In the midst of this national emergency, Napoleon / Hitler / Bin Laden would eventually launch a sham political coup that subverted the legislative branch and successfully manipulated two executives into transferring control of the national government to a triumvirate front-administration. He quickly transformed the new government into a dictatorship that reestablished civil order through a brutal police state. Having ascended to lead his revolutionary nation, Napoleon / Hitler / Bin Laden proceeded to launch his own geopolitical revolution. In the fall of 1799, the onset of a French economic depression and massive civil unrest triggered the political instability within the French government that culminated in Napoleon's seizure of power and initiation of the Napoleonic Revolution. Throughout Renaissance Europe, Napoleon's political revolution of enlightened nationalistic government (along with his military and cultural revolution) reverberated to mark a major milestone for Western civilization's entry into the modern world.
Even in the Middle East in 1799, Napoleon personally spread the Napoleonic Revolution when he initiated the Zionist movement by promulgating his formal declaration of the modern state of Israel and attempting to found this state by conquering the land of ancient Israel. Beyond the movement for Jewish national identity, Napoleon spread his broader "Enlightenment revolution" into the center of the Islamic world as a result of his simultaneous effort to conquer vital British trade routes. In particular, Egypt's liberation from Napoleon's military occupation in 1799 initiated a Westernization revolution in this heartland of the Islamic world.
In America in 1799, the onset of the Napoleonic Age marked the beginning of an era defined by Napoleon's attempts to foment America's "Second War for Independence" from France's archenemy Britain3.
As occurred in the 1789 French Revolution, France was the center of the Napoleonic Revolution in 1799. In the tumultuous fatherland of Napoleon's future empire, the new wave of political revolution was manifested as a militant movement against the weak government of the democratic republic, which was widely blamed for the country's chaotic condition. In reality, ten years of France's political and social revolutionary upheaval had stagnated economic growth and fomented civil chaos. Additionally, revolutionary France's war against the British-led European coalition had incurred punishing military and economic penalties that coalesced as the economic depression in 1799. The failure of the French revolutionary government to stabilize the explosive economic crisis and stem the tide of civil strife clearly highlighted the fatal weaknesses of the politically factious republic. The 1799 formation of the Second Coalition against France bankrupted the French treasury as it mobilized forces in a desperate bid to repel the coalition’s march to Paris. Having seized upon the failure of Napoleon's Egyptian campaign as a sign of French vulnerability, the enemies of Revolutionary France coalesced for a second time as the Second Coalition (including Britain, Russia, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire) to roll back Napoleon's previous conquests, particularly in Germany and Italy. Launching their first military campaigns in 1799, they forced France to engage this mighty alliance of the world's leading powers on three major fronts. The 1799 military developments marked a major escalation in the war, which had been virtually bereft of European battles since Napoleon's victorious campaign two years earlier. After a decade of military and economic warfare against the leading Western powers, the renewal of large military campaigns threatened Revolutionary France with either military or economic collapse. Also in 1799, Napoleon’s Egyptian failure in itself marked another debilitating loss to the French military and economy.
Internally, the French government only compounded the crisis with ledaership that was hopelessly corrupt, divided and incompetent. Chronic financial weakness threatened funding for the armies keeping the Coalition at bay. Civil chaos mounted as deserters inflated the hoards of bandits who roamed the country. The situation became so desperate that a parliamentary resolution to reestablish the Reign of Terror's Committee of Public Safety was only narrowly voted down. When Napoleon seized power on a mandate of strong central government, his first and most fundamental reform was to remedy the paralyzing economic crisis with the formation of the country’s first national bank, the Bank of France, and more effective taxation. While saving the economy from collapse, Napoleon was unable to create economic prosperity during his reign because he failed to address the underlying problem: France’s constant warfare against the world’s leading powersvii.
