The rise of Europe is accompanied by the decline of two previous world powers and the rise of a new Asian power. What accounts for the fall of China and the once thriving Ottoman Empire? What accounts for the rise of Japan? All three powers encounter the aggressive power of the West, which would ultimately shape its subsequent history. The Declining Ottoman Empire:
Center of Islamic World
Didn’t fall under direct European control
Failed to modernize like Europe
In the 1800s it contracted while European powers expanded (into Africa)
During the 18th century the Ottoman Empire experienced military reverses and challenges to its rule.
As Ottoman officials launched reforms to regenerate imperial vigor, Egypt and other North African provinces declared their independence, and European states seized territories in the northern and western parts of the Ottoman Empire.
Military Decline: by the late 17th century, the Ottoman Empire had reached the limits of its expansion. Ottoman armies suffered humiliating defeats on the battlefield, especially at the hands of Austrian and Russian foes.
Ottoman forces lagged behind European armies in strategy, tactics, weaponry, and training.
Equally serious was a breakdown in the discipline of the elite Janissary corps, which had served as the backbone of the imperial armed forces in the fifteenth century.
The Janissaries repeatedly masterminded palace coups during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and by the nineteenth century had become a powerful political force within the Ottoman state.
The Janissaries neglected their military training and turned a blind eye to advances in weapons technology. The Empire became vulnerable
The central government’s power declined.
Semi-independent governors and local notables had formed private armies of mercenaries and slaves to support the sultan in Istanbul in exchange for recognition of autonomy.
Increasingly these independent rulers also turned fiscal and administrative institutions to their own interests, collecting taxes for themselves and sending only nominal payments to the imperial treasury, depriving the state of revenue.
The Ottomans managed to maintain control in present day Turkey, the heart of the empire, as well as Iraq.
Suffered serious loss in territories elsewhere.
Lost territory to Austria and Russia.
Greece became independent in 1830, and Serbia in 1867.
The lost Egypt in around 1820.
Economic ills: The volume of trade through the Ottoman Empire greatly decreased.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, European merchants increasingly circumvented Ottoman intermediaries and traded in India and China.
Trade shifted over the Atlantic Ocean where the Ottomans were left out.
They fell into financial dependency on Europe.
European governments financed the construction of railroads, utilities, and mining. In 1882 the Ottoman state was unable to pay interest on loans and had no choice but to accept foreign administration of its debts.
Ottoman artisans and crafts workers could not match their foreign competitors who created inexpensive and high quality goods.
Capitulations (=humiliations): Agreements that exempted European visitors from Ottoman law and provided the European powers with extraterritoriality—the right to exercise jurisdiction over their own citizens according to their own laws. (Being exempted from the jurisdiction of local law)
By the early twentieth century, the Ottoman Empire survived principally because European diplomats could not agree on how to dispose the empire without upsetting the European balance of power.
Mahmud II: Mid 19th remodeled Ottoman institutions along western European lines. Focused on army. European drill-masters dressed Ottoman soldiers in European style uniforms. Created schools to promote science and technology. Constructed roads and built telegraph lines. He died in 1839 with a shrunken empire but a more manageable and powerful one than in the early 17th century
Tanzimat Reform: Tempo of reform increased rapidly during the Tanzimat era (1839-1876). Army, legal, and education reforms were central.
Tried to stem the tide of nationalist movements in the Empire
Factories producing cloth, paper and armaments
Modern mining operations
Telegraphs, steamboats, railroads, postal services
Western law codes and courts
“All began a long process of modernization and Westernization in the Ottoman Empire”
Reaction to Reform
Saw Ottoman state as secular whose people were loyal to the dynasty rather than Islam
Favored a constitutional regime like Great Britain
Urged Western reforms
Sultan Abd al-Hamid II – 1876-1909 purged reformers from Government
Re-enforced distinction between Muslim and non Muslim subjects
Led a military coup in 1908 against the Sultan
Pushed for radical secularization of schools. Courts, law codes
Permitted political parties
Opened modern schools for women—allowed to wear western clothes
Permitted women to get divorced, restricted polygamy
THEY WOULD LAY FOUNDATION FOR POST WWI country of Turkey
During World War I, the Young Turks leadership was responsible for the Armenian Genocide, which consisted of deportation and death marches into the Syrian Desert along with massacres of 1.5 million ethnic Armenian citizens of the Ottoman Empire
What was the status of the Ottoman Empire on the eve of WWI? These events help to piece it together. (Answer after completing the chart on next page).
EXPLANATION OF EVENT
IMPACT ON OTTOMAN EMPIRE/SIGNIFICANCE
Nationalism Crisis *
Identity Crisis *
Sultan Abd al- Hamid II
* Textbook chapter 19 China: The Tumultuous 19th Century for the Qing Dynasty
REQUIRED CHINA TO OPEN FIVE PORTS TO TRADE, FIXED THE TARIFF ON IMPORTED GOODS AT A LOW 5 PERCENT, AND GRANTED FOREIGNERS THE RIGHT TO LIVE IN CHINA UNDER THEIR OWN LAWS.
THIS IS ALL A REPERCUSSION OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
SERIOUSLY ERODES CHINESE INDEPENDENCE
The Second Opium War: 1856-1860
MORE RESTRICTIONS ON THE CHINESE
Opened more treaty ports to foreign traders
Allowed foreigners to travel and buy land in China
Opened the country to Christian missionaries, permitted Western powers to patrol some of China's interior waterways.
