The Tulsa Race Riot By Scott Ellsworth History does not take place in a vacuum



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Endnotes



1 A number of general histories of Tulsa have been written over the years, the most recent being Danney Goble, Tulsa!: Biography of the American City (Tulsa: Council Oaks Books, 1997). In addition, also see: William Butler, Tulsa 75: A History of Tulsa (Tulsa: Metropolitan Tulsa Chamber of Commerce, 1974); Angie Debo, Tulsa: From Creek Town to Oil Capital (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1943); Clarence B. Douglas, The History of Tulsa, Oklahoma: A City With a Personality (3 vols.; Chicago: S.J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1921); Nina Dunn, Tulsa's Magic Roots (Tulsa: Oklahoma Book Publishing Company, 1979); James Monroe Hall, The Beginning of Tulsa (Tulsa: Scott-Rice Company, 1928); and Courtney Ann Vaughn-Roberson and Glen Vaughn-Roberson, City in the Osage Hills: Tulsa, Oklahoma (Boulder: Pruett Publishing Company, 1984).

2John D. Porter, comp., Tulsa County Handbook, 1920 (Tulsa: Banknote Printing Company, 1920). Dr. Fred S. Clinton, "Interesting Tulsa History," a 1918 pamphlet, a copy of which is located in the Tulsa History vertical files in the library of the Oklahoma Historical Society. [Federal Writers' Project], Tulsa: A Guide to the Oil Capital (Tulsa: Mid-West Printing Company, 1938), pp. 23-25, 32, 50, 54. Tulsa City Directory, 1921 (Tulsa: Polk-Hoffhine Directory Company, 1921). Vaughn-Roberson and Vaughn-Roberson, City in the Osage Hills, p. 199.

On the old Tulsa city cemetery, which was located near what is now the intersection of Second Street and Frisco Avenue, see: Jim Downing, "Bulldozers Disturb Pioneers' Final Rest," Tulsa World, February 17, 1970, pp. 113, 613; Mrs. J.O. Misch, "Last Resting Places Not Always Final" and other undated clippings located in the Tulsa Cemeteries subject files at the Tulsa Historical Society; and, interview with S.R. Lewis, Indian Pioneer History Collection, Federal Writers' Project, vol. CVI, pp. 351-352, Oklahoma Historical Society.

3 Tulsa City Directory, 1921. Clinton, "Interesting Tulsa History". Porter, Tulsa County Handbook, 1920. Goble, Tulsa! pp. 78-111.

4While a complete architectural history of Tulsa as not yet been written, the homes of the oil barons have been the subject of careful study. See: Marilyn Inhofe, Kathleen Reeves, and Sandy Jones, Footsteps Through Tulsa (Tulsa: Liberty Press, 1984); and, especially, John Brooks Walton, One Hundred Historic Tulsa Homes (Tulsa: HCE Publications, 2000).

5On the history of Greenwood, see: Eddie Faye Gates, They Came Searching: How Blacks Sought the Promised Land in Tulsa (Austin: Eakin Press, 1997); Hannibal B. Johnson, Black Wall Street: From Riot to Renaissance in Greenwood's Historic Greenwood District (Austin: Eakin Press, 1997); Henry C. Whitlow, Jr., "A History of the Greenwood Era in Tulsa", a paper presented to the Tulsa Historical Society, March 29, 1973; Francis Dominic Burke, "A Survey of the Negro Community of Tulsa, Oklahoma" (M.A. thesis, University of Oklahoma, 1936); and, [National Urban League], A Study of the Social and Economic Condition of the Negro Population of Tulsa, Oklahoma (Washington, D.C.: National Urban League, 1945).

6The standard work on the history of African Americans in Oklahoma is Jimmie Lewis Franklin, Journey Toward Hope: A History of Blacks in Oklahoma (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1982).

7On B.C. Franklin, see: John Hope Franklin and John Whittington Franklin, eds., My Life and An Era: The Autobiography of Buck Colbert Franklin (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1997). The John Hope Franklin quote is from his Foreword to Scott Ellsworth, Death in a Promised Land: The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982), p. xv.

8On the transfer of entrepreneurial experience from the all black towns to Greenwood, credit is due to Professor D.F.G. Williams, an urbanist at Washington University in St. Louis. Professor Williams is currently preparing a scholarly article about Tulsa's African American community at the time of the riot, and was kind enough to share an early version of this work, titled "Economic Dualism, Institutional Failure, and Racial Violence in a Resource Boom Town: A Reexamination of the Tulsa Riot of 1921."

9Mary E. Jones Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster (rpt; Tulsa: Out on a Limb Publishing, 1998), pp. 11, 17. Tulsa City Directory, 1921. Sanborn Fire insurance Maps, Tulsa Historical Society. "Tulsa's Industrial and Commercial District," 1921 map published by the Dean-Brumfield Company, Tulsa. Daily Oklahoman, June 2, 1921. Oral history interview with Nell Hamilton Hampton, Tulsa, September 16, 1998. Oral history interview with Edward L. Goodwin, Sr., Tulsa, November 21, 1976, by Ruth Sigler Avery in Fear: The Fifth Horseman -- A Documentary of the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot, unpublished manuscript.

10Mabel B. Little, "A History of the Blacks of North Tulsa and My Life", typescript, dated May 24, 1971. Tulsa Star, April 11, 1914. Oklahoma City Black Dispatch, June 10, 1921. Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 115-126. Franklin and Franklin, My Life and An Era, p. 193. Tulsa City Directory, 1921. Oral history interviews with: Robert Fairchild, Tulsa, June 8, 1978; V.H. Hodge, Tulsa, June 12, 1978; W.D. Williams, Tulsa, June 7, 197 8; B.E. Caruthers, Tulsa, July 21, 1978; Elwood Lett, Tulsa, May 28, 1998; and Otis Clark, Tulsa, June 4, 1999.

11[State Arts Council of Oklahoma], "A Century of African-American Experience -- Greenwood: From Ruins to Renaissance", exhibition brochure. Oral history interviews with W.D. Williams, Tulsa, by: Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman; and Scott Ellsworth, June 7, 1978. Tulsa City Directory, 1921. Tulsa Star, January 4, 1919. New York Evening Post, June 11, 1921. William Redfearn vs. American Central Insurance Company, Case 15851, Oklahoma Supreme Court.

12Tulsa Star: May 30, 1913; June 13, 1913; February 7, 1914; March 7, 1914; April 4, 1914; April 11, 1914; September 12, 1914; February 16, 1918; May 4, 1918; and January 4, 1919. Tulsa World, June 6, 1921. Daily Oklahoman, June 2, 1921. Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 83, 89-90. Tulsa City Directory, 1921. Kavin Ross, "Booker T. Washington High School -- Ellis Walker Woods Historical Marker/Memorial Proposal", c1999. James M. Mitchell, "Politics in a Boom Town: Tulsa from 1906 to 1930" (M.A. thesis, University of Tulsa, 1950).

On the African Blood Brotherhood, see: the July and November 1921 issues of The Crusader, the official journal of the organization; "Negroes Brand Story Race Initiated Riot as Fake", New York Call, June 5, 1921; and, interviews with Binkley Wright, Los Angeles, California, February and August 25, 2000, by Eddie Faye Gates; and Tulsa World, March 26, 2000.

On the intellectual and political life of Greenwood prior to the riot, additional credit is due to the most helpful insights of Mr. Paul Lee, a journalist and filmmaker who is currently working on a documentary on early black migration to Oklahoma.

13Tulsa City Directory, 1921. Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 41, 78-80. Gates, They Came Searching, pp. 165-167. Tulsa Star, March 6, 1915.

On the education of the new Mount Zion Baptist Church building, see the Tulsa World, April 10, 1921, p. B-8.