* “Internally, the government of the Directory had shown itself to be incurably incompetent, irresolute and divided . . . There is no doubt that the personal incompetence and corruption of the Directors have been exaggerated, and that the difficulties of their situation have not been sufficiently appreciated. They had inherited from the Convention a fearful legacy of debt and inflation, and they had made repeated efforts to restore the currency, balance the budget and ensure a regular revenue by taxation. But all these efforts broke down through the weakness of the central government and the division of power between the Directory and the Councils. Chronic weakness of finance threatened the payment and supply of the armies, and deserters swelled the bands of brigands which infested whole areas of France.” (italics added) - Napoleon and the Awakening of Europe by Felix Markham, 1975, p.42-3 During the French crisis of 1799, Napoleon's Jacobin party capitalized on the opportunity for partisan advancement through political chaos by luring the country to the brink of civil war with mounting threats of a military coup. This Jacobin effort to foment political instability included both direct terrorist intimidation by Jacobin thugs and the inflammation of counterrevolutionary forces through the introduction of provocative political initiatives. Within this precarious environment, widespread desperation increased the French people's blind yearning for a unifying savior like the strong national government promised by Napoleon. After a decade of fighting his way to the top leadership of Revolutionary France, the French national crisis in 1799 swelled Napoleon’s popularity to precipitate his successful coup d’ etat, establishing the dictatorship on which he would base his quest for empire. Jacobins inflamed the 1799 French political crisis with a series of controversial political resolutions, including military mobilization based on new conscriptions and a forced loan from the rich, the restoration of Robespierre’s dreaded Committee of Public Safety, as well as a “Law of Hostages” requiring the arrest of relatives of suspected royalists who had fled Revolutionary France.
In the midst of this national emergency, Napoleon launched a successful sham political coup designed to subvert the ruling revolutionary government's legislative bodies (the Council of Ancients and the Council of 500) and manipulate two of the leaders of the executive branch (Directors Sieyes and Ducos) to assist Napoleon in establishing a triumvirate front-administration (the Consulate). Napoleon quickly transformed the new government into a dictatorship that reestablished civil order through the brutal Fouche police state. Having ascended to lead the revolutionary French nation, Napoleon proceeded to launch his own geopolitical revolution. In the fall of 1929, the onset of an economic depression in America and Germany, which soon precipitated a global economic depression, and the accompanying massive civil unrest triggered the political and economic instability within governments across the world that culminated in the Great Depression Revolution. Independently in countries across the world, this "Big Government" revolution emerged as a necessary intervention of the national government in the economy in order to remedy the absence of federal oversight of the free market that largely caused the Great Depression. This revolution represented a global shift towards economic socialism, as soon exemplified in the Great Depression's epicenter by President Roosevelt's New Deal economy.
In Europe, the Great Depression revolution included the Totalitarian Revolution, a broader movement that greatly expanded the national government's control of society beyond simple economic management to include all facets of life. In the context of the faltering democracies of Europe, this rise of warmongering dictators in the Soviet Union, Italy and Germany involved the manipulation of impotent democratic governments to serve as legitimizing propaganda tools for a single-party dictatorship dedicated to nationalism and imperial warfare.
In the Middle East in 1929, the revolution began with a new wave of Jewish immigration to the land of ancient Israel (the fifth Aliya, which doubled the Jewish population of the region) triggered by the rising European anti-Semitism of the Great Depression. This Jewish influx prompted the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, a future Nazi collaborator and founding father of fascism in the Middle East, to lead the Arab Palestinian inhabitants of the region in countrywide riots targeting Jews that climaxed in the infamous Hebron Massacre. This anti-Semitic attack was an unprecedented Jewish pogrom in the modern Jewish-Islamic conflict in Palestine, beginning the Jewish war that would culminate in the creation of the modern state of Israel.
As occurred in the 1919 post-WWI Revolution, Germany was a major epicenter of the Great Depression Revolution in 1929. In the tumultuous fatherland of Hitler's future empire, the new wave of political revolution was manifested as a militant movement against the weak government of the democratic republic, which was widely blamed for the country's chaotic condition. In reality, ten years of political and social revolutionary upheaval had stagnated economic growth and fomented civil chaos. Additionally, Germany’s involvement in WWI had incurred punishing military and financial penalties that coalesced as the economic depression in 1929. The failure of the revolutionary government to stabilize the explosive economic crisis and stem the tide of civil strife clearly highlighted the fatal weaknesses of the politically factious German Weimar Republic. The 1929 American Stock Market crash forced both the cessation of American loans, which had artificially sustained Germany’s battered post-WWI economy, and the recall of German debts from the past years of these loans. This foreign loan disaster combined with the post-crash decline in world trade to devastate the German economy. A few months after the Great Depression began, the economic and political paralysis forced the German head of state to suspend constitutional governance and rule by emergency decree, a convention that facilitated the rise of Hitler's dictatorship.
