The U. S. had a strong economy (healthy job market, increased productivity, increased demand for American products)

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Cold War Test Review

Key ideas to understand about the 1950’s

  • The U.S. had a strong economy (healthy job market, increased productivity, increased demand for American products).

  • Immediately following WWII, women were expected to play supporting role in the family, but increasingly working outside the home.

  • Americans continued to buy on credit.

  • Because rationing from WWII was over, the U.S. transitioned from a war economy to a consumer economy

  • There was a greater investment in education.

  • The “Baby Boom” was when people were having more children.

  • The interstate highway system was created.

  • Women’s rights expanded and women joined the labor force in large numbers.

  • Labor unions merged and became more powerful; workers gained new benefits and higher salaries

  • Eleanor Roosevelt helped to expand human rights & worked as a delegate to the United Nations

  1. What term means a period of tension during which the superpowers were preparing for war but never fought each other directly? Cold War

  1. What two superpowers emerged after World War II? the Soviet Union and the United States

  1. Which President desegregated the armed forces? Harry S. Truman

  1. What happened during Japanese Occupation after WWII? General Douglas MacArthur introduced a democratic form of government and capitalism; Japan resumed self-government and became a strong ally of the Unite States

  1. Which post-WW II organization had the goal to prevent future wars from breaking out? United Nations (U.N.)

  1. The Marshall Plan provided money to help rebuild European economies after World War II.

  1. Who was leader of the Soviet Union who instituted economic and social reform, which helped bring about the collapse of the Soviet Union? Nikita Khrushchev

  1. Which former all-communist country is now divided into independent countries? the Soviet Union

  1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was an alliance formed after WWII by Canada, the U.S. and countries of Western Europe.

  1. The Warsaw Pact was an alliance formed after WWII by the Soviet Union and countries of Eastern Europe.

  1. What theory said that if one nation fell to communism, others would soon follow? the Domino Theory

  1. The space race started in 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite called Sputnik.

    • One year later, the U.S. started a new space organization called NASA.

  1. Name two wars that took place after World War II that started when one nation invaded another to spread communism. Korean War and Vietnam War

  1. The Korean War began in 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea.

    • What was the reason for the invasion?

North Korea wanted South Korea to be communist

    • What countries came to the aid of North Korea?

China and the Soviet Union

    • What country came to the aid of South Korea?

the United States

  1. What did the United States do when nuclear missiles were discovered in Cuba? Blockade of USSR ships to Cuba

    • What were the terms of the agreement between JFK and Khrushchev?

(1) US would not invade Cuba; (2) missiles were removed from Cuba

  1. What event symbolized the Cold War? the construction of the Berlin Wall symbolized division between the West and East (democracy and communism)

  1. After World War II, Germany was partitioned into two countries.

    • Which country became communist and remained under the domination of the Soviet Union? East Germany

    • Which country became democratic? West Germany

  1. What brought about an end to the Cold War? increased openness, freedom and democracy in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union; the Berlin Wall came down; the USSR was split up into independent countries

  1. What was considered to be the only war that the U.S. lost because they were unable to prevent an Asian country from falling to communism? Vietnam War

  1. Which war ended in a truce at the 38th parallel when Eisenhower was president? Korean War

  1. Germany is to World War II as the Soviet Union is to the Cold War.

  1. The U.S. and U.S.S.R. were on the brink of war during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

  1. Which war ended in a stalemate, leaving the country divided? Korean War

  1. The containment policy was started by the U.S. during the Cold War to try to stop the spread of communism.

  1. What gave educational housing and employment benefits to veterans? G.I. Bill of Rights

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