14Tulsa Star: May 30, 1913: May 29, 1915; June 26, 1915; July 10, 1915; and February 13, 1919. Panish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, p. 115. Walter F. White, "The Eruption of Tulsa", The Nation, June 29, 1921, pp. 909-910. [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People], "Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, June 13, 1921", 1,A,l, NAACP Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Oral history interview with Seymour Williams, Tulsa, June 2, 1978.

J.B. Stradford, who was forced to flee Tulsa after the riot, was cleared of any wrongdoing in the affair at a 1996 ceremony. See: "Black Man Cleared of 1921 Tulsa Riot", Arizona Republic, October 27, 1996, p. A14; Mary Wisniewski Holden, -75 Years Later: Vindication in Tulsa", Chicago Lawyer, December 1996; and Jonathan Z. Larsen, "Tulsa Burning", Civilization, IV, I (February/March 1997), pp. 46-55.

Significantly, Stradford wrote a memoir -- a few pages of which have turned up in Tulsa -- which, if published, promises to be a most important historical document.

15Williams, "Economic Dualism, Institutional Failure, and Racial Violence in a Resource Boom Town". Whitlow, "A History of the Greenwood Era in Tulsa". Tulsa City Directory, 1921. Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 82-83. Gates, They Came Searching, pp. 102-103. Tulsa Star: March 7, 1914; and January 4, 1919. Oral history interview with Mabel B. Little, Tulsa, May 24, 1971, by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman.

African Americans who tried to shop downtown were often the targets of discriminatory and derogatory behavior by white merchants and customers. See, for example, "Colored Woman Insulted", in the Tulsa Star, July 11, 1913.

At least one white merchant in an otherwise all-white block of stores did, however, actively seek black customers. See the advertisements for the North Main Department Store in the Tulsa Star, March 27 and April 17, 1920.

16[National Urban League], A Study of the Social and Economic Condition of the Negro Population of Tulsa, Oklahoma, pp. 37-39, 87-89. [Oklahoma Writers' Project], "Racial Elements", typescript, dated January 17, 1938, in the Federal Writers' Project topical files, 81.05, Archives and Manuscript Division, Oklahoma Historical Society. Tulsa City Directory, 1921. Gates, They Came Searching, pp. 62-64, 83-86. Oral history interviews with Kinney Booker, Tulsa, May 30, 1998; and, Elwood Lett, Tulsa, May 28, 1998.

For a longer term perspective, see also the comments of Marian Ramsey Jones, Bertha Black McIntyre, and Walter "Pete" Williams following Hannibal Johnson's article, "Greenwood: Birth and Rebirth", Tulsa People Magazine, July 2000, pp. 12-18.

17Tulsa City Directory, 1921. On the lives of the African American men and women who lived in the "Professor's Row" off of Standpipe Hill, see the forthcoming article by Paul Lee in Essence magazine.

While a complete copy of the study conducted by the American Association of Social Workers has not been located, this report -- and its findings -- was cited in subsequent publications. The quote is from The Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work, 56th Annual Session, June 26 to July 3, 1929 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, c1929), pp. 393-394. The study is also cited in Jesse O. Thomas, "American Cities -- Tulsa", an unidentified 1924 article, a copy of which is located in the Oklahoma subject file of the Schomburg Center Clipping File 1925-1974, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library, New York, NY.

18Kathy Callahan, "Mozelle May Recalls Early Tulsa History", Tulsa World, April 29, 1974. Tulsa City Directory, 1921. Gates, They Came Searching, pp. 62-65, 139-140. Walton, One Hundred Historic Tulsa Homes. Oral history interviews with: Henry C. Whitlow, Jr., Tulsa, June 6, 1978; and Kinney Booker, Tulsa, May 30, 1998. Telephone interviews with Jewel Smitherman Rogers, Perris, California, 1998-2000.

19John Hope Franklin and Alfred A. Moss, Jr., From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans, 7th edition (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994), pp. 346-354. Arthur I. Waskow, From Race Riot to Sit-In: 1919 and the 1960s (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1966). John Higharn, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1955). Richard Maxwell Brown, Strain of Violence: Historical Studies of American Violence and Vigilantism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975).

20The classic study of the Chicago riot is William M. Tuttle, Jr.'s Race Riot. Chicago in the Red Summer of 1919 (New York: Atheneum, 1970).

Following the riot, the Chicago Commission on Race Relations conducted an extensive investigation of what had occurred. Its report, The Negro in Chicago: A Study of Race Relations and a Race Riot (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1922), is still quite useful.

22Tuttle, Race Riot, pp. 29-30.

22Ibid., pp. 244-245. Franklin and Moss, From Slavery to Freedom, p. 351.

A number of other World War I era riots have also been the subject of extensive study. See, for example: Elliott M. Rudwick, Race Riot at East St. Louis, July 2, 1917 (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1964); U.S. House of Representatives, Sixty-Fifth Congress, 2nd Session, "Report of the Special Committee Authorized by Congress to Investigate the East St. Louis Riots" (Washington, D.C. :Government Printing Office, 1918): and, Robert V. Haynes, A Night of Violence: The Houston Riot of 1917 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1976).

23The literature on interracial sexual relations in America -- including historical, sociological, and psychological analyses, as well as the work of some of the country's finest novelist -- is voluminous. For a historical perspective, two places to begin are: Joel Williamson, The Crucible of Race: Black-White Relations in the American South Since Emancipation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974); and Dan T. Carter, Scottsboro: A Tragedy of the American South (Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1969).

24Franklin and Moss, From Slavery to Freedom, pp. 348-349. Classic studies of lynching include: Arthur F. Raper, The Tragedy of Lynching (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1933); James R. McGovern, Anatomy of a Lynching: The Killing of Claude Neal (Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1982); and James Allen, Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America (Santa Fe: Twin Palms Publishers, 2000).

25Robert T. Kerlin, The Voice of the Negro, 1919 (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1920). Franklin and Moss, From Slavery to Freedom, pp. 323-360. Emmett J. Scott, History of the American Negro, in the World War (Chicago: Homewood Press, 1919).

26LA. Newby, Jim Crow's Defense: Anti Negro Thought in America, 1900-1930 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1965). Mary Frances Berry, Black Resistance/White Law: A History of Constitutional Racism in America (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971). C. Vann Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow (New York: Oxford University Press, 1957).

27David A Chalmers, Hooded Americanism: The History of the Ku Klux Klan (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1965). Kenneth T. Jackson, The Ku Klux Klan in the City (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967).

28Tulsa Star, November 11, 1916; February 16, 1918; May 4, 1918; and November 23, 1918. Interview with Seymour Williams, Tulsa, June 2, 1978. Goble, Tulsa!, pp. 120-121.

29Richard Kluger, Simple Justice (New York: Random House, 1977), pp. 102-104. Arrell M. Gibson, Oklahoma: A History of Five Centuries (Norman: Harlow Publishing Corporation, 1965), p. 353. Kay M. Teall, ed., Black History in Oklahoma: A Resource Book (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma City Public Schools, 1971), pp. 172, 202-204, 225.

30Mary Elizabeth Estes, "An Historical Survey of Lynchings in Oklahoma and Texas!' (M.A. thesis, University of Oklahoma, 1942), pp. 130-134.

31Carter Blue Clark, "A History of the Ku Klux Klan in Oklaboma7' (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1976), pp. vii-xi, 36-80, 169-219. Charles C. Alexander, The Ku Klux Klan in the Southwest (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1965). W.C. Witcher, The Reign of Terror in Oklahoma (Ft. Worth, n.p., c 1923). Marion Monteval, The Klan Inside Out (Claremore: Monarch Publishing Company, 1924). Howard A. Tucker, History of Governor Walton's War on the Klan (Oklahoma City: Southwest Publishing Company, 1923).

