This document contains brief discussions of major influences on politics, social organization, science, religion, philosophy, commerce and historically significant moments of the nineteenth century which influenced the thinking of the


THE EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION



Download 95 Kb.
Page10/14
Date28.01.2021
Size95 Kb.
1   ...   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14

THE EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION




- BY 1848, IT WAS CLEAR WHICH COUNTRIES (AREAS) WERE ADVANCED INDUSTRIALLY, I.E., WESTERN EUROPE (MINUS IRELAND AND THE IBERIAN PENINSULA), GERMANY, NORTHERN ITALY, PARTS OF CENTRAL EUROPE, SCANDINAVIA, AND THE U.S. THE GROWTH OF EUROPEAN CITIES SAW A DRAMATIC RISE BETWEEN 1800-1850. GREAT BRITAIN WAS THE LEADER WITH HALF OF ITS POPULATION LIVING IN TOWNS OR CITIES BY 1850. THE FACTORIES PRODUCED SO MANY GOODS THAT SUPPLIES WERE GREATER THAN THE PEOPLES' DEMAND FOR THEM. THEREFORE, WESTERN EUROPE BEGAN TO SEEK TRADE OUTLETS ALL OVER THE WORLD. THE FACTORIES BEGAN TO STRAIN ITS NATION'S SUPPLY OF RAW MATERIALS. AN ABUNDANT SUPPLY OF RAW MATERIALS WAS THUS SOUGHT IN ACQUIRING COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. VAST PARTS OF THE WORLD FELL UNDER WESTERN EUROPEAN POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CONTROL, A POLICY THAT WAS TO BE CALLED IMPERIALISM. THERE WAS A SHARP RISE IN WESTERN EUROPE'S POPULATION BECAUSE FOOD COULD NOW BE MASS PRODUCED AND TRANSPORTED. THE POPULATION OF GREAT BRITAIN, PRUSSIA, AND EUROPEAN RUSSIA ALMOST DOUBLED BETWEEN 1800-1850.

- A MAJOR CHANGE IN SOCIAL CLASSES TOOK PLACE: NO LONGER WAS THE CHIEF DIVISION BETWEEN LANDED ARISTOCRAT AND PEASANT FARMER, BUT AMONG THE MIDDLE CLASS: TOP LEVEL - BANKERS, GREAT INDUSTRIALISTS. MIDDLE LEVEL - MOST MERCHANTS, MANAGERS, ENGINEERS, DOCTORS, LAWYERS, AND PROFESSORS. BOTTOM LEVEL - SMALL SHOPKEEPERS, OFFICE CLERKS, SCHOOLTEACHERS. THE THREAT OF TECHNOLOGICAL UNEMPLOYMENT BECAME A WAY OF LIFE. THE FACTORY SYSTEM ALSO INTRODUCED TERRIBLE NEW WORKING CONDITIONS: EARLY FACTORIES HAD NO SANITARY AND SAFETY CONDITIONS. THEY WERE POORLY VENTILATED, UNHEATED, AND UNSAFE TO WORK IN. THERE WAS NO SYSTEM OF WORKMAN'S COMPENSATION, AND WAGES WERE VERY LOW. THE WORKING HOURS WERE VERY LONG AND THE WORK WAS OFTEN MONOTONOUS AND BORING. BECAUSE OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, LABOR HAD TO LEARN HOW TO WORK IN A MANNER SUITED TO INDUSTRY (NO SEASONAL UPS AND DOWNS THAT HAD BEEN THE NORM ON FARMS).

LABOR DISCIPLINE BECAME DRACONIAN. FINES AND WHIPPINGS FOR ANY INFRACTIONS OF THE RULES WERE OFTEN UTILIZED. WAGES WERE KEPT DELIBERATELY VERY LOW AS A MEANS OF ENSURING THAT WORKERS WOULD STAY ON THE JOB THROUGHOUT THE WEEK. THERE WAS WIDESPREAD ABUSE OF CHILD LABOR. WOMEN WERE OFTEN EXPLOITED BY BEING PAID LESS THAN MEN FOR A FULL DAY'S WORK. OUT OF ALL THE WORKERS IN THE ENGLISH COTTON MILLS FROM 1830-1850, ONLY 25% WERE MEN. OVER 50% WERE WOMEN OR GIRLS AND THE REST WERE BOYS UNDER THE AGE OF EIGHTEEN. BECAUSE MEN EARNED TOO LITTLE TO SUSTAIN THEIR FAMILY, THEIR WIVES AND CHILDREN WERE FORCED TO WORK. CHILDREN WERE FREQUENTLY BEATEN AND THE FAMILY WAS SEPARATED DURING THE WORK WEEK BECAUSE OF DIFFERENT TASKS REQUIRED.

THE INDUSTRIAL CITIES WERE THE SCENE OF GIANT SLUMS. PEOPLE LIVED IN SMALL, OVERCROWDED, POORLY BUILT HOUSES. THE SLUM HOUSES WERE LACKING IN SANITARY CONDITIONS AND WERE A BREEDING GROUND FOR DISEASES. THE MOST ELEMENTARY SERVICES OF CITY LIFE FAILED TO KEEP PACE WITH THE STEADY INFLUX OF PEOPLE INTO THE CITIES, E.G., HOUSING, SANITATION, WATER SUPPLY, STREET CLEANING. THE MOST OBVIOUS CONSEQUENCE OF THIS URBAN DETERIORATION WAS THE REAPPEARANCE OF MASS EPIDEMICS, I.E., CHOLERA, TYPHUS AND TYPHOID FEVER.




Share with your friends:
1   ...   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page