This is a compilation of information from printed and individual sources

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thanks Clint. Clint lives in Washington, D. C., and works at George Washington University in the Academic Scheduling office. He is the author of Some Ancestors and Descendants of Harry Vane Williams and Susie Pauline Clem, from which all of this information has been extracted. His three loves are: genealogy, square dancing and collecting antique Halloween decorations.

( HELEN ELIZABETH WILLIAMS (Photograph) born December 20, 1920 Eris OH; married Herbert Don ‘Stubby’ McClain, Sr., born March 14, 1918 West Liberty OH and died June 2, 1997 at his home in West Liberty OH [brother of Joan McClain Williams above]; a WWII Navy Veteran; and born to them were:

( HERBERT DON MCCLAIN, JR., born November 19, 1940 Logan Co OH; ‘Sonny’ is also a genealogist and owns Salt Creek Cattle Company in Quaker City OH; also a wood worker; married Linda Hogan born Logan Co; and born to them were:

( MICHAEL MCCLAIN born May 20, 1961 Ohio; married Carla Cochran and born to them were:



( ANGELA MCCLAIN born 1963 Ohio; married Kirk Wells

( MARGARET LOU MCCLAIN born November 17, 1942 Logan Co OH; married Terry VanBuskirk and born to them were:

( DIANA LYNN VANBUSKIRK (1963-) married Steve Pettay and born to them were:



( CHERI VANBUSKIRK (1965-) married John Rose and born to them were:

( KYLEIGH ROSE (1989-)



( MARY KATHRYN WILLIAMS born February 4, 1923 Logan Co OH; married 1st George Smith born January 23, 1913 Dayton OH and died November 15, 1978 Logan Co; married 2d Roland Halker; and born to Mary and George were:

( JACK ELDON SMITH born January 12, 1942 Bellefontaine OH; married Nikki Minor and born to them were:

( JODI SMITH married a Mr. Oakley and born to them were:



( KACI SMITH married a Mr. Wright and born to them were:



( ROBERT JAY SMITH born November 20, 1947 Bellefontaine OH; married Candace Chamberlain and born to them were:





( SARA JANE SMITH born December 13, 1949 Bellefontaine OH; married Lewis Tracey; Lewis is involved with the Indian Lake Fish and Game Association and releasing ring-necked pheasants at various sites; and born to them were:



( LUCY MAY WILLIAMS (Photograph) born February 22, 1925 Logan Co OH; married June 29, 1942 Earl Earick born December 7, 1919 Bellefontaine OH; and born to them were:

( MAX CARLTON EARICK born October 14, 1942 Bellefontaine OH; married Marilyn Sue Tillman and born to them were:

( SCOTT A. EARICK born March 22, 1962; served in the Navy aboard the U.S.S. Guadalcanal, home ported in Norfolk VA

( STEPHEN EARICK born November 23, 1964

( MAX EARICK born January 12, 1970

( CHARLES ROLAND EARICK born September 24, 1944 Bellefontaine OH; in the Army and took his Basic Training at Fort Leonard Wood MO and had a tour of duty in Germany; 1991 became President, Citizens Federal Savings and Loan, Bellefontaine OH; member of the Kiwanis; married Choyce Jenkins and born to them were:

( LESLI C. EARICK born December 12, 1969; graduated from Bellefontaine High School 1988; 1991 while a senior at Ohio State U, Lesli was honored by The Ohio State University College of Business with her selection as a 1991 Pace Setter and as a member of the scholastic honor society, Beta Gamma Sigma; finance major

( LEAH EARICK born July 10, 1974

( SUSAN DIANE EARICK born March 17, 1946 Bellefontaine OH; married 1st Fred Slabach who died December 1971; married 2d William Tinsley, Jr; and born to Susan and Fred was:

( KELLY SLABACH born August 5, 1964; married Michael Smith and born to them were:




( STEVEN EUGENE EARICK born July 28, 1947 Bellefontaine OH; married 1st Shirley Davis; married 2d Vickie Fairchild – divorced; and born to Steven and Shirley was:

( BRIAN EARICK born September 5, 1970

Adopted by Steve; children of his second wife, Vickie, were (for info only):

( HEATHER EARICK born March 26, 1969; attending medical school in New Mexico

( HOLLI EARICK born March 5, 1971; a flight attendant

Born to Steven and his second wife, Vickie, were:

( HAYLEY EARICK born May 3, 1975

( DELPHA LOUISE WILLIAMS born February 17, 1927 Logan Co OH; both Delpha and her husband are graduates of Lakeview High School; married February 18, 1946 Paul Minnich who was a dairy farmer on Nine Mile Road, southwest of West Liberty; he farmed approximately 1,000 acres in Champaign Co; and born to them were:

( JOYCE ANN MINNICH born November 5, 1948 Bellefontaine OH; graduate of Graham High School and attended Miami University; a member of the Display Advertising Department of the Bellefontaine Examiner; active in school, community and church affairs; past president of the Northeastern Elementary School and Bellefontaine Middle School Parent-Teacher Organizations; president of the Rake and Hoe Garden Club; member of the Downtown Beautification Committee and past administrative board secretary at the First Methodist Church; married 1st Jack Makemson; married 2d Kenneth Yoder who was the President, Mid-West Racquetball Distributing, Inc; reside on a Champaign Co farm near West Liberty; and born to Joyce and Jack was:

( SCOTT CHRISTOPHER MAKEMSOM, M. D., graduated from Bellefontaine High School, 1987; magna cum laude from Case Western Reserve University, May 17, 1991, with a bachelor’s degree in Chemistry; and graduated from the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine; did his residency in OB-GYN in Cincinnati

Born to Joyce and her second husband, Kenneth, was:

( JUSTIN YODER student at the Cincinnati College of Mortuary Science

( DARRELL BENSON MINNICH born March 28, 1951 Bellefontaine OH; ‘Ben’ graduated from Ohio State with a B.S. in agriculture 1973; married Cecilia Lokai born April 20, 1952 Champaign Co OH

( RANDALL PAUL MINNICH born August 21, 1956 Bellefontaine OH; after graduating from high school, Randy was an auto mechanic and sold insurance, before making woodworking a career; married Lori Jo Shearer and born to them were:

( ANDREA ELIZABETH MINNICH born December 24, 1986

( JOSHUA P. MINNICH born July 23, 1990

( JENNIE PAULINE WILLIAMS born August 21, 1929 Logan Co OH; married Paul Evilsizor [Jim - interesting name - of German origins] who died March 18, 1997 Hortonville WI; and born to them were:

( KENNETH PAUL EVILSIZOR born January 21, 1947; married Sandra Herron and born to them were:

( CHRISTIE EVILSIZOR married Jeff Coyle and born to them were:




( JEANNE EVILSIZOR married Ki Kim and born to them was:



( JEANNE EVILSIZOR born May 2, 1949; married Steven Scholzen and born to them were:



( DONNA EVILSIZOR born April 26, 1951; married 1st David Danielson; married 2d Thomas Ferg; and born to Donna and David were:




Born to Donna and her second husband, Thomas, were:


( JEFFREY FERG (1985-)

( DIANE EVILSIZOR born September 6, 1954; married Borchardt and born to them were:




( JEFFREY EVILSIZOR born April 28, 1962; married Sherri Hanson

( JOAN WILLIAMS born January 15, 1932 Logan Co OH; married George Milton Lones, Sr., and born to them were:

( KATHRYN LOUISE LONES born December 20, 1949 Bellefontaine OH; married Ronald Johnson and born to them were:



( PATRICIA JOAN LONES born February 3, 1952 Bellefontaine OH; married Edwin Whitmore and born to them were:

( ERIKA LEANN WHITMORE married Shawn Roberts


( GEORGI ANN LONES born November 1953 Bellefontaine OH; married 1st Archie Van Wilpe; married 2d Don Wisen; Georgi and Don operate Blackbeard Sailing Charters, at Destin Harbor FL; and born to Georgi and Archie were:



( JACQULYN SUE LONES born April 6, 1956 Bellefontaine OH; married Harroll Castle

( GEORGE MILTON LONES, JR., born October 3, 1958 Bellefontaine OH

( SUSIE JEAN WILLIAMS born February 15, 1934 Logan County OH; married Ross Hamburger who died February 24, 1998 Lima OH; and born to them were:

( ROBERT R. HAMBURGER born July 6, 1953 Hampton VA and died August 17, 1986 Lakeview OH; buried Walnut Hills Cemetery near New Hampshire; employed at Airstream Corporation; married October 7, 1978 Fatina I. Cavender and born to them were:

( STEPHANIE MARIE HAMBURGER stillborn July 26, 1979

( ROBERT E. HAMBURGER born May 30, 1982

( WILLIAM P. HAMBURGER born June 27, 1984

( PAMELA HAMBURGER born March 25, 1955 Bellefontaine OH; married Steve Stiles and born to them were:

( SCOTT ALAN STILES born March 9, 1976

( KYLIE NICOLE STILES born October 14, 1978

( MELISSA SUE STILES born June 14, 1981

( JOEL LEE HAMBURGER born September 4, 1956 Bellefontaine OH; married Robin Chasteen and born to them were:

( CHRISTY LEE HAMBURGER born July 1, 1974

( THOMAS ROSS HAMBURGER born May 18, 1978

( JESSE JOE HAMBURGER born January 11, 1981

( MICHAEL EDWARD HAMBURGER born August 28, 1959 Bellefontaine OH

( DEBBIE HAMBURGER born August 9, 1962 Bellefontaine OH; married James Alspaugh and born to them were:

( AMANDA SUE ALSPAUGH born July 2, 1987

( JAMES MERRIT ALSPAUGH born July 29, 1990

( DENNIS PAUL HAMBURGER born December 3, 1963 Bellefontaine OH and died August 30, 1980 in a fire at his rural Auglaize Co OH home; buried at Walnut Hill Cemetery; he was a Waynesfield-Goshen High School freshman

( FOREST FOSTER CLEM born November 7, 1900 Champaign Co OH and died October 18, 1966 Logan Co OH; married 1st December 13, 1924 in Champaign Co, Alice Gillespie; 2d February 26, 1928 in Champaign Co, Anna May ‘Annie’ Wilkinson; and born to Forest and Alice were:





Born to Forest and his second wife, Annie, was:


( IRA FREEMAN CLEM (Photograph) born 1868 Champaign Co OH and died Allen Co OH, date unk; resided Lima OH; married Rosabell Pears and born to them were:



( JOSEPH A. CLEM (Photograph) born January 6, 1869 Champaign Co OH and died 1955 Shelby Co OH; resided Sidney OH; married September 19, 1892/3 in Champaign Co, Pearl R. Hensler born May 9, 1896 Champaign Co and died April 28, 1950 Shelby Co OH; both buried Rosedale Cemetery, Adams Township, Champaign Co OH; and born to them were:

( CECIL VERL CLEM born October 20, 1894 Champaign Co OH and died there March 22, 1895; buried Rosedale Cemetery

( LUCILLE CLEM born November 21, 1896; unmarried

( HELEN CLEM born June 5, 1902 Ohio and died there February 10, 1960; married George Bouguot; and born to them were:

( JO ANN BOUQUOT born September 10, 1926; married Stanley Wishniowski and born to them was:

( EVELYN WISHNIOWSKI born August 16, 1948; married Robert Janos and born to them was:

( KELLY LYNN JANOS born October 11, 1975

( MARY LOU BOUQUOT born November 7, 1927; married Joseph P. Martin

( FRANCIS JEAN BOUQUOT born August 27, 1929 and died January 2, 1957; married William Custenborder and born to them were:



( DONALD C. BOUQUOT born April 3, 1937

( EMMA REBECCA CLEM (Photograph) born April 7, 1871 Champaign Co OH and died there June 2, 1949; married September 22, 1889 Charles Mahan born February 2, 1868 Champaign Co and died January 24, 1930 Franklin Co OH; resided in Rosewood OH; both buried Rosedale Cemetery; and born to them were:

( WALLACE CLEM MAHAN born April 27, 1890 Champaign Co OH and died there October 31, 1930; married December 8, 1910 Estella Emily Chambers [dau of John Manlove & Elizabeth Katherine (Russell) Chambers] born October 31, 1891 Champaign Co and died there February 1, 1973; buried Rosedale Cemetery, Adams Township, Champaign Co OH; and born to them were:

( RUTH OMA MAHAN born October 7, 1911 Johnson Township, Champaign Co OH; married 1933 in Kentucky, Deward R. Bails born March 3, 1905 WVA and died August 31, 1957 Champaign Co OH; and born to them was:

( RICHARD RAY BAILS born July 12, 1937 Champaign Co OH; married February 8, 1959 Harlene Leasure - divorced 1969; and born to them were:

( TONY BAILS born January 13, 1960 Champaign Co OH

( KELLY SCOTT BAILS born March 14, 1961 Champaign Co OH

( MICHAEL TODD BAILS born March 13, 1962 Champaign Co

( KIMBERLY SUE BAILS born August 12, 1964 Champaign Co

( EDWARD R. MAHAN born January 24, 1913 and died January 29, 1913; buried Rosedale Cemetery, Adams Township, Champaign Co OH

( RALPH BUNCE MAHAN born July 15, 1914; married September 7, 1938 Marguertie Poorman and born to them were:

( KAREN ARLEEN MAHAN born January 24, 1943 Champaign Co OH; married March 3, 1967 Neil Stevens born December 23, 1943 and born to them were:

( AMANDA KAY STEVENS born October 22, 1970

( SARA STEVENS born September 8, 1982

( GERALD LEE MAHAN born July 12, 1945 Champaign Co; married May 20, 1967 Judith Barnard and born to them were:

( JEFFERY DAVID MAHAN born August 24, 1970

( JAMES MAHAN born March 1974

( JASON BARNARD MAHAN born August 11, 1977

( CAROL ANN MAHAN born April 27, 1949 Champaign Co; married August 26, 1972 John R. Shank and born to them was:

( JOHN MYLES SHANK born October 2, 1977 Dayton OH

( DOROTHY MAE MAHAN born and died June 18, 1916 Johnson Township; buried Rosedale Cemetery

( AMY FRANCES MAHAN born October 4, 1917 Johnson Township, Champaign Co OH; married October 5, 1935 in Champaign Co, Charles Samuel Hamilton born February 23, 1911 Champaign Co; and born to them were:

( BARBARA ELLEN HAMILTON born March 17, 1937 Champaign Co; married December 28, 1956 Daryl Henderson born April 25, 1937 Dayton OH; and born to them were:

( DARYL EUGENE HENDERSON born October 11, 1957 Germany

( JAMES LEE HENDERSON born August 30, 1960 Champaign Co

( NADEEN KAY HENDERSON born March 12, 1965 Champaign Co

( JUDITH ANN HAMILTON born August 14, 1938 Champaign Co; married October 15, 1960 Charles E. Calloway, Jr., born October 3, 1935 and born to them were:

( CHARLES BRIAN CALLOWAY born August 28, 1960

( AMY MARIE CALLOWAY born June 29, 1964; married

( SAMUEL LJOE HAMILTON born July 25, 1949 Champaign Co; married Shauna McKee born July 7, 1949 Portsmouth OH; and born to them were:

( JASON SAMUEL HAMILTON born November 17, 1974 Champaign Co

( CASEY HAMILTON born November-December 1982 Champaign Co

( THURMAN KEITH MAHAN born May 7, 1919 Johnson Township, Champaign Co OH and died November 28, 1978 Ethel WA; cremated and ashes spread on Paradise Mountain, Mt. Ranier WA; married 1st June 25, 1941 in Shelby Co OH, Maxine Adele Russell born January 3, 1923 - they divorced 1974; and born to them were:

