This document contains brief discussions of major influences on politics, social organization, science, religion, philosophy, commerce and historically significant moments of the nineteenth century which influenced the thinking of the


AMERICA PRODUCED ITS OWN GREAT AUTHORS: (1) WASHINGTON IRVING -



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AMERICA PRODUCED ITS OWN GREAT AUTHORS: (1) WASHINGTON IRVING - RIP VAN WINKLE ,(2) NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE THE SCARLET LETTER (3) HENRY DAVID THOREAU WALDEN AND AN ESSAY ON CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE

ROMANTICISM WAS TO PRODUCE ITS OWN STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE AS WELL. DURING THE 18TH CENTURY, ARCHITECTURE WAS OF THE CLASSICAL STYLE. BEGINNING IN 1830, THERE WAS A "GOTHIC REVIVAL" WHICH STRESSED TOWERS AND POINTED ARCHES.

ROMANTICISM BROUGHT ABOUT MAJOR CHANGES IN THE WORLD OF MUSIC. THE 18TH CENTURY STYLE OF MUSIC CONFORMED TO THE CLASSICAL STYLE. THE MUSIC HAD BEEN THAT OF THE MINUET AND THE SONATA, WHICH HAD A LOT OF FORM, PROPORTION, AND PRECISION. THE PERSON CHIEFLY RESPONSIBLE FOR CHANGING THIS WAS LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN (1770-1827). BEETHOVEN, INFLUENCED BY ROMANTICISM, ADDED TO MUSIC'S EMOTIONAL FORCES NEVER BEFORE HEARD. (1) HE COMPOSED 9 SYMPHONIES AND WROTE HIS 9TH SYMPHONY WHILE TOTALLY DEAF. (2) IN SHORT, BEETHOVEN SUCCEEDED IN FREEING MUSIC FROM DRY FORMALISM. IN ADDITION TO BEETHOVEN, GERMANY ALSO GAVE US BRAHMS (1833-1897). HE BECAME THE GREATEST COMPOSER OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY. (1) SCHUBERT, MENDELSSOHN, AND WAGNER WERE AMONG THE GREAT GERMAN COMPOSERS. FROM ITALY, ROSSINI (1792-1868) AND VERDI (1813-1901) WERE GIANTS IN THE FIELD OF MUSIC. FROM POLAND CAME CHOPIN (1810-49) - WHO WAS ONE OF THE WORLD'S GREATEST COMPOSERS AND PIANISTS. FROM HUNGARY CAME TCHAIKOVSKY (1840-1893) FAMOUS FOR HIS 1812 OVERTURE. FROM RUSSIA CAME TCHAIKOVSKY (1840-1893), FAMOUS FOR HIS 1812 OVERTURE.

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