Themes in ap world History


The Aftermath of the Fall of Classical Civilizations



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12. The Aftermath of the Fall of Classical Civilizations

It will be important for you to understand how these civilizations transitioned from classical times to Medieval times.



Han China

Rome

Gupta India

    • Daoism and Buddhism gain popularity

    • Invasions from nomads (Hsiung-nu)

    • political decentralization

    • 589 CE: Sui dynasty reestablishes order in China

    • Confucian culture/traditions kept by the elite classes

    • invading nomads settled and assimilated into Chinese culture

    • small landowners forced to sell to large landowners

    • large landowners became increasingly self-sufficient, leading to a decline in trade, which led to a decline in urban populations

    • Conflict with large Christian minority

    • Constantine established second capital at Byzantium (Constantinople) and converted to Christianity

    • Western portion of empire steadily declined, while eastern portion thrived and continued to trade with the East

    • Huns migrate out of Central Asia, pressuring Germanic tribes of Central Europe to migrate/invade the Roman Empire

    • Germanic tribes establish kingdoms within Roman empire, eventually overthrow western emperor by 476 CE

    • Eastern portion (becoming the Byzantine Empire) faced less pressure from outsiders and more economic prosperity, center for arts

    • Attempt to revive empire during the rule of Justinian (Byzantine emperor), but unsuccessful

    • cities in the west deteriorated and culture/intellectual life declined

    • centralized government replaced by allegiances to Germanic kings

    • Invaders from central steppes from ~500 CE to ~600

    • local rulers (Rajput) replace centralized rule of Guptas

    • interest in Buddhism declined, while adherence to Hindu traditions continued




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