32Charles Oquin Meyers, Jr., "The Ku Klux Klan in Tulsa County During the Early 1920s" (Honor's paper, Department of History, University of Tulsa, 1974), pp. 6, 12-19. Laurie Jane (Barr) Croft, "The Women of the Ku. Klux Klan in Oklahoma"(M.A. thesis, University of Oklahoma, 1984), p. 51. Clark, "A History of the Ku Klux Klan in Oklahoma", pp. 36, 47, 52, 65, 71, 89.

33Tulsa World, July 30, 1922. Meyers, "The Ku Klux Klan in Tulsa Country", pp. 9-12. Ku Klux Klan Papers, Department of Special Collections, McFarlin Library, University of Tulsa.

34Alexander, The Ku Klux Klan in the Southwest, pp. 66, 142-58, 228. Chalmers, Hooded Americanism, pp. 52-55. Meyers, "The Ku Klux Klan in Tulsa Country", pp. 20-22, 26-35. Bruce Bliven, "From the Oklahoma Front", New Republic, October 17, 1923, p. 202. Jewel Smitherman Rogers, "John Henry Smitherman: A Profile of The Father, The Man, and The Officer of the Law", typescript, November 1999. Interview with Willa Catherine Smitherman, Tulsa, February 14, 1978, by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman. Oral history interviews with: William M. O'Brien, Tulsa, March 2, 1998; and Richard Gary, Tulsa, March 16,1999.

35Meyers, "The Ku Klux Klan in Tulsa County", pp. 33-38. Tulsa Man membership register/ledger, 1928-1929, Department of Special Collections, McFarlin Library, University of Tulsa. Oral history interview with Ed Wheeler, Tulsa, February 27, 1998.

36CIark, "A History of the Ku Klux Klan in Oklahoma", pp. 42-45.

37Ibid., pp. 36-38

38TuIsa World, June 6, 1921. Ruth Sigler Avery, Fear: The Fifth Horseman.

39The Tribune, in particular, paid close attention to Klan activities in Dallas. See the Tulsa Tribune: January 29, 1921, p. 8; February 4, 1921, p. 1; April 2, 1921, p. 1; April 3, 1921, p. 5; May 22, 1921, p. 1; and May 24, 1921, p. 1.

40Tulsa Tribune, May 22, 1921, p. 2. On the May brothers, see also the March 27, 1921 issue, p. 2.

41Meyers, "The Ku Klux Klan in Tulsa County", pp. 3-7. Clark, "A History of the Ku Klux Klan in Oklahoma", pp. 46-47.

42Tulsa Tribune, April 17, 1921, p. 5. Tulsa World: April 10, 1921, p. 4; April 14, 1921,, p. 4; April 18,1921, p. 4: April 20, 1921, p. 4; and April 23,1921, p. 4. [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People], "Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, June 13, 1921," NAACP Papers, Library of Congress. Exchange Bureau Bulletin, I, 26 (July 7[?], 1921).

On economic conditions in Tulsa prior to the riot, see: Harlow's Weekly, December 17, 1920 and September 16,1921; Tulsa Tribune, April 14,1921, p. 6; Tulsa World, May 19,1921, p. 4; Tulsa City Commission, Record of Commission Proceedings, August 26, 1921; Ralph Cassady, Jr., Price Making and Price Behavior in the Petroleum Industry (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1954), p. 136; and, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to the Present (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1975), Volume 2, p. 208.

43"Federal Report on Vice Conditions in Tulsa," April 21-26, 192 , by Agent T.G.F., a copy of which is located in the Attorney General Civil Case Files, Record Group 1-2, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries.

44Abundant evidence on the illegal consumption of alcohol in Tulsa County can be found in the Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Record Group 1-2, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. See, in particular: the testimony of E.S. McQueen, L. Medlen, and Mrs. W.H. Clark; "Statement of John Burnett"; "Memo to Major Daily"; and, "Special Report on Vice Conditions in and Around the City of Tulsa, by H.H. Townsend", Tulsa, May 18,1921.

Oral history interview with Elwood Lett, Tulsa, May 28, 1998. Tulsa Tribune: February 7, 1921, p. 1; February 11, 1921, p. 5; February 12, 1921, p. 1; February 13, 1921, p. 3; and April 15, 1921, p. 13.

45The quote from Charles C. Post is from the Tulsa Tribune, May 8, 1921, p. 1. See also: Tulsa World, April 22, 1921, p. 1; Tulsa Tribune, May 18, 1921, p. 2; and, "Statement of Barney Cleaver," Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Record Group 1-2, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries.

46White, "The Eruption of Tulsa", p. 909. Tulsa World: April 23, 1921, pp. 1,3; and May 13, 1921, p. 1. Tulsa Tribune: January 13,1921, p. 12; February 12, 1921, p. 1; March 5, 1921, p. 1; March 9, 1921, p. 10; March 13, 1921, p. 7; March 14, 192 1, p. 1; March 21, 1921, p. 1; April 5, 1921, p. 1; April 13, 1921, p. 1; May 1, 1921, p. B-14; May 2, 1921, p. 1; May 11, 1921, p. 1; May 18, 1921, p. 1; May 20, 1921, p. 1; and May 28, 1921, p. 1.

47Tu1sa World. April 4,1921, p. 4; April 15, 1921, p. 4; May 13, 1921, p. 4; May 18,1921, pp. 1, 13; May 19, 1921, pp.1, 4; May 20, 1921, pp.1, 2; May 21, 1921, pp. 1, 4,17; and May 22, 1921, pp. 1, 17. Tulsa Tribune, May 1, 1921, p. B-14. 4. Tulsa Tribune: April 17, 1921, p. 1; April 19, 1921, p. 16; and May 25, 1921, p. 16.

49Estes, "Historical Survey of Lynchings in Oklahoma and Texas," p. 131. Interview with George B. Smith, Red Fork, Oklahoma, August 24, 1937, by W.T. Holland, Volume LXIX, pp. 470-475, Indian Pioneer History Collection, Federal Writers' Project, Oklahoma Historical Society.

50William T. Lampe, Tulsa County and the World War (Tulsa: Tulsa Historical Society, 1918). [National Civil Liberties Bureau], "The 'Knights of Liberty' Mob and the I.W.W. Prisoners at Tulsa, Okla., November 9, 1917", pamphlet, 1918. Goble, Tulsa!, pp. 118-122.

53Tulsa Times: November 10, 1917, p. 6; and November 12,1917, p. 7. Tulsa Democrat: November 10, 1917, p.8; and November 11, 1917, pp. 1, 3. Tulsa World. November 10, 1917, p. 1; November 11, 1917, p. 1; November 12, 1917, p. 4; and November 13, 1917, p. 4.

52Tulsa World. August 22, 1920, p. 1; and August 24, 1920, p. 1. Tulsa Tribune: August 22, 1920, p. 1; August 24, 1920, pp. 1, 4; August 25, 1920, p. 1; and August 28, 1920, p. 1.

53Tulsa Tribune: August 23, 1920, p. 1; and August 27, 1920, p. 1. Tulsa World. August 25, 1920, pp. 1, 12; August 28, 1920, pp. 1, 9; August 29, 1920, p. 9; August 30, 1920, p. 1; September 1, 1920, p. 12; and September 2, 1920, pp. 1, 9.

54Tulsa World, August 25, 1920, p. 12; and August 31, 1920, p. 4. Tulsa Tribune, August 28, 1920, p. 1 .

55Tu1sa Tribune, August 28, 1920, p. 1.

56Ibid., August 29, 1920, pp. 1-2. Tulsa World. August 29, 1920, p. 1; and August 30, 1920, p. 3.