( RONALD LEE MAHAN born July 13, 1942 Champaign Co; married September 7, 1943 Roberta ‘Birdie’ Ann Huston born November 20, 1942 and born to them were:

( JEFFERY ALLEN MAHAN born June 17, 1964

( HEATH ERIC MAHAN born July 15, 1971 Franklin Co OH and died August 20, 1974 Washington; buried Houston Cemetery, Houston, Shelby, OH (Photo)

( KRISTEN NICOLE MAHAN born January 30, 1973 Franklin Co OH and died there February 17, 1973; buried Houston Cemetery, Houston OH

( MICHAEL KEITH MAHAN born February 15, 1947 Shelby Co OH; married August 27, 1968 Shelby Co, Cynthia Sue Cotterman born August 23, 1949 Shelby Co; and born to them were:

( JENNIFER MICHELLE MAHAN born April 10, 1977 Shelby Co

( STACY LYNN MAHAN born June 24, 1977 Shelby Co

( CONNIE SUE MAHAN born February 7, 1949 in Shelby Co; married September 23, 1967 Timothy Michael Colbert born October 1946; and born to them was:

( TRENA LYNN COLBERT born May 2, 1968 Franklin Co OH

( HERBERT C. MAHAN born October 13, 1921 Champaign Co OH; married January 26, 1946 in Shelby Co, Mary Carolyn Bartel born March 5, 1921 Shelby Co OH; and born to them were:

( DENISE KAY MAHAN born December 5, 1946 Miami Co OH; married 1st June 27, 1964 in Champaign Co, Danny Carl Adrian - divorced November 16, 1968; married 2d May 15, 1975 in Brevard Co FL Ernest Eugene Moore born March 18, 1938 Lake Providence LA

( TIM C. MAHAN born March 20, 1950 Miami Co OH; married August 30, 1969 in Champaign Co, Bernice Marie Clark born March 23, 1950 Champaign Co

( MARK B. MAHAN born March 6, 1954 Miami Co OH; married February 26, 1977 Champaign Co, Susan Elaine Pence born May 7, 1958; and born to them were:

( JENNIFER MARIE MAHAN born July 22, 1980 Miami Co OH

( DUSTIN PATRICK MAHAN born August 7, 1981 Miami Co OH

( WILMA ROSE MAHAN born June 18, 1924 Johnson Township, Champaign Co OH; married December 8, 1943 in Champaign Co, William Robert Allebach - they reside in Hollywood FL; and born to them were:

( WILLIAM ROBERT ALLEBACH born August 20, 1944 Champaign Co; married twice, names unk, but born to them were:



( JENNIE SUE ALLEBACH born September 20, 1946 OH; married Robert L. Norman and born to them was:


( BUDDY RAY ALLEBACH born April 3, 1951 OH; married Michelle Luppanicci of Hollywood FL and a daughter born to them in 1973

( RICKY LEE ALLEBACH born July 24, 1953 OH

( JOHN EUGENE ALLEBACH born May 15, 1956 OH

( MELINDA KAY ALLEBACH born July 8, 1961 Logan Co OH

( HARLEY JASON MAHAN born March 22, 1894 Johnson Township, Champaign Co OH and died December 6, 1970 Champaign Co; married December 14, 1916 Ola Faye Bodey born Champaign Co and died July 20, 1954; both buried at Rosedale Cemetery; and born to them were:

( CECIL RAY MAHAN born September 9, 1917; married March 10, 1950 Eleanor Ward and born to them were:

( MICHAEL MAHAN born August 1, 1951 Champaign Co; married August 6, 1972 Toby Bair

( STEPHEN H. MAHAN born December 12, 1952 Champaign Co; married June 14, 1975 at Lehigh Acres FL, Janet E. McCrary

( ROGER JASON MAHAN born September 16, 1922 Champaign Co OH; married April 25, 1943 at Champaign Co, Marcella Massie born April 7, 1922 Clark Co OH; and born to them were:

( SHERYL LEE MAHAN born December 3, 1945 Champaign Co; married November 24, 1967 Jerry Lee born May 26, 1945

( DAVID MAHAN born November 4, 1948 Champaign Co; married February 11, 1967 in Champaign Co, Marjorie E. Berry born July 1, 1948 and born to them were:

( JAMIE MAHAN born September 5, 1968

( KRISTY MAHAN born August 25, 1970

( BETTY JEAN MAHAN born October 21, 1927 Champaign Co; married September 18, 1948 Champaign Co, Max Warren Moore born December 22, 1925 Shelby Co OH; and born to them were:

( REBECCA LYNN MOORE born June 14, 1949; married June 13, 1971 Kenneth J. Lehman and born to them were:

( KURT JEASON LEHMAN born August 14, 1972

( KERRIE JO LEHMAN born November 2, 1973

( RANDALL WARREN MOORE born July 27, 1952

( ROBIN JO MOORE born March 31, 1956; married March 20, 1976 Robert E. Turner

( KYM WAYNE MOORE born September 25, 1959

( EDITH FAYE MAHAN born March 25, 1896 and died February 25, 1982; buried Rosedale Cemetery, Champaign Co OH; married June 9, 1919 Henry Rowland Evans born February 5, 1894 and died January 3, 1986; and born to them were:

( HERMAN CLAY EVANS born October 31, 1920 Champaign Co OH; married April 13, 1941 Helen Hines born May 7, 1921 and born to them were:

( FREDERICK DEAN EVANS born February 22, 1942; married Jeanne Zook and born to them were:

( GAY LYNN EVANS born April 26, 1967

( BRANDON WARREN EVANS born February 18, 1970

( DONALD CLAY EVANS born May 25, 1947 and died May 6, 1953; buried Rosedale Cemetery

( SUE ANN EVANS born April 15, 1952; married August 21, 1971 Thomas Eugene Geuy born December 18, 1947; and born to them was:

( MICHELLE RENEE GEUY born February 24, 1976

( ROBERT RAY EVANS born May 2, 1955; married January 14, 1983 Rebecca Martin Batdorf

( NANCY JOANNE EVANS born March 26, 1958

( PHYLLIS ANN EVANS born September 25, 1924; married August 31, 1952 Roger Alan Bollinger born January 31, 1926; and born to them were:

( ROGER ALAN BOLLINGER born January 26, 1954; married Jane Hannah and born to them were:

( MARK ALAN BOLLINGER born July 21, 1984

( MATTHEW AARON BOLLINGER born August 16, 1987

( DAVID DEAN BOLLINGER born December 17, 1956; married Theresa Becker and born to them was:

( KYLE ROBERT BOLLINGER born March 6, 1991

( THOMAS J. BOLLINGER born October 3, 1959

( EMMETT E. CLEM (Photograph) born September 15, 1873 Champaign Co OH and died Allen Co OH, date unk; resided Lima OH; married Edna Black; and born to them were:



( MARTHA CLEM born September 5, 1914

( OMA CLEM (Photograph) born February 21, 1885 Champaign Co OH and died February 10, 1977 Toledo OH; resided Millerstown OH; married Claude Neal

( IRA A. PENCE born 1844 Champaign Co OH and died there 1864

( JASPER PENCE born April 1851 Champaign Co OH and died there 1929; married Louisa Jane Apple born 1851 Champaign Co and died there 1940; and born to them were:

( CHARLES R. PENCE born August 27, 1873 Champaign Co OH and died there March 1948; married Mattie M. Fisher

( LAURA MAY PENCE born November 1, 1877 Champaign Co OH; married George Franklin Barger

( CORY NEWTON PENCE born January 16, 1885 Champaign Co OH and died there May 1935; married Mary Anna Barger

( SARAH ELIZABETH PENCE born June 27, 1886 Champaign Co OH; married John Merle Bascore

( AMY R RIKER born October 22, 1824 OH and died April 14, 1905 Champaign Co OH; married February 3, 1852 in Champaign Co, John McMorran born October 5, 1815 and died June 21, 1889; both buried Evergreen Cemetery, St. Paris, Champaign, OH; and born to them were:

( MARY MCMORRAN born January 12, 1853 and died November 20, 1939; married 1st William Henry Jones born October 30, 1845 and died April 22, 1888; married 2d George Shidler; and born to Mary and William were:


( ANNA JONES born September 3, 1875 St Paris OH and died July 31, 1959 Columbus, Franklin, OH; owner of the community’s leading millinery store; married September 17, 1902 in St Paris, Lloyd Eugene Brown (Gene) [son of Andrew & Sarah (Jackson) Brown] born October 11, 1873 St Paris and died August 11, 1951 Columbus OH; both buried Evergreen Cemetery, St Paris, Champaign, OH; prepared himself for teaching, but did not follow that vocation, instead taking a position as a clerk in a grocery store and drug store in St Paris until 1901; he was publisher of the weekly newspaper, the St Paris News-Dispatch; he and Walter Wiant bought it in 1909 and Gene became the sole owner in 1920 then sold it in 1933; he was the first president of the St Paris Library when it opened in 1936 and remained in that office for 14y; and born to them was:

( GENEVIEVE ARCEVILLE BROWN born May 22, 1905 St Paris OH and died July 10, 1993 Richmond VA; married January 1, 1930 in Sharon PA, Frank Heald Ross born April 17, 1901 Bartlett OH and died January 17, 1984 Richmond; 1983 resided Richmond VA; both buried Evergreen Cemetery, St Paris; and born to them was:


( GARNARD JONES married Mary [maiden name unk] - no offspring

( ELIZABETH JONES (Aunt Lib) married Frank Zea - no offspring

Born to Mary and her second husband, George, were:

( NAOMI SHIDLER married a Mr. Beltz; and born to them were:

( MARY BELTZ married John McGee, whose father lived in Cherokee KS; 1983 resided Portland OR; and born to them was:


( MARILYN BELTZ ELIZA MCMORRAN (Eliza Alice) born July 30, 1855 and died August 1, 1926 St. Paris OH; married June 3, 1878 at St Paris, Flavious Josephus Gearhart [son of Wesley Cutler & Mahala (Loudenback) Gearhart] born November 7, 1854 OH and died July 4, 1888 Champaign Co OH; both buried Evergreen Cemetery, St. Paris OH; and born to them were:

( J. MACK GEARHART born August 2, 1879 St. Paris OH and died January 19, 1927 Piqua OH; buried Evergreen Cemetery, St Paris; married 1st April 7, 1910 in Champaign Co OH, Grace E Apple - no offspring; married 2d Caroline (Carrie) Detrick and born to them was:

( HELENDENE ADELLA GEARHART born July 6, 1915 Miami Co OH and died November 1969 Piqua OH; married 1st George Usserman and 2d Wilbur Baker; buried Evergreen Cemetery, St. Paris OH; and born to Helendene and George were:

( GEORGE EDWARD USSERMAN born October 9, 1937 Piqua OH; married June 9, 1962 at the Catholic Church, Troy OH, Barbara Louise Thompson born April 13, 1943; 1983 resided Troy OH; and born to them were:

( EDWARD JOSEPH USSERMAN born June 7, 1963

( RICHARD GEORGE USSERMAN born September 7, 1965

( DAVID WILLIAM USSERMAN born June 8, 1967

( CAROLYN LOUISE USSERMAN ‘Sue’ born February 10, 1939 Piqua OH; married January 13, 1968 Edgar Howard Mills, Jr., born June 24, 1944; 1983 resided at Piqua; and born to them was:

( TONY LEE MILLS born June 26, 1968

( JAMES MAC USSERMAN born January 20, 1943 Piqua OH; married 1st October 22, 1966 at Piqua, Becky Ann Brubaker - no offspring; married 2d December 4, 1970 Connie Sue Evans born April 8, 1950; and born to them were:


( THOMAS ALLEN USSERMAN born March 16, 1973

( JULIE ANN USSERMAN born April 9, 1975

Born to Helendene and her second husband, Wilbur, were:

( ROSALYN BAKER born October 19, 1946; married November 12, 1971 Zane Rae Krug born August 5, 1935; this was apparently Zane’s second marriage and he brought to the marriage a son, Timothy

( RAYMOND DALE BAKER born February 26, 1950; married June 15, 1968 Nancy Arthur born July 12, 1950; and born to them were:

( ROBIN DEAN BAKER born April 14, 1972

( TERESA DAWN BAKER born October 9, 1975

( BECKY ANN BAKER born June 8, 1952; married November 1973 Robert Eugene Millet born October 1, 1948; and born to them were:

( JACKLYN MARIE MILLET stillborn 1975

( ROBERT EUGENE MILLET, JR., born November 18, 1978

( JUDITH KAY BAKER born October 11, 1954; married July 1972 Von Monroe Cantrell; and born to them were:

( ERIC WAYNE CANTRELL born January 13, 1973

( MELISSA KAY CANTRELL (twin) born February 10, 1974

( MICHELLE GAY CANTRELL (twin) born February 10, 1974

( MARY JO BAKER born October 27, 1959 Piqua OH

( ESTA GEARHART born February 13, 1881 St. Paris OH and died February 12, 1969 Latham Nursing Home, Bellefontaine OH; buried Evergreen Cemetery, St. Paris; married October 14, 1914 Clifford Kenton Showers [son of John & Catherine (Pence) Showers] born January 14, 1883 Jackson Township, Champaign Co OH and died July 9, 1957 Champaign Co; buried Evergreen Cemetery; and born to them were:

( SARAH MARTHA SHOWERS born May 24, 1918 Mad River Township, Champaign Co OH; married September 20, 1947 at the Urbana Methodist Church, Delmar Wesley Hesselgesser [son of Chester Phillip & Retta Mae] born August 12, 1920 Concord Township, Champaign Co; and born to them were:

( JOHN EARL HESSELGESSER born June 14, 1953 at the Mercy Memorial Hospital, Urbana OH; married March 17, 1983 at Xenia OH, Sandra Gail Fraley born August 6, 1956; 1983 resided Xenia OH

( MARK KENTON HESSELGESSER born May 29, 1956 at Mercy Memorial Hospital, Urbana OH; 1983 resided Dayton OH

( KENTON GEARHART SHOWERS born June 12, 1921 and died June 25, 1926 Columbus OH; buried Evergreen Cemetery, St. Paris OH

( ALTON GEARHART (Flavious Alton) born June 1, 1882 St. Paris OH and died October 14, 1932 Champaign Co; buried Evergreen Cemetery, St. Paris; not married

( ERNEST GEARHART (Earnest S) born December 4, 1883 St. Paris OH and died November 20, 1965 Champaign Co OH; buried at Evergreen Cemetery; married 1st December 9, 1908 Odie/Ota Apple; married 2d February 3, 1928 Mary Jane Coe born January 9, 1896 Edgar Co IL and died April 30, 1975; and born to Ernest and Odie were:

( FRANCES GEARHART (Frances M) lived 6 months

( MARGARET GEARHART (Margaret E) born 1911; married a Mr. Helvie; no offspring

Born to Ernest and his second wife, Mary Jane, were:

( INFANT SON (stillborn) born 1929

( MARY CATHERINE GEARHART born December 4, 1925; married 1st Clarence Randolph born June 23, 1934; married 2d January 26, 1980 Thomas E. Diehl; 1983 resided Lake Luzerne NY; and born to Mary and Clarence were:

