Tia Goldberg Mr. Herrmann and Mr. Rutherford



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Goldberg



Tia Goldberg

Mr. Herrmann and Mr. Rutherford

APUSH Period 4

2 October 2015


Chapter 12 Notes

The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism



1812-1824
 War of 1812 ranked one of America’s worst-fought wars bc widespread disunity

  • led divided and apathetic people into war

  • came out of war with nationalism and inspired activities to flourish such as protecting manufacturing to building roads to defending the authority of the federal government over the states

 On to Canada over Land and Lakes: Why Canada?

  • offemsive strategy against Canada poorly conceived

  • if americans would have captured Montreal (the center of population, transportation) everything to west might have died and been captured

  • Instead of capturing the main thing that would lead to success they frittered away their strength in the three pronged invasion of 1812

    • The trio of invading forces that set out from Detroit, Niagara, and Lake Champlain were all beaten back shortly after they crossed Canadian border

  • Canada captured American fort Michilimackinac

  • AMERICAN NEEDED TO REGAIN CONTROL OF GREAT LAKES FORM CANADA

    • It was vital (naval dealt with this)

  • by late 1814 USA dfeding soil against invading british

  • In Europe divisionary power of Napolean was destroyed in ,mind-1814 and the dangerous despot was exiled to Mediterranean isle of Elba

  • USA provoked war behind protective skirts of Napolean now left to defend for self

    • Thousands of victorious veteran redcoats began to pur into Canada from the Continent

  • British troops trying to blow into new york and capture it

    • Therefore usa had to defend

 result of naval battle fought near Plattsburgh on September 11, 1814 on floating slaughterhouses was momentous

  • invading brtish army forced to retreat

  • Macdonough thus saved atleast upper New York from conquest

  • New England from further disaffection

  • The Union from possible dissolution

  • Profoundly affected the concurrent negotiations of the Anglo-American peace treaty in Europe

 Washington Burned and New Orleans Defended: who?

  • British force dispersed some 6000 panicky pilitia at Bladenssburg

  • Third British blow of 1814 aimed at New Orleans menaced the entire Mississippi Valley

  • Gaunt and Andrew Jackson placed in command for this battle

    • Defenders included 7000 sailors, regulars, pirates, Frenchman, militiamen from Lousiiana Kentucky Tennessee, free black volunteers

  • British overconfident made mistake of launching frontal assault on Jan 8, 1815

    • British suffered most devastating defeat

  • USA fought for honor as much as material gain

    • Battle of New Orleans restored honor and unleashed a wave of nationalism and self-confidence for Americans

  • USA victory caused royal navy to form blockade along usa coast which affected usa economic life badly

 The Treaty of Ghent : What was it?

-Tsar Alexander I of Russia feeling hard-pressed by Napoleans army and not wanting his British ally to fritter away its strength in America, proposed mediation between the Anglo-Saxon cousins in 1812

- British wanted neutralized Indian buffer state in Great Lakes region, control of Great Lakes, and substantial part of conquered Maine (America said no)

 London more willing to compromise bc scared of increasing war attempts and weariness in Britain



  • Treaty of Ghent signed on Christmas Eve in 1814 was essentially an armistice

 Federalist Grievances and the Hartford Convention: What was it?

  • opposition of Federalists to the war continued unabated

  • rumors about feds

  • Federalist discontent was the ill-omened Hartford Convention

    • After capture of new Orleans seemed imminent Mass called for convention at Hartford Conn

    • States of mass, conn, and rhode dispatched full delegations and neighboring new hamp and vermint sent partial representation

    • This group of 26 men met ins ecrecy for about 3 weeks to discuss greivances and to seek redress fro their wrongs

  • convention demanded financial assistance from Washington to compensate for lost trade and proposed constitutional amendments requiring a two thirds vote in congress before an embargo could be imposed, new states admitted, or war declared

    • most of these demands reflected Federalist fears that a once-proud new England was falling subservient to an agrarian south and west

  • Hartford resolutions overlooked and were the death dirge of the Federalist party

  • Flouting of the jffersonian embargo and the later crippling of the war effort were the two most damaging acts of nullification in America prior to the events leading to the Civil War

 The Second War for American Independence

  • War of 1812 showed other nations around the world that America would defend its beliefs

  • The Rush- Bagot Agreement was made between the US and Britainin 1817

    • It limited the naval armament on the Great Lakes

 Nascent Nationalism

  • the most impressive by-product of War of 1812 was heightened nationalism

  • The army and navy were expanded and the Bank of the United States was revived by Congress in 1816

 “The American System”

  • Congress instituted the 1st protective tariff (Tariff of 1816) primarily for protection for American companies

    • British companies were trying to put American factories out of business by selling their British goods for much less than the American factories

  • tariff placed 20-25% tax on value of dutiable imports (this tax increased over time creating problems of no competition between companies)

  • Henry Clay developed plan for making a profitable US economy (American System)

  • It had three main parts:

    • Strong banking system (that would provide easy and abundant credit)

    • Protective tariff (that would allow eastern manufacturing to flourish)

    • A network of roads and canals (that would transport raw materials across the country)

  • Pres Madison vetoed bill to give states aid for infrastructure bc he deemed it to be unconstitutional

    • Jeffersonian Democratic- Republicans opposed to using federal money to support interstate improvements

 The So-Called Era of Good Feelings

  • Fedralists ran a presidential candidate for last time in 1816 James Monroe won election

  • Time during administrations of pres Monroe known as Era Good Feelings bc the 2 political parties were getting along

 Panic of 1819 and the Curse of Hard Times

  • Panic of 1819 was first financial panic since President Washington took office

    • Main cause was over-speculation in frontier lands

  • Bank of US hated by western farmers bc foreclosed on many farms

Growing Pains of the West

  • 1791-1819 9 states from west joined the United States

  • moved west bc cheap land, construction of highways, and many Indian territories had been eliminated

 The Land Act of 1820

  • Authorized buyer to purchase 80 virgin acres at min of $1.25 an acre

  • West also demanded cheap transportation and cheap money

 Slavery and the Sectional Balance

  • House of Reps passed Tallmadge Amendment (making it harder for Missouri to become a state)

    • It did not allow for anymore slaves to be brought into Missouri and for the gradual emancipation of children born to slave parents already in Missouri

  • Peculiar Institution: and expression used to describe slavery and its economic impacts in the South

 The Uneasy Missouri Compromise:
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