China lost control of Vietnam, Korea, and Taiwan
Spheres of Influence
Eventually, several European nations forced China to sign a series of unequal treaties
Extraterritoriality guaranteed that European citizens in China were only subject to the laws of their own nation and could only be tried by their own courts. Eventually western nations weary of governing foreign lands, established spheres of influence within China, which guaranteed specific trading privileges to each nation within its respective sphere.
Eventually the USA demanded equal trading status with China.
Rather than carve out a sphere of influence, the USA announced the Open Door Policy of 1899. This stated that nations should have equal trading rights regardless of spheres of influence. While this may have prevented the further expansion of spheres of influences, it did little to restore Chinese sovereignty.
After the further insult of the Open Door Policy, Chinese nationalist staged the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. Viewed as a threat to the profits they enjoyed in the imperialist spheres of influence, foreign nations formed an international coalition that ended the uprising. With this victory, additional concessions were granted to foreign nations within China.
The trouble that amounted for the Qing Dynasty saw the collapse of the final dynasty and the end of a 5,000-year tradition in 1911.
EXPLANATION OF EVENT
IMPACT ON CHINA/SIGNIFICANCE
Opposition to Manchurian roots of Qing
Opposition to the Qing Dynasty
Spheres of Influence
Lack of Industrialization
Japan confronted the aggressive power of the West during the nineteenth century
Commodore Perry’sblack ships- Tokyo Bay 1853
Demanded reclusive nation to open up to more “normal” relations with the world
Japan undertook a radical transformation of its society
A “revolution from above” according to some historians
Turned into a powerful, modern, united, industrialized nation.
Opposite of Ottomans and Chinese
Japan joined the club of imperialists by creating its own East Asian empire – at the expense of China
Modernity was not a uniquely European phenomenon.
250 years before Perry’s arrival, Japan had been governed by a shogun- military ruler from the Tokugawa family who acted in the name of a revered but powerless emperor- lived in Kyoto 300 miles away from the seat of power in Edo – Tokyo
Considered “250 years of peace”
Purpose: to prevent civil war with the 260 rival feudal lords (daimyo) – with their samurai warriors of Japanese tradition
Shogunate gave Japan internal peace from 1600 to 1850.
Influence of Confucianism generated a remarkably literate population
Meiji Restoration: The Collapse of the Ancient Regime
“Revere the Emperor and Repel the barbarians”
FOREIGN INTERVENTION CHANGED JAPAN
Japan had severely limited contact with West—especially Christianity. The Shogunate had expelled foreign influences.
U.S. forced the issue
Commodore Perry 1853
Aware of what happened in China in resisting European demands, Japan agreed to a series of unequal treaties with various Western powers.
THE HUMILIATING CAPITULATION TO THE DEMANDS OF THE FOREIGN DEVILS FURTHER ERODED SUPPORT FOR THE SHOGUNATE, TRIGGERED A BRIEF CIVIL WAR AND BY 1868 LED TO POLITCAL TAKEOVER BY A GROUP OF YOUNG SAMURAI FROM SOUTHERN JAPAN.
KNOWN AD THE MEIJI RESTORATION—RESTORED THE POWER TO THE EMPEROR
To save Japan from foreign domination
Not by resistance but by a thorough transformation of Japanese society drawing upon all the modern West had to offer
“knowledge shall be sought throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundations of imperial world”
An end of Japanese feudal society
Meiji was an absolute government
A new constitution was established
Meiji government was a monarchy that did not want a democracy but feared discontent.
Constitution: gave emperor supreme power, established a Diet—a 2 house national assembly one house; which was elected. Constitution created by the emperor not the people like in the U.S.
Modernization reforms in the 19th century:
Far more revolutionary than the most radical of the Ottoman efforts, let alone the modest self-strengthening policies of the Chinese
By 1871 regime abolished the daimyo
Samurai lost their ancient role as the country’s warrior class and right to carry a sword
Old Confucian social order was dismantled –now they were all commoners and equal
What made Japan’s restoration so successful was the right leadership and attitude towards the changes. The implementation of the restoration was carried out nationwide, as they successfully adopted Western ideas while keeping traditional views.
China on the other hand was led by a corrupt governing body with a distinct lack of funds and half-hearted implementation of the new ideas. The corruption and lack of enthusiasm for change was China’s biggest downfall.
EXPLANATION OF EVENT
IMPACT ON JAPAN/SIGNIFICANCE
Deteriorating Power of the Shogunate
Elimination of the Daimyo
Anglo-Japanese Treaty of 1902
War with China 1894-95
Russo-Japanese War 1904-05
Textbook Chapter 19:
How did European expansion in the nineteenth century differ from that of the early modern era?
How did the rise of European powers impact the fall of the Ottoman Empire as a world power?
What was the greatest contributing factor to the Ottoman Empire’s fall?
What makes the Ottoman Empire the “sick man of Europe”?
What kind of debates, controversies, and conflicts were generated by European intrusion within the Ottoman Empire?
How did the rise of European powers impact the fall of China as a world power?
What was the greatest contributing factor to China’s fall from imperial glory from the 19th and into the 20th century?
What kind of debates, controversies, and conflicts were generated by European intrusion within China?
What enabled Japan to join the club of the imperialist countries, in contrast to the Chinese and the Ottoman Empire?
What kind of debates, controversies, and conflicts were generated by European intrusion within Japan?
“The response of each society to European imperialism grew out of its larger historical development and its internal problems.” What evidence might support this statement?