57Tulsa Star, September 4, 1920, p. 1. Tulsa Tribune, August 29, 1920, pp. 1, 2. Tulsa World: August 29, 1920, p. 1; and August 30, 1920, pp. 1-3. See also: White, "The Eruption of Tulsa", p. 909.

58Tulsa World, August 30, 1920, pp. 1-3.

59Both the lynching of Roy Belton, and how Tulsans responded to the event, was covered extensively in both of Tulsa's daily newspapers. See: Tulsa Tribune: August 31, 1920, p. 12; September 6, 1920, p. 1; September 9, 1920, p. 1; September 10, 1920, p. 1; September 21, 1920, p. 2; September 24, 1920, p. 1; and September 29, 1920, p. 4. Tulsa World: August 30, 1920, p. 4; August 31, 1920, pp. 1, 4; September 1, 1920, pp, 1, 4, 12; September 2, 1920, pp. 1, 4; September 3, 1920, pp. 1, 18; September 5, 1920, p. A- 1; September 6, 1920, p. 1; and September 10, 1920 pp. 1, 13.

60Tulsa Star, September 4, 1920, pp. 1, 4.

61Ibid., March 6, 1920, p. 8.

62Clark, "History of the Ku Klux Klan in Oklahoma", p. 17.

63Tulsa Star, March 6, 1920, p. 8.

64Ibid., September 4, 1920, pp. 1, 4.

65TuIsa Democrat, March 18, 1919, p. 1. Tulsa World, March 18, 1919, p. 1. Tulsa Times, March 18, 1919, p. 1.

66TuIsa Times: March 20, 1919, p. 1; March 21, 1919, p. 1; and March 22, 1919, p. 3. Tulsa World, March 21, 1919, p. 1; Tulsa Democrat: March 19, 1919, p. 11; March 20, 1919, p. 9; and March 21, 1919, pp. 10,16.

67Tulsa Tribune, June 12, 192 1, p. 1.

68Tulsa Star, September 4, 1920, pp. 1, 4.

69Biographical sketch of Richard Lloyd Jones by Hazel S. Hone, May 10, 1939; "Richard Lloyd Jones" from Who's Mo in Tulsa, 1950, by Clarence Allen; and, miscellaneous newspaper clippings on Jones, all located in the "Tulsa' vertical subject files, Oklahoma Historical Society.

70Tulsa Tribune: January 13, 1921, p. 12; February 12, 1921, p., 8; March 5, 1921, p. 10; April 5, 1921, p. 16; April 7, 1921, p. 16; May 1, 1921, p. B-14; May 3,1921, p. 18; and May 13, 1921, p. 24.

71Ibid.: January 3, 1921, p. 12; March 2,1921, p. 1; March 4, 1921, p. 1; March 5, 1921, p. 1; March 28, 1921, p. 1; March 29, 1921, p. 1; March 31, 1921, p. 1; April 4, 1921, p. 1; April 5, 1921, p. 1; April 13, 1921, p.1; May 8, 1921, p. 1; May 16, 1921, p. 12; May 17, 1921, p. 1; May 19, 1921, pp. 1, 2; May 20, 1921, pp. 1, 2, 22; May 21, 1921, pp. 1, 2; May 22, 1921, p. B-14; May 24, 1921, pp. 1, 18; and May 25, 1921, pp. 1, 3.16.

The Tulsa World painted a somewhat rosier portrait of crime conditions in Tulsa. See, for example: April 15, 1921, p. 4; April 17, 1921, p. 16; May 19, 1921, pp. 1, 3; May 19, 1921, pp. 1, 4; May 20, 1921, pp. 1, 2; May 21, 1921, pp. 1, 4, 17; and May 22, 1921, pp. 1, 17.

On political issues which may have influenced the Tribune's campaign, as well as the subsequent investigations of the Tulsa Police Department, see: Ronald L. Trekell, History of the Tulsa Police Department, 1882 - 1990 (N.p, n.p., n.d.); Mitchell, "Politics in a Boom Town"; Randy Krehbiel, "Root of the Riot", Tulsa World, January 30, 2000, pp. A- 1, A-2; and, John R. Woodard, In Re Tulsa (N.p., n.p., 1935).

72Tulsa Tribune: May 14, 1921, p. 10; May 16, 1921, p. 12; and May 25, 1921, p. 16.

71Ibid.: March 3, 1921, p. 1; April 17, 192 1, p. 1; May 24, 1921, p. 1; May 26, 1921, p. 14; and May 27, 1921, p. 1.

74Ibid, June 4, 1921, p. 8.

75Tulsa Tribune, May 21, 1921, pp. 1, 2. Typescript reports by members of Cooke's party can be found in the Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Record Group 1-2, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries.

76Tulsa Tribune: May 26, 1921, p.1; and May 27,1921, p. 1. Tulsa World: May 26, 1921, p. 1; and May 27, 1921, p. 8.

77Tulsa Tribune, May 30, 1921, p. 1.

71Oral history interview with Damie Rowland Ford, Tulsa, July 22, 1972, by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman. Franklin and Franklin, My Life and An Era, p. 199. Tulsa City Directory, 1921. Oral history interviews with: W.D. Williams, Tulsa, June 7, 1978; and Robert Fairchild, Tulsa, June 8, 1978. Booker T. Washington High School Alumni Roster, 1916-1929. Loren L. Gill, "The Tulsa Race Riof' (M.A. thesis, University of Tulsa, 1946), p. 22. "Mob Fury and Race Hatred as a National Danger", Literary Digest, LXIX (June 18, 1921). Interview with Alice Andrews in Gates, They Came Searching, pp. 41-42.

Dick Rowland's last name is sometimes spelled "Roland". Similarly, Sarah Page's surname is sometimes given as "Paige".

79Oral history interviews with: Robert Fairchild, Tulsa, June 8, 1978; and W.D. Williams, Tulsa, June 7,1978. Tulsa City Directory, 1921. Tulsa Tribune, May 22, 1921, p. 4.

80Tulsa Tribune: April 17, 1921, p. 5; May 31, 1921, p. 1; and June 1, 192 1, p. 4. White, "Eruption of Tulsa, pp. 909-910.

81Oral history interviews with: Damie Rowland Ford, Tulsa, July 22, 1972; S.M. Jackson and Eunice Cloman Jackson, Tulsa, June 26, 1971; and Robert L. Fairchild, Tulsa, April 18, 1971; all by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman. Oral history interview with Robert Fairchild, Tulsa, June 8, 1978.

82Tulsa World, May 29, 1921, p. A-1. Tulsa Tribune: May 29,1921, pp. 2,8, B-1, B-10, B-12; and May 30,1921, p .l. Oral history interview with Damie Rowland Ford, Tulsa, July 22,1972, by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman. Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Tulsa, Tulsa Historical Society.

83New York Evening Post, June 11, 1921. White, "Eruption of Tulsa", p. 910. "Mob Fury and Race Hatred", Literary Digest, op cit. Tulsa World, June 2, 1921, p. 2. Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, p. 18. Oral history interviews with: Darnie Rowland Ford, Tulsa, July 22, 1972; Robert Fairchild, Tulsa, April 18, 1976; Mabel B. Little, Tulsa, May 24, 197 1; S.M. Jackson and Eunice Clornan Jackson, Tulsa, June 26, 197 1; all by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman.

84Tulsa Tribune, May 31, 192 1, p. 1. Tulsa World, June 2, 192 1, pp. 1-5. White, "Eruption of Tulsa", p. 909. Oral history interviews with: W.D. Williams, Tulsa, June 7, 1978; and Robert Fairchild, Tulsa, June 8, 1978.