During the German crisis of 1929-1933, Hitler's Nazi party capitalized on the opportunity for partisan advancement through political chaos by luring the country to the brink of civil war through mounting threats of a military coup. This Nazi effort to foment political instability included both direct terrorist intimidation by the Nazi SA mobs and the introduction of provocative political initiatives. Within this precarious environment, widespread desperation increased the German people's blind yearning for a unifying savior like the strong national government promised by the Nazis. After a decade of fighting his way to the top of Germany’s revolutionary leadership, the German national crisis in 1929 swelled Hitler’s popularity to precipitate his fringe party’s election to the Weimar government’s leading offices. On this foundation of popular support generated by the Great Depression, the Nazis gradually seized control of the fragile Weimar democracy on which Hitler would base his quest for empire. One of the most inflammatory Nazi political maneuvers at this time involved the appointment of the Nazi boss Herman Goering as President of the Germany’s Reichstag parliament (prior to Hitler's 1933 seizure of power), a development that parlayzed the Reichstag and led to the collapse of the government of German Chancellor Franz von Papen.
In the midst of this national emergency, Hitler would eventually launch a sham political coup that subverted Germany’s Reichstag legislature and successfully manipulated President Hindenburg and Chancellor Schleicher into transferring control of the national government to a triumvirate front-administration. Hitler quickly transformed the new government into a dictatorship that reestablished civil order through the brutal Himmler police state. Having ascended to lead the revolutionary German nation, Hitler proceeded to launch his own geopolitical revolution. In the fall of 1989, the onset of a Soviet economic depression and massive civil unrest throughout the Soviet empire triggered the political instability within the U.S.S.R. that led to the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the cessation of the Cold War and the inception of the post-Cold War geopolitical revolution. The end of the Cold War in 1989 was most powerfully symbolized by the dismemberment of the opening front of the Cold War in Berlin. The fall of the Berlin Wall marked a termination of Cold War hostilities that was officially enshrined with the "Armistice" Malta conference between American President George H.W. Bush and Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev. Instead of by military conflict, the Cold War was decided by a competition to build the most expensive military that pitted the stifled Soviet economy against the American capitalist enterprise. Rather than nuclear armageddon, the loser submitted to economic bankrupcy. The onset of the Soviet collapse, the end of the sixty-year-old clash of superpowers and the rise of America as the unquestioned superpower reverberated in nations across the world.
In the Middle East in 1989, freed from Soviet interference the United States expanded the Carter Doctrine (which advocated the use of U.S. military power to secure the world's treasure trove of cheaply extractable oil in the Middle East) by initiating a permanent, massive U.S. military presence in the region. Prior to the onset of the Soviet collapse, such a power grab would have represented an unacceptable provocation of America’s Cold War nemesis. However, once this collapse became manifest at the end of 1989, within a year the American administration had seized the highly auspicious opportunity provided by the Iraqi-Kuwaiti conflict to control the most coveted strategic prize of the Cold War. On the pretext of providing an American "policing" force to defend the region against the Iraqi dictator that America had spent the past decade sponsoring, President George H.W. Bush claimed this prize that the United States has yet to relinquish nearly two decades later. In the neighboring Palestinian territories, the post-Cold War global Islamic “jihad” against Israel began with the onset of the First Intifada (uprising) in 1989. Months later, America would join its ally Israel as a target of this “jihad” because of the massive U.S. military influx into Islam’s holiest land, Saudi Arabia, to prepare for the conflict with Israel’s archenemy Saddam Hussein.