( LISA KENTON RANDOLPH born April 29, 1961

( PAUL SHELDON RANDOLPH born November 14, 1963

( JOHN FERRIS RIKER (Photographs) born October 1, 1828 Hamilton Co OH and died April 7, 1909 St Paris, Champaign, OH; Civil War Vet, Captain in Company E, 113th Ohio Infantry Regiment mustering in November 20, 1862 for 2 years, discharged because of physical indisposition; the first mayor of St. Paris OH in 1858 at the time of the incorporation of town, again elected to that office in 1892; Gold Rush participant along with his brothers and others, made the trip by wagon train returning in 1854 after an absence of about two years; his connection with the Church dates frolm 1851, when he united with the Mount Pleasant Baptist Church; later he was one of the founders of the Saint Paris Baptist Church, with which he was actively idenfitied until his death; aside from his Church relations, he has been intimately associated with Sunday School work, holding at different times the positions of teacher and superintendent; married November 30, 1854 in St. Paris, Eliza Ann Lickliter/Lichlider/Licklider born October 21, 1832 Shenandoah Valley VA and January 29, 1931 St Paris; buried Evergreen Cemetery; she taught a Sunday School class for about 80y, having attended at one time for 10y without missing a Sunday; and born to them were:

( FREEMAN ELWOOD RIKER (Photo) born February 11, 1857 St. Paris OH and died April 1, 1940 Indianapolis IN; blacksmith by trade in St Paris in Henry Saylor’s carriage shop; 1881 with partner Will Walborn, started sign painting and carriage repair business; volunteer fireman; Republican county committeeman; strong Baptists in their church; liked to smoke cigars; co-owner of the Walborn-Riker Co; see; married October 8, 1882 in Piqua OH, Mary Jane Dann (Minnie) [dau of Jonathan & Sarah (Jones) Dann] born August 30, 1958 Sidney OH (New Haven CT) and died 1931; buried Crown Hill Cemetery, Indianapolis; she attended Denison U in Granville OH; came to St. Paris to teach in thehigh school and there they met; she was the only woman of her generation in the St Paris who possessed a college degree; and born to them were:

( JAY DANN RIKER born July 1883 St Paris OH; buried March 6, 1930 Crown Hill Cemetery, Indianapolis IN

( LEAH GERTRUDE RIKER born June 1885 St Paris OH and died 1915

( FLORENCE EMMA RIKER born December 1, 1886 St Paris OH and died there February 16, 1887; buried Evergreen Cemetery, St Paris

( BENJAMIN HARRISON RIKER (Ben) (Photos) born January 1889 St Paris OH and died 1962 Indianapolis IN; graduated Ohio State U 1911; taught English at Shawnee OK High School for a year, then was advertising writer for Prest-O-Lite Corp of Indianapolis 1912-19; WWI Vet; married Alice Lenox (1881-1967); he was author of Pony Wagon Town 1948, a book about his life with his father in the 1890s, and his father’s pony wagon factory; entered the book retail business as owner of a store in Des Moines IA; 1926 became manager of the J G Sheehan bookstore in Detroit MI and in 1932 went to Ayres where he was manager of the book department retiring in 1954; chairman of the publications committee of the Indiana Historical Society; also a longtime member of the publications committee of the Indianapolis Art Association; active member of the Indianapolis Literary Club for 25y, serving as its president 1947-48; both buried Crown Hill Cemetery, Indianapolis; and born to them was:

( WILLIAM HARRISON RIKER JR (Bill) (Photo) born September 22, 1920 Des Moines IA and died June 26, 1993 Rochester NY; married 1943 Mary Elizabeth Lewis born June 30, 1920 and died March 14, 2002; both buried Crown Hill Cemetery, Indianapolis IN

BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS National Academy of Sciences

William Harrison Riker

September 22, 1920 - June 26, 1993

By Bruce Bueno De Mesquita and Kenneth Shepsle

"WILLIAM RIKER WAS A visionary scholar, institution builder, and intellect who developed methods for applying athematical reasoning to the study of politics. By introducing the precepts of game theory and social choice theory to political science he constructed a theoretical base for political analysis. This theoretical foundation, which he called "positive political theory," proved crucial in the development of political theories based on axiomatic logic and amenable to predictive tests and experimental, historical, and statistical verification. Through his research, writing, and teaching he transformed important parts of political studies from civics and wisdom to science. Positive political theory now is a mainstream approach to political science. In no small measure this is because of Riker's research. It is also a consequence of his superb teaching--he trained and influenced many students and colleagues who, in turn, helped spread the approach to universities beyond his intellectual home at the University of Rochester."


"Bill, as he was known to his friends, was born in Des Moines, Iowa, on September 22, 1920. He was the much-cherished only son of Ben and Alice Riker. Ben, after whom Bill would later name one of his own sons, owned a bookstore in Des Moines. The father's love of books was shared with his son, who was taught to read at the age of three. Bill's ability to learn, precociously revealed, continued with him until his last breath. In a pre-Depression depression in Iowa the Riker family bookstore failed in 1925. Facing hard times, the family moved to Battle Creek, Michigan, and then on to Detroit. Bill's favorite recollection from his Michigan years was that he was given an air rifle for perfect attendance at Baptist Sunday School. The family's fortunes improved following a move to Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1932. There Ben Riker established a fine bookstore at L. S. Ayres, the well-known and innovative Indianapolis department store. Presaging his son's later prominence and intellectual rigor, Ben Riker himself became a highly influential book dealer. When John Bartlow Martin, a well-known journalist, later speechwriter for Adlai Stevenson, John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Robert Kennedy, Hubert Humphrey, and George McGovern, and

ambassador to the Dominican Republic, wrote a personal history of Indiana, Alfred Knopf, Sr., consulted Ben Riker for advice on the book's merits. Bill's father disliked the manuscript, noting that Martin allowed his judgment to be influenced by his "political, social, and economic prejudices." He went on to note that "Most literate Hoosiers--who are the only ones who buy books and in whom I am chiefly interested--will not accept the book as a true picture of Indiana. . . ." ( The father's passion for even-handed objectivity seems to have been inherited by his son. Just such dispassionate even-handedness and analytic objectivity were the driving passions of Bill Riker's intellectual life. Following graduation from Shortridge High School in 1938, Bill went to DePauw University, from which he graduated in 1942. Bill worked for RCA following his graduation. There he learned to understand something about how complex organizations function, a subject that continued to fascinate him during his years as a Ph.D. student at Harvard (1944-48), where he wrote a dissertation on the Congress of Industrial Organizations. Bill married Mary Elizabeth Lewis (M. E.) in 1943, a loving union that lasted for 50 years until Bill's death. M. E. and Bill had four children: two daughters and two sons. One son, Ben, died tragically in an automobile accident in the summer of 1973 while returning with friends from a vacation in Hudson's Bay. This tragedy made even stronger the deep ties of affection that made and make the Riker family such a wonderful group of people. Bill's merits in no small part are due to the support and encouragement he had at home. That encouragement was tempered as well by M. E.'s ability to keep Bill's feet firmly rooted to the ground. On one occasion, for instance, one of us (B.B.dM.) vividly recalls sitting in the Riker living room as Bill explained that he had kept track of his score in over 250,000 games of Solitaire because he was interested in whether randomness really existed. M. E. quickly pointed out that Bill was too cheap to replace the deck of cards (this was before computer Solitaire), so that the cards stuck together when he shuffled, facilitating patterns across games. Alas, he had to admit it was true. During his years at Harvard, Bill established himself as an independent-minded, innovative intellect. Richard L. Park, a classmate at Harvard, recalled that the other graduate students thought Bill both brilliant and extremely odd. Indeed, he was odd. At a time when other political scientists were absorbed with descriptive case studies Bill was struggling with how to study politics more analytically. He was searching for a method that would serve as the platform upon which to build a science of politics. That method was to begin to take shape in his mind a few years later. Following completion of his doctorate in 1948 Bill became an assistant professor at Lawrence University (then Lawrence College) in Appleton, Wisconsin. He remained at Lawrence until 1962, having risen to the rank of professor. Bill maintained close ties with friends at Lawrence and sustained a deep affection for the opportunity Lawrence gave him to explore his ideas about politics. Lawrence University returned the admiration and affection, awarding Riker an honorary doctorate in 1975. While at Lawrence, Bill studied a 1954 paper by L. S. Shapely and Martin Shubik in which they developed a mathematical argument for what they called a "power index." The power index offered a mathematical formula expressing a legislator's power as a function of his ability to swing decisions by turning a losing coalition into a winning coalition. It exemplified a new vein of literature that addressed political processes in the language of mathematics, including the work of John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern, Duncan Black, Kenneth Arrow, and Anthony Downs. Riker rapidly introduced this work into his curriculum at Lawrence and used it as the basis for his new science of politics. He had the vision to see how these strands of research, derived mostly from economics but ironically with little impact in that discipline at the time, could be put to powerful use in building a science of politics. The remainder of his professional life was devoted to developing this science through research, teaching, and institution building."