85Oral history interview with Damie Rowland Ford, Tulsa, July 22, 1972, by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman. On lynching, see also, "The Ideology of Lynching", in Stephen J. Whitfield, A Death in the Delta: The Story of Emmett Till (New York: The Free Press, 1988), pp. 1-14.

86Tulsa Tribune, May 31, 1921, p. 1. Oral history interview with Damie Rowland Ford, Tulsa, July 22, 1972, by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman.

In early May 1921, the Tulsa Tribune reported that the Tulsa Police Department had eighty-eight officers; Tulsa Tribune, May 2, 1921, p. 1. The Tulsa City Directory, 1921, however, lists only fifty-seven officers, four of whom are identified as African American.

87Franklin and Franklin, My Life and An Era, pp. 195-196.

88Tulsa World, May 31, 1921.

89Gill, "Me Tulsa Race Riot', pp. 21-22.

90Red Cross Collection, Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, Tulsa Historical Society. The State Edition copy of "Nab Negro for Attacking Girl in Elevator" was uncovered by Bruce Hartnitt, a Tulsa-based researcher, in the collections of the Oklahoma Historical Society sometime prior to 1996.

91Oral history interview with W.D. Williams, Tulsa, June 7, 1978.

92Oral history interview with Robert L. Fairchild, Tulsa, April 18, 1971, by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman. Statement of "A.H." in Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, p. 62. Charles F. Barrett, Oklahoma After Fifiy Years: A History of the Sooner State and Its People, 1889-1939 (Hopkinsville, Kentucky: Historical Record Association, 1941), p. 206.

93Franklin and Franklin, My Life and Era, p. 196.

94Ross. T. Warner, Oklahoma Boy (N.p., n.d., n.d.), p. 136. Petition No, 23325, B.A. Waynes and M.E. Waynes vs. T.D. Evans et al., Tulsa County District Court. New York Evening Post, June 11, 1921. Testimony of John A. Gustafson, State of Oklahoma vs. John A. Gustafson, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries.

95Tulsa World, June 1, 1921, "Final Edition", pp. 1, 8. Major James A. Bell to Lieutenant Colonel L .J .F. Rooney, "Report on Activities of the National Guard on the Night of May 31 and June 1, 1921", Testimony of John A. Gustafson; and Laurel Buck testimony; all in Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. A. J. Smitherman, "A Descriptive Poem of the Tulsa Riot and Massacre", undated pamphlet, Oklahoma Historical Society.

96Tulsa Tribune: June 3, 1921, p. 1; and June 6, 1921, P. 3. Tulsa World, June 1, 1921, "Final Edition", p. 8. Oklahoma City Black Dispatch, June 3, 1921, p.1. New York Evening Post, June 11, 1921. Typescript notes on the testimony of A.B. Nesbitt; and miscellaneous handwritten notes; both in the Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. Oral history interview with Dave Faulkner, Tulsa, May 7, 1971, by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman.

97Oral history interview with W.D. Williams, Tulsa, June 7, 1978. Franklin and Franklin, My Life and An Era, pp. 96-97. Oral history interview with Robert Fairchild, Tulsa, by Eddie Faye Gates, in They Came Searching, p. 7 1. Tulsa World, June 2, 192 1, p. 1. White, "Eruption of Tulsa", pp. 909-910. Smitherman, "Me Tulsa Riot and Massacre". Handwritten notes on the testimony of O.W. Gurley; and typescript notes on the testimony of Henry Jacobs; both in Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries.

98Oklahoma City Black Dispatch, June 3,1921, p. 1. Tulsa World. June 2, 1921, p. 7; June 3, 1921, p. 1; June 6, 192 1, P. 3; June 9, 1921, p. 4; and June 10, 1921, p. 8. Major James A. Bell to Lieutenant Colonel L. J. F. Rooney, "Report on the Activities of the National Guard", typescript notes on the testimony of John Henry Potts; and miscellaneous handwritten notes; all in Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. White, "Eruption of Tulsa:, pp. 909-910. Oral history interviews with: W.D. Williams, Tulsa, June 7, 1978; and Seymour Williams, Tulsa, June 1, 1978.

99Barrett, Oklahoma After Fifty Years, p. 207. Laurel Buck testimony, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries.

100Bell, "Report on the Activities of the National Guard", op cit. Tulsa Tribune: January 16, 1921, p. 5; and March 20, 1921, Magazine Section, p. 2.

101Bell, "Report on Activities of the National Guard." See also: Major Paul R. Brown to the Adjutant General of Oklahoma, "Work of the Sanitary Detachment During the Riot in Tulsa", Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries; and, Robert D. Norris, Jr., "The Oklahoma National Guard in the Tulsa Race Riot: Tentative Summary of Finding", typescript, 1999.

102John A. Gustafson testimony; and handwritten notes to the testimony of W. M. Ellis; both in Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. Stephen P. Kerr, "Tulsa Race War, 31, May 1921: An Oral History," unpublished manuscript, 1999. St. Louis Argus, June 101-1921.

103John A. Gustafson testimony; and miscellaneous handwritten notes; both in Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries

104Oral history interviews with Ernestine Gibbs, Augusta Mann, Rosa Davis Skinner, Robert Fairchild, and Alice Andrews, all by Eddie Faye Gates, in They Came Searching, pp. 42-43, 71, 85-86, 151, 165-166. Handwritten notes to the testimony of O. W. Gurley; typescript notes to the testimony of W.C. Kelley; and John A. Gustafson testimony; all in Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries.

105Following the riot, some claimed that Sheriff McCullough had actually requested that this second contingent of African American men come down to the Courthouse, a highly unlikely possibility. It is, however, possible to envision a scenario whereby a telephone call by McCullough to Deputy Sheriff Barney Cleaver - perhaps made to the offices of the Tulsa Star - might have been misinterpreted, in the heat of the moment, as a request for assistance. Tulsa Tribune, June 3, 1921, pp. 1, 3. Tulsa World, June 10, 1921, p. 8. New York Evening Post, June 11, 192 1. White, 'Eruption of Tulsa", pp. 909-9 10. John A. Gustafson testimony; Laurel Buck testimony; and, handwritten notes to W. N. Ellis testimony; all in Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. Oral history interview with I.S. Pittman, Tulsa, July 28, 1978.

106Oral history interview with Robert Fairchild, Tulsa, June 8, 1978. Handwritten notes to the testimony of W. E. Dudley, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. Tulsa World, July 7, 1921, p. 3. Tulsa Tribune, June 3, 1921, pp. 1, 3.

107Tulsa World, June 1, 1921, "Final Edition", p.1. White, "Eruption of Tulsa," pp. 909-910. William Cleburn "Choc" Phillips, "Murder in the Streets," unpublished memoir of the 1921 Tulsa race riot, pp. 32-34, 47. Handwritten notes to the testimony of "Witnesses in Order", Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries.

108Tulsa Tribune, June 1, 1921, p. 3. Tulsa World, June 1, 1921, "Final Edition", p. 8. Oklahoma City Black Dispatch, June 3, 192 1, p. 1. New York Times, June 2, 1921.

109Oral history interview with Dr. George H. Miller, M.D., Tulsa, August 1, 1971, by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman. Tulsa City Directory, 1921.

110Okmulgee Daily Democrat, June 1, 1921. Oklahoma City Black Dispatch, June 3, 1921, p. 1. Tulsa World, June 1, 1921, "Final Edition", p. 8. Tulsa Tribune, June 1, 1921, p. 3. New York Times, June 2,1921.

111Phillips, "Murder in the Streets", p. 46.

112Laurel Buck testimony; handwritten notes to "Witnesses in Order" testimony; and miscellaneous handwritten notes; all in Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. Tulsa World, June 10, 1921, p. 8. Gill, "Tulsa Race Riot", p. 28.

