1348. This burst open the crust of the earth and allowed the bad, noxious poisons and vapours to enter the wells and the springs. A large proportion of the Jews are doctors, and they would therefore know how to avoid the plague"
Questions
1. What can you learn from Source C about medicine in the middle ages? Explain your answer using Source C and your own knowledge (6 marks)
2. Does source B support Source A? Explain your answer using Sources A and B and your own knowledge (8 marks)
3. How useful is source C to an historian studying approaches to cause and cure in the middle ages? Answer using Source C and your own knowledge (8 marks)


  1. Sources D and E give different interpretations of what caused the Black Death. Why do they differ? (8 marks)




  1. Which is more reliable Source A or Source B. Explain your answer using the sources and your own knowledge (8 marks)



  1. The middle ages was a period of regress in the history of medicine. Is this interpretation a fair one? Explain your answer using the sources and your own knowledge (12 marks)



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