Theme: Authority P: The Mongol Art of War

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Red Seal system

Record of a Red Seal license, dated January 11th, 1608.

The Red Seal system appears from at least 1592, under Hideyoshi, date of the first known mention of the system in a document. The first actually preserved Shuinjō (Red Seal Permit) is dated to 1604, under Tokugawa Ieyasu, first ruler of Tokugawa Japan.  was the founder and first Shogun  of the Tokugawa shogunate Tokugawa issued red-sealed permits to his favourite feudal lords and principal merchants who were interested in foreign trade. By doing so, he was able to control Japanese traders and reduce Japanese piracy in the South Sea. His seal also guaranteed the protection of the ships, since he vowed to pursue any pirate or nation who would violate it.

Besides Japanese traders, 12 European and 11 Chinese residents, including William Adams and Jan Joosten, are known to have received permits. For other people called William Adams see William Adams. Early life Adams was born in Gillingham, Kent, England Jan Joosten van Lodensteijn (c 1560 – 1623 or simply Jan Joosten, was a native of Delft and one of the first Dutchmen in Japan, arriving At one point after 1621, Jan Joosten is recorded to have possessed 10 Red Seal Ships for commerce.

Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, English ships and Asian rulers basically protected Japanese red seal ships, since they had diplomatic relations with the Japanese shogun. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Only Ming China had nothing to do with this practise, because the Empire officially prohibited Japanese ships from entering Chinese ports. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led (But Ming officials were not able to stop Chinese smugglers from setting sail to Japan. )

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