In the most recently vacated Cold War battleground of Afghanistan, the Al Qaeda revolution began within the 1989 power vacuum when Bin Laden proceeded from the successful mujahedin war against the Soviet Union to embark on his personal war against the remaining superpowerviii. Bin Laden’s initiation of the post-Cold War global Islamic “jihad” against America culminated in Al Qaeda's first major covert terrorist attacks on the United States three years later. As occurred in the 1979 Islamic Revolution, Afghanistan was a major epicenter of the post-Cold War revolution in 1989. In the tumultuous fatherland of Bin Laden's future empire, the new wave of political revolution was manifested as a militant movement against the hopelessly unpopular communist-controlled government of the democratic republic, which was widely blamed for the country's chaotic condition. In reality, after ten years of Afghanistan's political and social revolutionary upheaval from the Soviet invasion, the Cold War proxy conflict and the mujahedin movement had devastated the Afghan infrastructure, economy and civil order. Additionally, Afghanistan’s involvement in the Cold War had incurred punishing military and financial penalties that coalesced as an economic depression upon the Soviet withdrawal in 1989. The failure of the Afghan revolutionary government (including the communist-controlled republic and the unofficial mujahedin political bloc) to stabilize the explosive economic crisis and stem the tide of civil strife clearly highlighted the fatal weaknesses of the politically factious republic. Following the withdrawal of Soviet occupation forces and the cessation of the calamitous Afghan-Soviet War in 1989, the Afghan economic depression was triggered in part by the reduction (and eventual termination) of the vital foreign aid from both Cold War superpowers that had sustained the crippled third-world economyix. Now preoccupied with the collapse of the Soviet Union, America and Russia paid less attention to the recently departed Cold War battlefield. Additionally, the 1989 collapse of the Cold War oil boom produced a major economic recession in Saudi Arabia, a principle source of foreign aid for both Afghanistan and the incipient Al Qaeda organization. To further compound Afghanistan's economic problems in 1989, the Soviet government sealed off access to Afghanistan's most valuable legitimate natural resource (accounting for over half of the country’s legitimate export revenue), a wealth of natural gas reserves augmented by sophisticated extraction and storage facilitiesx.
On top of the devastation wrought by a decade of Soviet occupation and Soviet-mujahedin battles, in 1989 Afghanistan was immediately burdened by: (1) a political and financial power vacuum within the incipient Afghan Interim Republic that was brewing a civil war, and (2) the continuation of the Afghan mujahedin war against the Afghan communists who still controlled every major city. In another example of the collateral damage from the Cold War proxy conflict, these and future Afghan wars were fomented by murderous, megalomaniacal warlords like Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and Osama bin Laden who had been empowered by the CIA, Pakistani and Saudi intelligence and then unleashed by the Soviet withdrawal in 1989. The reduction in U.S. aid to moderating parties at this time corresponded with a refocusing of Saudi funding to radical warlords like Hekmatyar, further stoking the civil warxi. The conflict became so intense that the disastrous Afghan refugee crisis escalated dramatically and most countries withdrew their remaining diplomatic missions in the capital city of Kabul, severing a vital link between the remaining Afghan people and the international community. Additionally, the power vacuum arising from the Soviet withdrawal led to the rise of Afghanistan as a dangerously anarchic narco-state based on bourgeoning cultivation of opium and heroinxii. In this hobbled condition, the Afghan economy followed the Soviet economy into depression. During the Afghan crisis of 1989-1996, Bin Laden's incipient Al Qaeda organization capitalized on the opportunity for partisan advancement through political chaos by luring the country into civil war with mounting threats of a military coup by proxy. Al Qaeda's effort to foment political instability included both direct terrorist intimidation and provocative political initiatives. Within the precarious environment, widespread desperation increased the Afghan people’s blind yearning for a unifying savior like the strong national government promised by Al Qaeda’s Islamo-fascist platform. After a decade of fighting his way to the top leadership of the Radical Islamic Revolution, the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan established the popular Arab myth of Bin Laden as a superpower slayer and vanguard of the revolution. Bin Laden would pursue his quest for a global terrorist empire based on his new celebrity status, a bid aided by the auspicious creation of a terrorist haven via the post-Soviet Afghan civil war. Al Qaeda’s divisive presence among the Afghan mujahedin included a campaign advocating that Afghanistan be transformed into a strict fundamentalist Islamic state to serve as a base for waging war against America and its Middle Eastern allies. Opponents of this effort were subject to terrorist intimidation or assassination. While pursuing this objective, Bin Laden helped to foment civil war among the warring Afghan factions by alternatively funding one warlord against another. After financing the notorious Hekmatyar faction, which made repeated attempts at a military coup against the Afghan Interim Republic, Bin Laden switched allegiances to support the rival Taliban faction. In neighboring Pakistan, the base of the Afghan “jihad”, Bin Laden further destabilized the region by funding anti-American radical Islamist parties in military coup plots aiming to ouster the pro-American Prime Minister Benazzir Bhuttoxiii. As a consequence of years of unending, cataclysmic civil war, the Afghan people were willing to accept even the most extremist government so long as it could stabilize the country.