"In the mid-1950s Riker adopted and built upon a significant array of approaches to the study of political phenomena, including methodological individualism, an emphasis on micro-foundations, game theory, spatial models, axiomatic set-theoretic treatments of rational action, and generalized Condorcet results, questioning the validity of processes for collective decision making. Between 1957 and 1959 Riker wrote three formal papers that indicated his initial steps toward his eventual theoretical synthesis. Two papers drew on Shapely and Shubik's formulation of the power index and a third paper set about determining whether Arrow's Possibility Theorem, which predicted that n-person voting procedures for more than two outcomes should demonstrate an inherent instability, pertained to actual voting practices (1957, 1958, 1959). Whereas these papers were mathematical and attempted to draw generalized conclusions by combining theoretical deduction with empirical tests, they did not as yet put together the pieces that would later characterize positive political theory. Notably, even though Riker was engaging in experiments in coalition formation using a game-theoretic structure, neither game theory nor an explicit "rational action" model was relevant to these early papers. Riker also wrote two papers published in philosophy journals before the close of the decade. These papers discuss the importance of carefully circumscribing the events defining a scientific study and the need to base science on "descriptive generalizations" (1957, 1958). In these articles Riker challenged the standard view in political science that promoted the study of the idiosyncratic details of rare and influential events. This challenge to the case study method and to so-called thick description remains at the core of methodological debates today. By 1959, when he was selected as a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Riker had a clear and explicit vision of the theoretical approach he was to pioneer. In his application to the Center he wrote, "I describe the field in which I expect to be working at the Center as 'formal, positive, political theory.'" He elaborates, "By Formal, I mean the expression of the theory in algebraic rather than verbal symbols. By positive, I mean the expression of descriptive rather than normative propositions." This document is telling of Riker's own sense of intellectual development, and his reflective and unabashed program for political science. He states, I visualize the growth in political science of a body of theory somewhat similar to . . . the neoclassical theory of value in economics. It seems to be that a number of propositions from the mathematical theory of games can perhaps be woven into a theory of politics. Hence, my main interest at present is attempting to use game theory for the construction of political theory. Riker spent the 1960-61 academic year at the Center. In this fertile year away from the responsibilities of teaching he wrote The Theory of Political Coalitions (1962), which served as a transforming study in political science. In The Theory of Political Coalitions, Riker deduced the size principle, introducing the idea of minimal winning coalitions in the study of electoral and legislative politics as an alternative to the view of vote maximization expressed in Downs (1957). The size principle states that in n-person, zerosum games, where side-payments are permitted, where players are rational, and where they have perfect information, only minimum winning coalitions occur. Downs argued that politicians are primarily office seekers rather than policy makers or allocators of resources. As such, they maximize electoral support and, therefore, forge coalitions as large as possible. Riker's decision makers make authoritative allocation decisions and so seek to minimize the number of claimants on the distribution of resources. A vast literature on coalition formation and government stability has grown out of the debate between Riker and Downs. The Downsian model indicates that on unidimensional issues and in winner-take-all elections, politicians adopt (usually centrist) policy positions in order to maximize their vote share. Downs's politicians care only about winning office. They do not concern themselves with the policy or private goods concessions they must make to others in order to win. Riker, in contrast, argued that maximizing votes is costly. Voters are attracted to a candidate by promises about personal benefits. Candidates have preferences of their own about the distribution of scarce resources in the form of private goods to their backers and leftover resources for their own use. To attract votes, politicians must pay a cost by sacrificing some personal interests or granting private side-payments to prospective supporters in an effort to avoid alienating potential voters. Riker argued that rational politicians, motivated primarily by a desire to control resources, seek to attract just enough votes to win and no more, subject to variation above minimal winning size only because of uncertainty about the preferences of voters or their loyalty. By forming minimal winning coalitions politicians make as few concessions as possible, while still controlling sufficient support to maintain governmental authority and pass legislation. Riker's theory of political behavior marked a sharp departure from standard political science views and an equally sharp departure from views

standard in economics. Political scientists at the time frequently wrote normative treatises on governance or attributed political decisions to psychological forces and attitudinal factors. For economists concerned with exchange in the marketplace collective outcomes were seen as a fairly mechanical adding machine equating supply and demand, with neither the marginal buyer nor marginal seller able to influence the market price. Riker drew a fundamental distinction between collective outcomes in economics and in politics. He saw collective outcomes in politics as the product of conscious strategic processes. This is a crucial distinction because the rational actor in political arenas intentionally calculates how to achieve aims in a strategic environment with other strategically acting agents, making game theory the central analytic tool for modeling political processes. When The Theory of Political Coalitions was published, the book created a significant stir precisely because Riker not only exhorted the discipline to become more scientific, but because he showed how to do it. As one reviewer noted, "Although Riker's particular approach is not the answer to all of the discipline's woes, he has certainly succeeded in challenging us by example. Those who would accept the challenge had better come prepared with a well sharpened kit of tools. For, either to emulate or attack, nothing less will suffice" (Fagen 1963, pp. 446-47). Riker was the first political scientist, and indeed the first non-RAND theoretician, to recognize the potential of game theory to understand political interactions. It was Riker who bestowed upon game theory the promise of a new life after RAND defense strategists concluded the theory was of little merit for studying warfare and after economists rejected the hopes and promises of von Neumann and Morgenstern. A later generation of economists grasped its promise for grounding a new mathematics of the market, launching the "non-cooperative revolution" in economics."


"The year 1962 marked a major turning point in Bill's life and in the future of political science. Not only was The Theory of Political Coalitions published, but the Riker family moved to Rochester, New York, where Bill became chair of the Department of Political Science at the University of Rochester. The University of Rochester hired Riker with the understanding that he would have the resources and freedom to build a program modeled after his intellectual vision. Rochester was true to its word, forging a loyalty to the university on Bill's part that was the stuff of legend. Whenever a colleague was tempted by an offer elsewhere, Bill, as department chair from 1962 to 1977, simply could not imagine how anyone could prefer to be anywhere else. Apparently he was right. Hardly anyone left. The cold, long winters of Rochester were no problem given the lively, intellectually stimulating, entertaining, and engaging informal daily exchanges between faculty and graduate students--all treated and feeling absolutely as equals--over bag lunches. Immediately upon his arrival in Rochester, Riker set about outlining a strategy for building the Rochester political science department. His strategy emphasized both behavioral methods and positive theory. The result was 14 new courses and seminars, an entirely new curriculum unlike those found anywhere else at the time. The new Ph.D. requirements stressed quantification and formal analysis. He shifted the emphasis common in other programs from the literature to his focus on developing the tools necessary to do rigorous research into the theoretical properties and empirical laws of politics. The effort succeeded. One decade later, the unranked department Bill inherited was ranked fourteenth in the country, despite never having a faculty larger than 13 during those years (Roose and Andersen, 1970). Another decade later, the department, still small by comparison with its competitors, was ranked among the top 10 and placed its students at the most prestigious universities, in the meantime helping to build sister centers of positive political theory at such institutions as Caltech, Washington University, and Carnegie-Mellon. Riker's efforts on behalf of positive political theory extended beyond the confines of his home department at the University of Rochester. He maintained an active publication record, contributing so many articles to the flagship journal of political science, the American Political Science Review, that its editor wrote to him, "There is some danger of turning this journal into the 'William H. Riker Review." Among the more distinguished was a paper on power (1964), several on experimental methods (1967, 1970)--the latter with his student William Zavoina--and his seminal and controversial theory of the calculus of voting with another of his students Peter Ordeshook (1968). In addition to his major contributions of original research during this period Riker sought to further establish his method through co-authorship with Peter Ordeshook of a textbook that elucidated the parameters of positive political theory. This text, entitled An Introduction to Positive Political Theory (1973), was aimed at advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students, and was an important step in defining positive political theory for a widespread audience. It introduced the assumption of rationality and the formal account of preference orderings, and it demonstrated the positive approach to political science through its application to such political problems as political participation, voting and majority rule, public goods, public policy, and electoral competition. The text also contained discussions on formal theory and deductive results from formal theory including n-person and two-person game theory, the power index, and the size principle. Riker did not limit his efforts to the development of positive political theory at Rochester or to the impact of his own research. Together with other like-minded scholars, Bill formed a community that fostered the rise of rational choice theory as a cross-disciplinary phenomenon. In the early 1960s a meeting of minds occurred, resulting in the founding of the Public Choice Society. Researchers active in these early meetings included subsequent Nobelists Herbert Simon (economics and public administration), John Harsanyi (game theory), and James Buchanan (public finance), as well as Gordon Tullock (public finance), Mancur Olson (economics), John Rawls (philosophy), James Coleman (sociology), and of course, William Riker. The Public Choice Society is noteworthy for helping to generate the critical mass required to establish the rational choice approach as an academy-wide method of inquiry. In founding the society, members ensured that their newly wrought discipline would benefit from an active network of similar-minded intellects. To further this end, the society held annual meetings and initiated an enduring journal, Public Choice."


