This document contains brief discussions of major influences on politics, social organization, science, religion, philosophy, commerce and historically significant moments of the nineteenth century which influenced the thinking of the



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THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION




BEFORE THE 18TH CENTURY, THE POPULATION GROWTH RATE IN WESTERN EUROPE WAS SLOW. THE VILLAGE WAS THE BASIC SOCIAL UNIT. MOST PEOPLE LIVED IN ISOLATION TO OTHER VILLAGES BECAUSE TRANSPORTATION WAS SLOW AND EXPENSIVE. PRODUCTS WERE MADE BY HAND. IN MANY PLACES IN EUROPE, MANUFACTURING WAS CARRIED ON BY A TIGHTLY ORGANIZED GUILD SYSTEM.

(1) IN IT, AN APPRENTICE WAS TAUGHT HIS TRADE BY A MASTER CRAFTSMAN. IN ENGLAND, THE GUILD SYSTEM WAS REPLACED BY THE DOMESTIC SYSTEM. IN IT, A MERCHANT CAPITALIST (OWNER OF RAW MATERIALS AND TOOLS) WOULD GIVE THE RAW MATERIALS TO ARTISANS TO BE WORKED ON IN THEIR HOMES. THE CAPITALIST WOULD THEN SELL THE FINISHED PRODUCT FOR A PROFIT AND GIVE THE WORKER A WAGE FOR HIS WORK. THE DOMESTIC SYSTEM EXISTED IN ENGLAND FOR 200 YEARS AND WAS NOT SERIOUSLY THREATENED UNTIL 1815. A SERIES OF INVENTIONS, HOWEVER, IN THE 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES WERE TO TRANSFORM THE WAY PEOPLE MADE A LIVING AND LIVED IN SOCIETY. THESE INVENTIONS BEGAN THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. MACHINES INCREASED THE INDUSTRIAL OUTPUT OVER A HUNDRED AND THEN THOUSANDFOLD COMPARED WITH BY HAND. IT BEGAN IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY. COTTON WAS THE FIRST INDUSTRY TO BE REVOLUTIONIZED IN GREAT BRITAIN. COTTON DOMINATED THE MOVEMENT OF THE ENTIRE ECONOMY OF GREAT BRITAIN. COTTON MANUFACTURING FORMED NEARLY 50% OF THE ANNUAL VALUE OF ALL BRITISH EXPORTS BETWEEN 1816 AND 1848 AND FROM THE 1790'S UNTIL THE 1860'S, BRITISH COTTON FOUND ITS SUPPLY IN THE SOUTHERN STATES OF THE U.S. AMONG INVENTORS THAT HELPED THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY WAS ELI WHITNEY, AND AMERICAN WHO INVENTED THE COTTON GIN IN 1793. ALONG WITH MACHINES THAT PRODUCED OUTPUT CAME MACHINES THAT PRODUCED NEW POWER AND ENERGY SOURCES.

(1) UNTIL THAT TIME, POWER SOURCES HAD BEEN THE HORSE, OXEN, AND WATER MILLS. (2) IN 1785, THANKS TO THE SCOTTISH INVENTOR JAMES WATT, THE FIRST STEAM ENGINES FOR PUMPING WERE UTILIZED. (3) VASTLY IMPROVED METHODS FOR REFINING IRON AND MINING COAL WERE ALSO INVENTED. COAL WAS THE MAJOR SOURCE OF INDUSTRIAL POWER IN THE 19TH CENTURY. IN 1800, BRITAIN PRODUCED ABOUT 90% OF THE WORLD OUTPUT.

THIS INDUSTRY STIMULATED THE BASIC INVENTION WHICH WAS TO TRANSFORM THE CAPITAL-GOODS INDUSTRIES - THE RAILWAY. BECAUSE OF THE STEAM ENGINE'S ABILITY TO PUMP WATER, MINE SHAFTS COULD NOW BE SUNK MUCH DEEPER. MACHINES ALSO PRODUCED A REVOLUTION IN THE AREA OF TRANSPORTATION.




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