This document contains brief discussions of major influences on politics, social organization, science, religion, philosophy, commerce and historically significant moments of the nineteenth century which influenced the thinking of the


THE FACTORY SYSTEM WAS ALSO AN ECOLOGICAL DISASTER. THE DOMINANT ECONOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF THE NEW INDUSTRIAL AGE WAS PUT FORTH BY



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THE FACTORY SYSTEM WAS ALSO AN ECOLOGICAL DISASTER. THE DOMINANT ECONOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF THE NEW INDUSTRIAL AGE WAS PUT FORTH BY ADAM SMITH THE "FATHER OF MODERN ECONOMICS." HE ADVOCATED LAISSEZ FAIRE ECONOMICS. THIS DOCTRINE CALLED FOR THE GOVERNMENT TO KEEP ITS HANDS OFF BUSINESS. HE STATED THAT BUSINESS WOULD PROSPER IF LEFT UNCHECKED AND COMPLETELY FREE. LAISSEZ FAIRE WAS THE GOSPEL OF THE INDUSTRIALISTS AND THE OFFICIAL POLICY OF GREAT BRITAIN AND THE U.S.

IN RESPONSE TO LAISSEZ FAIRE AND THE EVILS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION, THERE GREW UP THE PHILOSOPHY OF SOCIALISM. IN GENERAL, IT CONDEMNED THE PRIVATE CONCENTRATION OF WEALTH IN THE HANDS OF A FEW, AND CALLED FOR PUBLIC OR WORKER OWNERSHIP OF BUSINESS. THE SOCIALIST BELIEVED THAT THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD ENSURE COOPERATION AMONG BUSINESSES INSTEAD OF FIERCE ECONOMIC COMPETITION. THE MOST RADICAL FORM OF SOCIALISM WAS FOUNDED BY KARL MARX (1818-83) AND WAS CALLED COMMUNISM. IN HIS WORKS, THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO (1848) AND IN DAS CAPITAL (1867), HE OUTLINED THE THEORY OF COMMUNISM INCLUDING: ALL HISTORY WAS AN ECONOMIC INTERPRETATION, AND IS A STRUGGLE BETWEEN CLASSES. THE PRESENT EXPLOITERS, THE CAPITALISTS, WOULD DESTROY THEMSELVES AND BE REPLACED BY THE WORLD'S FIRST CLASSLESS SOCIETY MADE UP OF THE PROLETARIAT (WORKERS).





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