"Riker personally met with career successes and external honors that established his intellectual legacy and served as community recognition of the significant role he played in remaking political science. In 1974 Riker was elected to the

National Academy of Sciences and thus was among the first political scientists to be inducted into this community. Soon other Rochesterians were in his midst, including Fenno, Shepsle, McKelvey, and Fiorina, as well as "fellow travelers" like John Ferejohn. Riker was elected to the American Academy of the Arts and Sciences in 1975 and in 1983 was chosen to serve as president of the American Political Science Association. Additionally, he was honored, as mentioned earlier, by Lawrence University with an honorary degree. DePauw University, his undergraduate school, likewise honored him in 1979, as did the State University of New York, Stony Brook, in 1986. In 1977 Upsala University in Sweden chose Bill for an honorary doctorate as part of the university's five-hundredth-anniversary celebration. Bill also was the recipient of numerous distinguished fellowships and awards, including a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1983, National Science Foundation grants from 1967 to 1973 and again for 1985-87. He was the Fairchild fellow at Caltech in 1973-74, a visiting professor at Washington University in 1983-84, and the recipient of three teaching awards: one at Lawrence (in 1962) and two at Rochester (in 1988 for undergraduate teaching and in 1991 for graduate teaching). After leaving the department chairmanship, Bill went on to serve as dean of graduate studies at Rochester from 1978 to 1983 and continued to teach an overload even after becoming professor emeritus."


"At the time Bill became president of the American Political Science Association, his research interests were drawn to the role political institutions and political campaigns play in shaping outcomes. His seminal work, Liberalism Against Populism (1982), laid out a fresh and controversial theory of democracy. In it Bill used strategic logic to challenge the idea that democracy leads to especially good and representative public policy, suggesting instead that it had little advantage over other forms of governance on that dimension. Democracy's great advantage lay in the ease with which one could throw the rascals out. This naturally led him to inquire into what politicians do to avoid such a result. A series of papers followed exploring democracy, two-party competition, and the nature of representative government. In 1984 he focused the attention of the discipline on these issues in his article "The Heresthetics of Constitution Making." Here, coining the term "heresthetics" to refer to the manipulation of the structure of issues for political advantage, Bill undertook research that occupied the remainder of his life. He built a theory of how politicians use issues and linkages across issues for strategic advantage. This led him to inquire into how and why campaigns matter. An easily accessible first approximation of an answer was provided in his book The Art of Political Manipulation (1986). His final treatments of issue formation and the rhetoric of campaigning were the centerpieces of his last two books. The first, an edited volume entitled Agenda Formation (1993), was published only days before Riker died. The collection of essays examined how agenda control, political institutions, and political structure induce equilibria to avert chaos in public policy. In his last book, the posthumously published The Strategy of Rhetoric (1996), Riker brought together his concern for heresthetic maneuvering with his concern for political persuasion. He examined the campaign to ratify the U.S. Constitution, using innovative statistical techniques to test his new theory of political persuasion. Most rational choice scholarship takes the institutional structure in which preferences are aggregated as a given in the model. Riker, however, drew attention to the significance of the proactive role of politicians in structuring the environment in which preferences are coordinated into a collective outcome. Thus, Riker contrasted heresthetics with rhetoric. Whereas rhetoric involves persuasion, heresthetics involves strategic manipulation of the setting in which political outcomes are reached; it is in essence a strategy of rhetoric. The Strategy of Rhetoric is a monumental work. It provides an entirely new way to think about strategic uses of rhetoric and campaigning that is defining there search agendas of scholars across the various sub-specialties of political science."


"William Riker's intellectual accomplishments were prodigious. He served as an academic exemplar for anyone who knew him. He was a brilliant and highly productive scholar. He was a dedicated and committed teacher of undergraduates and graduate students. He was a remarkable administrator and institution builder. But above all, he was an astounding human being. We cannot end without speaking of the man beyond the scholar. We have mentioned Bill's loyalty to Rochester and his abiding affection for Lawrence. Bill remained in touch with virtually every Ph.D. student with whom he had worked. He regularly purchased stock through a former student who became a broker. He traveled the world to assist his students in building programs wherever they were. On his seventieth birthday, the political science department at Rochester threw a party and two-thirds of the students who had ever received a Ph.D. from the department came to participate in the celebration. They came at their own expense from places as far away as India, Korea, and Europe. Bill Riker inspired such devotion because he himself was so devoted. As an individual his multidimensional creativity was apparent and permeated well beyond his specialization in the social sciences. He had a photographic memory, recalling precise details from newspaper articles from his childhood or specific paragraphs in books he had read 50 years earlier. His creativity, however, extended beyond this remarkable ability. A simple example illustrates the point. Everyone is familiar with the song, "The Twelve Days of Christmas." Bill, bored with hearing the song on his car radio (he eventually decided he didn't need a radio in his car), but never one to turn away from an analytical or interpretive puzzle, thought about the song, solved the gift-giving algorithm, and discovered that 364 gifts are given, one for each day of the year, except Christmas day, which presumably already had the gift of Christ. An easy enough problem, but only someone of distinct creativity in everything would think to question the meaning of this seemingly trivial song. Consider this second illustration, developed more fully in Riker's The Art of Political Manipulation. Bill had always regarded C. P. Snow's The Masters as one of the great political novels (ranking it second only to Robert Graves's I, Claudius). Nominally, it is a story about the campaign and election of an Oxbridge college master, a contest pitting a humanist against a scientist and thus a vehicle freighted with that very same symbolism and ideological clash found in any national campaign between Tory and Labour or Democrat and Republican. Most readers assume that Eliot, a relatively junior tutor in the college--as much observer as participant in the unfolding political drama and the disinterested narrator of the tale--is the voice of Snow himself. One of the more senior residents of the college, Chrystal (all are identified only by surnames), is the personification of the political insider and most important of all is pivotal to the outcome; he will make the next master according to how he ultimately decides. In the final scene each elector in the college rises, first announcing his own full name and then declaring for whom he supports with his vote. Chrystal rises and declares himself Charles Percy Chrystal. Or, as Riker notes, C. P. Chrystal--a small play on the author's own name, C. P. Snow. It is Chrystal, not Eliot, who is the voice of the author! Snow, whether consciously or not, fancies himself the insider, the pivot, the maker and breaker of leaders, not the mere observer and narrator. The novel is a truly exciting story of political intrigue; that in itself is sufficient unto the day for most of us interested in politics. Bill Riker went deeper than most of us with the insight that behind the drama of politics is introspection, calculation, personal ambition, even hubris. This may not be powerful literary criticism, but it is first-rate political intuition. It is the product of an uncommon mind. Bill's skills as an administrator included the great subtlety with which he managed his department. Bill often dropped into the offices of his colleagues to chat, frequently taking them for walks in parkland owned by the University of Rochester (the trustees' garden). Naturally, assistant professors were especially flattered by the attention, even more so when, as it happened with one of us (B.B.dM.), it resulted in a jointly written article. Years later, when that former assistant professor became department chair, he asked Bill what the chair does. Bill replied that the chair drops in causally on junior faculty, chats with them, takes them out occasionally, and that way knows whether they are on a good path toward tenure. The chair helps steer junior colleagues so that they do the best they can. That is, even in the most informal moments part of him was thinking about how to help others succeed. On his deathbed, Bill Riker continued his devotion to helping others. Hospitalized, knowing that his death was imminent, he asked a colleague to let a student know that he had read her paper and thought it was excellent.