Who actually performed the swearing-in of the "Special Deputies" is unclear, as is what may have been the "official policy" -- if any -- of both the Police Department and the city government in response to the violence during the early hours of the riot. The latter was often prominently featured in a number of lawsuits filed after the riot. See, in particular: "Brief of Plantiff in Error" and "Answer Brief of Defendant in Error", William Redfern vs. American Central Insurance Company (1925), Oklahoma State Supreme Court; and documents involving various cases filed by individuals who suffered property losses during the riot, including C.L. Netherland vs. City of Tulsa, Loula T. Williams vs. Fire Association of Philadelphia, Osborne Monroe vs. Mechanics and Traders Insurance Company of New Orleans, and H.J. Caver vs. T.D. Evans, et at..

113Letter from A. J. Perrine, Tulsa, July 2, 1921, to the Attorney General, Oklahoma City; Laurel Buck Testimony; Statement of [J.W.] MeGee; Major Byron Kirkpatrick to Lieutenant Colonel L. J.F. Rooney, "Activities on Night of May 31, 1921 at Tulsa, Okla."; all in Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. Tulsa World: June 1, 1921, "Final Edition", p. 1; and June 2, 192 1. Oklahoma City Black Dispatch, June 3, 1921, p. 1. Oral history interview with L. C. Clark, Tulsa, June 25, 1975, by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman.

114Oral history interview with W.R. Holway, by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman.

115Phillips, "Murder in the Streets," p. 38. Tulsa World, May 31, 1921, p. 5.

116Tulsa Tribune, June 1, 1921, p. 5. Tulsa World, June 1, 1921, "Final Edition", p. 1. New York Times, June 1, 1921. Phillips, "Murder in the Streets", pp. 37-41. Oral history interviews with: Mrs. C.A. (Helen) Donohue Ingraham, Tulsa, May 4, 1980; and W.R. Holway; both by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman.

117Major C.W. Daley to Lieutenant Colonel L. J. F. Rooney, "Information on Activities During Negro Uprising, May 31, 1921", Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. New York Evening Post, June 11, 1921.

118Denver Post, June 4,1921. Kansas City Post, June 2,1921. New York Tribune, June 2, 1921. New York Times, June 2,1921. Tulsa World, June 2, 1921, p. 2. Tulsa Tribune, June 1, 1921, p. 5. Daley, "Information on Activities During Negro Uprising". Handwritten notes to "Witnesses in Order" testimony, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. Oral history interview with W.D. Williams, Tulsa, June 7, 1978.

119Ed Wheeler, "Profile of a Race Riot," Impact Magazine, IV (June-July 197 1), p. 21. Oral history interview with W.D. Williams, Tulsa, June 7,1978. Tulsa World, June 2, 1921, p. 2. Tulsa Tribune, June 3, 1921, p. 1.

120White, "Eruption of Tulsa," p. 910.

121Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, p. 19. Tulsa World, June 1, 1921, "Second Extra Edition", p. 1; and June 2, 1921, p. 2. Tulsa Tribune, June 3, 1921, p. 1. New York Times, June 2, 1921. New York Post, June 1, 1921. Captain Frank Van Voorhis to Lieutenant Colonel L. J. F. Rooney, "Detailed Report of Negro Uprising for Service Company, Third Infantry, Oklahoma National Guard", Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries.

123Bell, "Report on Activities of the National Guard". See also: Kirkpatrick, "Activities on Night of May 31, 1921 "; and, Barrett, Oklahoma After Fifty Years, pp. 207-210.

124Bell, "Report on Activities of the National Guard." Brown, 'Work of the Sanitary Detachment". Kirkpatrick, "Activities on Night of May 31, 1921." Barrett, Oklahoma After Fifty Years, pp. 207-212.

125Captain John W. McCuen to Lieutenant Colonel L. J. F. Rooney, "Duty Performed by ["B"] Company, Third Infantry, Oklahoma National Guard, at Negro Uprising, May 31, 1921"; Lieutenant Roy R. Dunlap to Lieutenant Colonel L. J. F. Rooney, "Report on Negro Uprising, May 31, 1921"; Van Voorhis, "Detailed Report of Negro Uprising"; Daley, "Information on Activities During Negro Uprising and, Letter from Lieutenant Colonel L. J. F. Rooney and Charles W. Daley to the Adjutant General, June 3, 1921; all in Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries.

126Letter from Lieutenant Colonel L. J. F. Rooney and Charles W. Daley to the Adjutant General, June 3, 1921. Kirkpatrick, "Activities on the Night of May 31, 1921." Bell, "Report on Activities of the National Guard." McCuen, "Duty Performed by ["B'] Company." Van Voorhis, "Detailed Report of Negro Uprising." Daley, "Information on Activities During Negro Uprising." Muskogee Daily Phoenix, June 4, 1921, P. 1. Gill, 'Tulsa Race Riot", pp. 30-31, 40-41.

127Interview with Major Frank Van Voorhis, Tulsa, October 25, 1937, by Effie S. Jackson, Indian Pioneer History Collection, Oklahoma Historical Society. Letter from Lieutenant Colonel L. J. F. Rooney and Charles W. Daley to the Adjutant General, June 3, 1921. Kirkpatrick, "Activities on Night of May 31, 1921." McCuen, "Duty Performed by ["B"] Company".

128Oral history interview with Seymour Williams, Tulsa, June 2, 1978.

129Oral history interview with W.D. Williams, Tulsa, June 7, 1978. Smitherman, "The Tulsa Riot and Massacre."

130Oral history interviews with: Elwood Lett, Tulsa, May 29, 1998; and Nell Hamilton Hampton, Tulsa, September 16, 1998. Oklahoma City Black Dispatch, June 10, 1921, p. 8. Tulsa World, June 1, 1921, "Third Extra," p. 1.

131Smitherman, "The Tulsa Race Riot and Massacre".

132Letter from Lieutenant Colonel L. J. F. Rooney and Charles W. Daley to the Adjutant General, June 3, 1921.

133Ibid.

134Tulsa World, June 1, 1921, "Final Edition," p. 1. Oral history interview with Harold Madison Parker, Tulsa, January 3, 1973, by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman. Gill, 'Tulsa Race Riot," p. 28. Phillips, "Murder in the Streets, " pp. 47-51. McCuen, "Duty Performed by ["B"] Company." Dunlap, "Report on Negro Uprising". Van Voorhis, "Detailed Report of Negro Uprising". Daley, "Information on Activities During Negro Uprising".

135Phillips, "Murder in the Streets." Jno. A. Gustaftson, Chief of Police Wm. McCullough, Sheriff V. W. Biddison, District Judge.139

J. B. A. Robertson, June 1, 1921, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries.

139Copy of telegram from John A. Gustafson, Wm McCullough, and V. W. Biddison to Governor J. B. A. Robertson, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries.

142Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster," pp. 19-21. Tulsa City Directory, 1921.

143Phillips, "Murder in the Streets," pp. 68-73.

144Oklaborna City Black Dispatch, June 10, 1921. Patrolmen Henry C. Pack and Robert Lewis were two of the approximately four African Americans who served on the Tulsa Police force at the time of the riot.

145Chicago Defender, June 11, 1921.

146Testimonials of James T. West, Dr. R. T. Bridgewater, and J. C. Latimer in Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 20-21, 38, 45-47, 60-61. Tulsa World, June 1, 1921, "Extra," p. 1. Chicago Defender, June 11, 1921. New York Mail, June 1, 1921. Phillips, "Murder in the Streets," pp. 70-73. Oral history interviews with: W.D. Williams, Tulsa, November 29,1970; and S.M. Jackson and Eunice Cloman Jackson, Tulsa, June 26, 197 ; by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman.

147Phillips, "Murder in the Streets", p. 70.

148Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, p. 65. Phillips, "Murder in the Streets", pp. 70-71. New York World, June 2, 1921.

149Oral history interview with W.D. Williams, Tulsa, June 7, 1978.

150Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 18-21. Tulsa City Directory, 1921.

151Oklahoma City Black Dispatch, June 10, 1921.

152Testimonial of Dr. R .T. Bridgewater in Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, p. 45.

153Barney Cleaver vs. The City of Tulsa, et al., 1921. Testimonials of James T. West and "A.H." in Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 37, 62. Oklahoma City Black Dispatch, June 10, 1921. New York Times, June 2,1921. Oral history interviews with: W.D. Williams, Tulsa, November 29, 1970; and S. M. Jackson and Eunice Cloman Jackson, Tulsa, June 26, 1971; by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman. Chicago Defender, October 25, 1921. Franklin and Franklin, My Life and An Era, p. 197. Oral history interview with Allen Yowell, Tulsa, June 5, 1999.

Black Tulsa was not destroyed--as some have alleged--from the air, but by fires set by whites on the ground. And similar, latter-day claims that Mount Zion Baptist Church was specifically targeted and bombed must also be viewed with a healthy dose of skepticism, given the rather primitive aerial bombing capabilities that existed, worldwide, in 1921. That said, however, the evidence does indicate that some form of aerial bombardment took place in Tulsa on the morning of June 1, 1921--thus making Tulsa, in all probability, the first U.S. city bombed from the air.

154Letter from Lieutenant Colonel L. J. F. Rooney and Charles Daley to the Adjutant General, June 3, 1921. Van Voorhis, "Detailed Report of Negro Uprising." Testimonials of Dr. R.T. Bridgewater and Mrs. Carrie Kinlaw in Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 45-57, 50-51. John A. Oliphant testimony, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. Oral history interview with Kinney Booker, Tulsa, May 30,1998. New York Times, June 2, 1921.

155Testimonials of James T. West, Mrs. Rosetta Moore, P.S. Thompson, Carrie Kinlaw, J.P. Hughes, and "A.H." in Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 37, 42-44, 50-52, 62-63. Gill, "Tulsa Race Riot," pp. 31, 55. Phillips "Murder in the Streets", pp. 70, 87-88. New York Evening Post, June 11, 192 1. Franklin and Franklin, My Life and An Era, p. 197.

156Chicago Defender, June 11, 1921.

157Oral history interviews with George Monroe, Tulsa, 1997-2000.

158Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 49, 55-56. Laurel Buck testimony, and notes to the testimony of O. W. Gurley, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. Gill, "Tulsa Race Riot," p. 31. Tulsa World, June 1, 1921, "Final Edition", p. 1. Chicago Defender, June 11, 1921. Oklahoma City Black Dispatch, June 10, 1921.

The entire issue of fires being set in Greenwood by whites in military-style uniforms is further-and perhaps hopelessly--complicated by the use of the ambiguous term, "Home Guards." When used by whites, it usually refers to a loose organization of white veterans. When employed by African Americans, however, the term also appears to refer, at times, to the local, Tulsa-based units of the National Guard. See, also: Robert D. Norris, Jr., "The Home Guard", unpublished manuscript, ca 2000; and, Ellsworth, Death in a Promised Land, p. 131, n13.

159Typescript note on the testimony of V.B. Bostic in letter of June 8, 1921, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. See also John A. Oliphant testimony, Ibid.

160Typescript notes on the testimony of Jack Krueger and Rich Rickard in letter of June 8, 1921, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, States Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries.

161Phillips, "Murder in the Streets," pp. 92-93. Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, p. 21. Tulsa Tribune, June 1, 1921, p. 5. Kansas City Post, June 2,1921. New York Times, June 2, 1921. Gill, 'Tulsa Race Riot," pp. 32-33. John A. Oliphant testimony, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. See also: oral history interview with W.D. Williams, Tulsa, June 7, 1978; and oral history interview with Dr. Raymond Knight, Oklahoma City, February 10, 197 1, by Ben Woods, Living Legends Library, Oklahoma Christian College.

162McCuen, 'Duty Performed by ["B"] Company." Van Voorhis, 'Detailed Report of Negro Uprising." Testimonials of E.A. Loupe and "A.H." in Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 49, 62-63. Miscellaneous handwritten notes, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. Oral history interviews with: Seymour Williams, June 2, 1978; W. D. Williams, June 7, 1978; Robert Fairchild, June 8, 1978; V. H. Hodge, Tulsa, June 12, 1978; and I. S. Pittman, Tulsa, July 28, 1978.

163From the Wichita Daily Eagle, reprinted in the Chicago Defender, June 11, 1921.

164Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 50, 55. Oklahoma City Black Dispatch, June 10, 1921. Daley, "Information on Activities During Negro Uprising." John A. Oliphant testimony, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries.

165Testimonial of I. T. West in Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, p. 37.

166Oral history interview with Harold Madison Parker, Tulsa, January 3, 1972, by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman.

167Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, p. 55.

169John A. Oliphant testimony, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. Oklahoma City Black Dispatch, June 10, 1921. Oral history interview with Wilhelmina Guess Howell by Eddie Faye Gates, in They Came Searching, pp. 113-115.

169Van Voorhis, "Detailed Report of Negro Uprising." McCuen, "Duty Performed by ["B"] Company." Phillips, "Murder in the Streets," pp. 73-74, 93-95. Interview with Binkley Wright, Los Angeles, February and August 25, 2000, by Eddie Faye Gates. Curlee Hackman, "Peg Leg Taylor and the Tulsa Race Riot," in J. M. Brewer, ed., American Negro Folklore (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1968), pp. 34-36.

170Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 62-63.

171Oral history interviews with: Kinney Booker, Tulsa, May 30, 1998; and Otis Clark, Tulsa, June 4, 1999. White, "Eruption of Tulsa", p. 910.

172 Guthrie Daily Leader, June 1, 1921. Tulsa Tribune: June 1, 1921, p. 6; and June 3, 1921, p. 1. Tulsa World, June 2,1921, p. 2. Affidavit of Albert Herring, December 2,1921, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, p. 55.

173 McCuen, "Duty Performed by ["B"] Company."

174Ibid.

175 Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, p. 22.

176Undated letter by Mary Korte. Letter from Joan Morgan, Kansas City, Missouri, June 1998. "Mary Uhrig Korte Tells of Early Life in Tulsa," Giebar family genealogical newsletter, 1992. Notes on Mary Korte by Nora Stallbaumer, Tulsa, April 3, 1998. Tulsa City Directory, 1921.

177Oral history interview with Merrill A. "Red" Phelps 11, Tulsa, August 12, 1999.

178Mary Jo Erhardt, "My Most Hideous Birthday," unpublished memoir.

179Oral history interview with Gloria Lough, Tulsa, June 4, 1999.

180Oral history interview with Guy Ashby, Tulsa, November 5, 197 1, by Bruce Hartnitt.

181 Gill, "Tulsa Race Riot", pp. 36-37, n39.

182Barrett, Oklahoma After Fifty Years, p. 212. Oral history interview with Mrs. Harry Frantz, Enid, May 9, 1985, by Joe L. Todd, Oklahoma Historical Society. Telephone interview with Mark Childers, Santa Fe, New Mexico, December 10, 1998. Tulsa City Directory, 1921.

183Tulsa World, June 1, 1921, "Third Extra," p. 1. "Report from General Barrett," miscellaneous typescript. Barrett, Oklahoma After Fifty Years, pp. 211-212. Kirkpatrick, "Activities on Night of May 3 1, 192 L" Daley, "Information on Activities During Negro Uprising".

