This document contains brief discussions of major influences on politics, social organization, science, religion, philosophy, commerce and historically significant moments of the nineteenth century which influenced the thinking of the


- THE THIRD SET OF REVOLUTIONS IN THE AGE OF METTERNICH



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- THE THIRD SET OF REVOLUTIONS IN THE AGE OF METTERNICH

[from http://www.wpunj.edu/~history/study/ws2/set7b.htm]


This article covers the revolutions of 1848, and also discusses important social influences of the industrial revolution, and romanticism. Significant personalities are highlighted and should be researched further.

- FRANCE , ITALY , GERMANY , HUNGARY

THE REVOLUTIONS THAT SWEPT EUROPE IN 1848 WERE THE MOST VIOLENT SINCE THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. THEY SHARED THE COMMON CHARACTERISTIC OF NATIONALISM, LIBERALISM, AND ROMANTICISM.

FRANCE :

THEY BEGAN IN PARIS AND WERE A REVOLT OF THE WORKING CLASS TO OBTAIN POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC RIGHTS. LOUIS PHILIPPE HAD CONTINUED TO TURN HIS CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY MORE CONSERVATIVE. FREEDOM OF THE PRESS BECAME SEVERELY RESTRICTED. FROM 1840 TO 1848 THE GOVERNMENT OF FRANCE WAS DOMINATED BY FRANCOIS GUIZOT, LOUIS PHILIPPE'S PREMIER. A FALTERING ECONOMY ADDED TO THE PRESSURE FOR A MORE LIBERAL AND REPRESENTATIVE REGIME. THE "BOURGEOISIE KING" LOUIS PHILIPPE WAS OVERTHROWN AND THE SECOND FRENCH REPUBLIC WAS PROCLAIMED IN FEBRUARY 1848. THE FORCES OF WORKERS FAVORING A MODERATE REPUBLIC DEFEATED THOSE WORKERS FAVORING STRONG SOCIALISM. WHEN UNIVERSAL MANHOOD SUFFRAGE WAS GRANTED, THE PEOPLE ELECTED A CANDIDATE WHOSE VIEWS WERE COMPLETELY UNKNOWN, LOUIS NAPOLEON (THE NEPHEW OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE) IN DECEMBER 1848.

ITALY

-REVOLTS BROKE OUT ALL OVER ITALY IN 1848. LIKE GERMANY, ITALY WAS DISUNITED. ONLY PIEDMONT AND THE PAPAL STATES HAD ITALIAN RULERS. WHILE THE SPANISH BOURBONS CONTROLLED SICILY AND NAPLES, MOST OF ITALY WAS CONTROLLED BY THE HAPSBURG EMPIRE. THE MOVEMENT TO UNITE ITALY INTO A SINGLE NATION WAS CALLED RISORGIMENTO (THE RESURGENCE OF ITALY). IN ROME, THE THEN LIBERAL PIUS IX WAS OVERTHROWN BY GIUSEPPE MAZZINI, "THE SOUL OF ITALY," AND BY GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI, "THE SWORD OF ITALY." BECAUSE OF FRENCH CATHOLIC PUBLIC OPINION, LOUIS NAPOLEON SENT TROOPS THAT CRUSHED THE REVOLT AND RESTORED THE NOW REACTIONARY PIUS IX TO THE THRONE. IN NORTHERN SECTIONS OF ITALY, AUSTRIAN TROOPS CRUSHED THOSE LOCAL REVOLTS. BY 1850, THE OLD ORDER WAS RESTORED THROUGHOUT ITALY AND THE REUNIFICATION DID NOT TAKE PLACE AT THIS TIME.

AUSTRIA

-A SERIOUS REVOLT BROKE OUT IN AUSTRIA BY LIBERALS AND BY THE DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS. THIS TIME, METTERNICH WAS FORCED TO RESIGN AND FLEE AUSTRIA. AUSTRIAN TROOPS DID CRUSH REBEL FORCES, BUT AGREED TO A NEW HAPSBURG RULER, FRANCIS JOSEPH. AUSTRIAN TROOPS, WITH THE HELP OF RUSSIA, PUT DOWN A FIERCE HUNGARIAN ATTEMPT FOR INDEPENDENCE LED BY LAJOS KOSSUTH. THIS ATTEMPT WAS TRYING TO CREATE AN AUTONOMOUS HUNGARIAN STATE WITH FREEDOM OF THE PRESS, ABOLITION OF PRIVILEGE, ANNUAL MEETINGS OF THE ASSEMBLY (DIET) AND LIMITED MALE SUFFRAGE BASED ON PROPERTY OWNERSHIP. LIKE ITALY, THE HUNGARIAN REVOLUTION FAILED.

GERMAN CONFEDERATION

REVOLTS BROKE OUT ALL THROUGHOUT THE GERMAN STATES, INCLUDING PRUSSIA. LIBERALS, WITH MIDDLE CLASS BACKING, CALLED FOR THE MANY STATES TO SEND REPRESENTATIVES TO THE FRANKFORT ASSEMBLY FOR THE PURPOSE OF UNITING GERMANY. THE ASSEMBLY DECIDED TO OFFER THE CROWN OF EMPEROR TO FREDERICK WILLIAM IV OF PRUSSIA. THIS WAS TO BE A LIMITED MONARCHY. TO THEIR HORROR, HE TURNED IT DOWN SAYING THAT HE WOULD NOT "PICK UP A CROWN FROM THE GUTTER." THE PRUSSIAN KING THUS UNDERMINED THE LIBERAL MOVEMENT AND IT FAILED. LIKE ITALY AND HUNGARY, GERMAN UNIFICATION FAILED. THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1848 GENERALLY FAILED FOR VARIOUS REASONS INCLUDING: LIBERAL CONSTITUTIONS AND INCREASED CIVIL RIGHTS FAILED TO OBTAIN STRONG SUPPORT FROM THE MASSES. REVOLUTIONARIES WERE NOT UNITED AMONG THE DIFFERENT "COUNTRIES". LEADERS OF THE REVOLUTION WERE INEXPERIENCED AND LEFT INTACT ESTABLISHED AUTHORITY. NATIONALISM DIVIDED REVOLUTIONARIES AND PREVENTED COOPERATION. NO MAJOR POWER WAS WILLING TO INTERVENE AGAINST THE POWERS OF AUSTRIA AND RUSSIA.





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