Thus Far… Chittick created a framework with which we can analyze and better understand foreign policies

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Foreign Policy

Early History of American Foreign Policy

Thus Far…

  • Chittick created a framework with which we can analyze and better understand foreign policies.

  • M/M:

  • Multilateral/Unilateral

  • C/C:

  • Coercive/Non-Coercive

  • A/A:

  • Active/Reactive


  • Today we will examine the early history of the United States

  • How did events and reigning theories of government shape our foreign policy?

  • How did the president influence the foreign policy followed?

  • What factors are important in determining foreign policy?

  • Important Note:

  • Your first FPH brief is due by Monday.

Background on Europe

  • Europe was born in the Dark Ages

  • The ruins of the Roman Empire tended to show Europeans that they were not as good as the Romans before them

  • Power resided in the land

  • If the ruler was good, the land would prosper

  • If the ruler was bad, the land would decay

  • The converse also held

  • The Age of Absolutism

  • Power resides in a single individual

  • King

  • Prince

  • Pope

  • The commoners do not have power

  • Creation of the idea of state sovereignty

  • Sovereignty resided with the state (ruler of the state), not with anyone above the state

  • Protection of the state was central

  • Raison d’état

  • Machiavelli

  • Richelieu

  • Power Politics

  • Balance of Power

  • Hegemony

  • Mercantilism

  • The resulting diplomacy (Old Diplomacy) was MCA

  • Unilateral, Coercive, Reactive

  • The Enlightenment

  • Eighteenth century movement in Europe (and America)

  • Put reason at the center of philosophy

  • Resulted in placing the individual at the center of the world

  • Created liberal political philosophy

  • Resulted in placing the individual at the center of political power

  • Lockean Liberalism became the new best political philosophy

  • Replaced Hobbes, who held that the state needed to increase its power to protect its citizens from each other and from external threats

  • Liberalism called for limited government to protect the people from tyrannical government

  • The resulting diplomacy (New Diplomacy) was MCA (the opposite of the Old Diplomacy)

  • Multilateral, Non-Coercive, Active

The Colonial Period (in US)

  • Prosperity Values:

  • That’s why they came here

  • Community Values:

  • Build a new world order

  • Read the back of your dollar bill:

  • Novus Ordo Seclorum

  • “New Order of the Ages”

  • Security Values:

  • French and Indian War

  • Spillover from Continental wars

First War of Independence

  • 1776-1788

  • From what you know about US history, what would our foreign have been?

  • Why?

  • What would influence it most?

Federalist Period

  • 1789-1800

  • Idealism rules!

  • Washington and Adams

  • conducted Foreign Policy as they believed US domestic policy should be conducted

  • This Idealism would rear its head again during the rule of Woodrow Wilson

  • Foreign policy was mainly MCA

  • Unilateral

  • Non-Coercive

  • Active

Republican Period

  • 1801-1815

  • Foreign policy was mainly MCA

  • Unilateral

  • Coercive

  • Active

  • Why the difference?

  • What changed in our needs for Prosperity, Security, and Community?

  • Did any events affect it?

Growth and Expansion

  • 1815-1849

  • Foreign policy remained MCA

  • Unilateral

  • Coercive

  • Active

  • Why no change?

  • Different presidents

  • Events in Europe affect us

  • Mexican-American War

  • Promulgation of the Monroe Doctrine

Identity Crisis

  • 1850-1865

  • Foreign policy became MCA

  • Multilateral

  • Non-Coercive

  • Active

  • Some Events

  • California Gold Rush (1848–‘55)

  • The US Civil War (1860–‘65)

  • European Immigration

  • Growth of big cities


  • Are the above reasons enough to explain the change?

  • What should explain changes in foreign policy?

  • Chittick:

  • Prosperity

  • Security

  • Community


  • Read: Chapter 3 (Chittick)

  • Monday’s Topic:

  • From Isolation to Hegemony

  • Do not forget:

  • FPH Brief #1 is due Monday

  • It is an online event

  • Link is “Policy Index”


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