184Tulsa World, June 1, 1921: "Second Extra," p, 1; and "Third Extra," p. 1. Tulsa Tribune, June 1, 192 1, p. 1. New York Times, June 2, 192 1. Denver Post, June 4, 1921.

185Tulsa World, June 1, 1921, "Second Extra," p.1. Oral history interviews with: L.C. Clark, Tulsa, June 25, 1975, by Hansel Johnson and Ruth Avery; and with E.W. "Gene" Maxey, Tulsa, 1971 and 1985; both in Avery, Fear. The Fifth Horseman.

186Oklahoma City Black Dispatch, June 10, 1921. Tulsa Tribune: June 1, 1921, p. 8; and June 2, 1921, p. 3. Testimonials of Richard I. Hill and Dr. R. T. Bridgewater in Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 41, 44-47. Oral history interviews with S.M. Jackson and Eunice Cloman Jackson, Tulsa, June 26, 1971, by Ruth Sigler Avery, in Fear: The Fifth Horseman. John A. Oliphant testimony, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries.

187Tulsa World, June 1, 1921, "Third Extra," p. 1. Barrett, Oklahoma After Fifty Years, pp. 212-213.

188Frances W. Prentice, "Oklahoma Race Riot," Scribner's Magazine, XC (August 1931), pp. 151-157. Prentice was married to Clarence C. Prentice, sales manager for the Sabine Oil and Marketing Company. At the time of the riot, the couple lived at 1446 S. Denver. Tulsa City Directory, 1921.

189John A. Oliphant testimony, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 55-56, 120. Tulsa City Directory, 1921.

190John A. Oliphant testimony, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries.

191Ibid.

192Testimonial of Dr. R. T. Bridgewater in Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 46, 120. Tulsa City Directory, 1921.

193Tulsa Tribune, June 1, 1921, p. 1. Tulsa World, June 2, 1921, p.1. Barrett, Oklahoma After Fifty Years, pp. 212-213. Phillips, "Murder in the Streets," pp. 103-105. John A. Oliphant testimony, Attorney Generals Civil Case Files, Case 1062, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries. Oral history interview with Nell Hamilton Hampton, Tulsa, September 16, 1998. Phillips, "Murder in the Streets", pp. 97-103.

195Some black Tulsans also found refuge in the First Presbyterian Church and other white churches. Testimonials of James T. West, Jack Thomas, Mrs. Rosetta Moore, Dr. R. T. Bridgewater, and C.L. Netherland, in Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, pp. 23-24, 38, 39, 42, 44-47, 57. Tulsa World: June 1, 1921, "Third Extra", p. 1; and June 2, 1921, pp. 1, 2. New York Times, June 2,1921. Robert N. Hower, "Angels of Mercy": The American Red Cross and the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot (N.p., n.p., 1993), p. A-2. Oral history interviews with Ernestine Gibbs and Robert Clark Frayser, by Eddie Faye Gates, in They Came Searching, pp. 86, 247. Oral history interviews with: W.D. Williams, Tulsa, June 7, 1978; and Nell Hamilton Hampton, Tulsa, September 16, 1998. Van Voorhis, "Detailed Report of Negro Uprising."

196Tulsa Tribune, June 1, 1921, pp. 1, 2. Tulsa World, June 2, 1921, pp. 1, 2. Barrett, Oklahoma After Fifty Years, p. 214. Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster.

197Tulsa World, June 2, 1921, pp. 1, 7. Tulsa Tribune, June 2, 1921, p. 2. Barrett, Oklahoma After Fifty Years, pp. 213-215.

199 White, "Eruption of Tulsa," p. 910.

199Burial record ledgers for Stanley & McCune Funeral Directors, Tulsa, 1921.

200Preliminary scientific tests--primarily involving ground-penetrating radar-were performed at Oaklawn Cemetery, Newblock Park and Booker T. Washington Cemetery (now a part of Rolling Oaks Memorial Park) in 1998 and 1999. It is hoped that further and more definitive-tests will be performed in 2001.

The principal historical sources for each of the three sites include the following:

Oaklawn Cemetery. Oaklawn Cemetery burial records, Public Works Department, City of Tulsa. Historic and present-day Oaklawn Cemetery maps. Burial records ledgers, Stanley & McCune Funeral Directors, Tulsa, 1921. Tulsa County Commission, Minutes of Proceedings, 1921. Salvation Army records, Salvation Army Southern Historical Center, Atlanta, Georgia. Ruth Sigler Avery, Fear: The Fifth Horseman. Oral history interviews with Clyde Eddy, Tulsa, 1998-1999.

Booker T. Washington Cemetery. Historic and present-day maps for Booker T. Washington Cemetery. Oral history interviews with Larry Hutchings, Tulsa, April 10, 1998; John Irby, Tulsa, July 17, 1998; Chris Brockman, Tulsa, April 14, 1998; Elwood Lett, Tulsa, May 28, 1998; Gladys J. Cummins, Broken Arrow, April 20, 1998; Raymond Beard, Jr. and Sarah Beard, Tulsa, May 25, 1998; Mavelyn Blocker, Tulsa, May 24, 1998; Deborah Childers, Tulsa, May 24, 1998; Don Kennedy, Tulsa, May 24, 1998; Sarah (Butler) Thompson, Tulsa, May 25, 1998; and Sherry Thompson, Tulsa, May 23, 1998.

Newblock Park. Historic and present-day maps and aerial photographs of Newblock Park. Timothy A. Posey, "The Impact of the New Deal on the City of Tulsa" (M.A. thesis, Oklahoma State University, 1991). 'Tulsa Parks," Tulsa Journal, 1, 3 (July 1984). Tulsa Tribune: February 15, 1921, p. 2; May 17, 1921, p. 1; and May 18, 1921, p. 3. Oral history interviews with: William M. O'Brien, Tulsa, March 2, 1998; Robert D. Norris, Jr., Tulsa, March 25, 1998; Ruth Avery, Tulsa, February 20, 1998; Bruce Hartnitt, Tulsa, May 30, 1998; Ed Wheeler, Tulsa, February 27, 1998; Frank Mason, Tulsa, March 26, 1998; Jeff Britton, Tulsa, March 26, 1998; Leslie Lawrence, Owasso, March 26, 1998; and Joe Welch and Harvey Schell, Sand Springs, March 18, 1998.

Additional infonmation has been collected on other potential burial sites, including one other eyewitness account, and on the transportation of the bodies of the dead. "Historical Information About the Tulsa Race Riot," telephone log, January through March 1999. Oral history interviews with: Richard Gary, Tulsa, March 16, 1999; Ellen Prater Lasson, Tulsa, August 12, 1999; and Wade Foor and Charlie Anderson, Tulsa, June 5, 1999.

201Old and young had to pile on trucks," wrote Mrs. Rosetta Moore after the riot, "and when we were being driven through town, men were seen clapping their hands, rejoicing over our condition." Testimonial of Mrs. Rosetta Moore, in Parrish, Events of the Tulsa Disaster, p. 42.

202Chicago Defender, June 11, 1921. Statement of J. W. Hughes, in Hower, "Angels of Mercy," p. A-3. Tulsa City Directory, 1921. Oral history interviews with Jewel Smitherman Rogers, Perris, California, 1999- 2000. See also the forthcoming article by Paul Lee in Essence Magazine about the experiences of Julia Duff, a young teacher at Booker T. Washington High School, during the riot.

203On the aftermath of the riot, including relief efforts, local political maneuverings, and various legal actions, see: Ellsworth, Death in a Promised Land, pp. 71-97.

204The extensive post-riot relief efforts by the American Red Cross, and its intrepid local relief director, Maurice Willows, is well-documented in Robert A. Hower, "Angels of Mercy": The American Red Cross and the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot.

205Tulsa World, June 26, 1921, pp. 1, 8.

 

 

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