Remarkably, he apologized that he was unable to give her written comments. At 10 p.m. on the night he died in a hospice, Bill, extremely weak and barely audible, reminded one of us (B.B.dM.) of advancements and honors he desired for a former student and long-time colleague at Rochester. He died a few hours later. His last three days, when he knew he would not survive the weekend, were lived with as much grace and generosity of spirit as any of us could hope for in a lifetime. Bill Riker was a once-in-a-century man."

And born to them were:




( BEN RIKER (-1972)

( HELEN MARIE RIKER born December 18, 1892 St Paris OH and died June 28, 1980 Indianapolis IN; buried there Crown Hill Cemetery

( MARY JEANETTE RIKER born October 7, 1894 St Paris OH and died April 2, 1981 Indianpolis IN; buried there Crown Hill Cemetery

( CARRIE BELL RIKER (Photo) born October 21, 1860 St Paris OH and died there February 3, 1949; married December 9, 1885 in St. Paris, Frank B Frazier born March 24, 1857 and died November 26, 1912; both buried Evergreen Cemetery, St. Paris OH; and born to them was:

( LUCILLE FRAZIER (Photo) born December 9, 1886 St Paris OH and died August 4, 1959 Dayton OH - unmarried

( MARY RIKER (Emma) (Photographs) born October 29, 1868 St. Paris OH and died February 11, 1930 Columbus OH; married October 6, 1889 in St Paris, Charles B Brown [son of Levi & Mariah (Miller) Brown] born October 8, 1864 St Paris and died there September 15, 1926; buried there Evergreen Cemetery; he worked as a blacksmith in the Walborn-Riker Co, it is said that every wheel and axle first passed through Charley Brown’s forge before it became a finished pony wagon cart; these carts sold all over the world and single-handedly put St. Paris OH on the map back in the late 1800s; he was for many years a member of the St Paris Knights of Pythias Lodge #344; spent several years in road construction; engaged in grocery business with his brother-in-law; and born to them were:

( RACHEL RUTH BROWN born August 20, 1893 St Paris OH and died August 24, 1952 Columbus OH; married June 2, 1917 in St Paris, Wilbur Henry Whiston born August 5, 1892 Sistersville WVA and died February 6, 1965 Columbus OH; both buried Evergreen Cemetery, St Paris; and born to them were:

( JEAN WHISTON born March 25, 1918 and died June 10, 1918

( RICHARD RIKER WHISTON born March 4, 1920; married Martha Maria Wolfe and they had 2 kids

( DONALD HERDMAN WHISTON born January 24, 1924 Columbus OH and died October 9, 2000 South Bend IN; married Doris Ellen Stahl (Pat) and they had 2 kids

( HERBERT FERRIS BROWN born August 23, 1897 Piqua OH and died April 19, 1969 St Paris; degree from Ohio State U; a dentist in St. Paris; a bee-keeper; active in Boy Scouts; charter member of the Lion’s Club and American Legion; was a Private First Class working in the Evacuation Hospital in France, WWI; married May 4, 1920 in St Paris, Kathleen Kite [dau of Franklin & Daisy (Cutler) Kite] born July 19, 1897 Mad River Township, Champaign Co OH and died March 22, 1988 Covington OH; both buried Evergreen Cemetery, St Paris; she was a member of the St Paris Methodist Church, the St Paris Antique Study Club, and a lifetime member of the Diamond Chapter #84, Order of the Easter Star and born to them was:

( ROBERT MYRON BROWN (Bob) born March 4, 1922; married Jeanne L Carnes

( AARON D. RIKER (Photos) born July 19, 1830 OH and died July 25, 1914; Civil War Vet; who mustered in October 11, 1861, as a Private, in Company E, 66th Ohio Infantry Regiment for a 3y term; January 1, 1863 he was promoted to Sergeant; April 12, 1865 promoted to Lieutenant; mustered out July 15, 1865 near Louisville KY; after the war ran a successful lumber business and was postmaster of St. Paris; married 1st October 17, 1854 in Champaign Co OH, Clara Henderson who died c1867; married 2d Catherine Williams [dau of William & Mary] born February 1, 1836 Champaign Co OH and died April 11, 1885 St Paris OH [The marriages may be reversed.]; and born to Aaron and Catherine were:

( CLARA RIKER born August 8, 1855 OH; married a Mr. Henderson (October 17, 1878 in St Paris, William Anderson born DeGraff OH) and born to them was:


( ORA RIKER (Orie M) born May 5/7, 1860 MO and died September 11, 1904; married a Miss Magovern

( ESTELLA RIKER born September 20, 1862 St. Paris OH; married a Mr. Fromme and they lived in California; and born to them were:




( ELIZABETH RIKER (Lizzie) born August 5, 1867/68 St. Paris OH and died July 18, 1940; married John Snapp [son of Daniel & Julia (Burger) Snapp] born March 27, 1869 and died June 30, 1956; and they lived near St. Marys OH; and born to them were:

( EDGAR SNAPP married Emma Heyst and they had a child

( HAZEL SNAPP married William Geiger and they had 2 kids

( PAULINE SNAPP married Paul Bolick and they had 2 kids

( WILLIE RIKER born February 7, 1869 and died February 25, 1869; buried Spring Grove Cemetery, Champaign Co OH

( SOLOMON RIKER born October 14, 1832 OH and died November 7, 1907; married 1st Delinda {maiden name unk} born c1837 and died c1877 (August 17, 1851 in Champaign Co, Barbara Maggert); married 2d April 8, 1877 Sarah Belle Overton who died February 27, 1899; and born to Solomon and presumably, Sarah, were:

( FRANK RIKER born St. Paris OH and lived in California; unmarried

( ELVIRA RIKER (twin) born St. Paris OH; married a Mr. Hussy


( WILLIAM J. RIKER born October 7, 1835 Champaign Co OH and died February 16, 1873/5 Champaign Co OH (Hartford, Lyon, KS); served as a Private, Company G., 66th Infantry (OH?) for three years during the Civil War; a carpenter by trade; married Susanna Custenborder and in 1870, they moved to Kansas where he took up a government claim near Hartford, Coffee Co KS; and born to them were:

( NELSON P. RIKER was a resident of Elevation, Shawnee Co KS; a farmer; married

( AMY V. RIKER married L. K. Apple and lived in Hartford, Lyon Co KS

( CHARLES RIKER (Charles A or Charles H) born 1866 Logan Co OH; connected with Riker and Ferris Families, early settlers of Ohio near Cincinnati; 1879 he returned to Ohio, from Kansas, and lived with relatives for 3y; got his education and then returned to Kansas; 1889 moved to Shawnee Co KS; 1902 purchased the Old Antrim Homestead 4 miles west of Elmont; 1906 came to Topeka and bought 10 acres; married 1888 Effie D. ‘Delle’ Long [dau of Dr. Long of Coffee Co KS]; both Charles and Delle died in Topeka

( ANN BELL RIKER died at an early age


( MAUD RIKER died in infancy


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