The usa and European Security


America has historically opposed European defense organization without US participation



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America has historically opposed European defense organization without US participation

  • US’s first reaction to new European defense initiatives, while outwardly supportive, was lukewarm, stressing that it must contribute to NATO’s vitality & to preserving Alliance’s prerogatives.

  • French views on defense in particular are usually met in US with mixture of suspicion & irritation

  • But French position on defense, long dismissed by US officials as extreme & not representative of the EU, has gradually won backing of UK & Germany & has ultimately become EU policy

  • In future, European-led operations promise to relieve pressure on US military personnel—& US taxpayers— & would likely relieve, as well, some of Russia’s concerns with dominant US role in expanded NATO

    NATO Defense Spending as % of GDP (selected countries) Belgium.................................................... 1.5%
    Denmark.................................................. 1.6%
    France ..................................................... 2.8%
    Germany .................................................. 1.5%
    Greece .................................................... 4.8%
    Italy ........................................................ 2.0%
    Spain ...................................................... 1.3%
    Turkey .................................................... 4.4%
    Hungary .................................................. 1.8%
    Poland .................................................... 2.4%

    European average ................................... 2.2%


    United States .......................................... 3.3%


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