The Trojan War Judgment of Paris

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The Trojan War

Judgment of Paris

  • Eris was angered because she was not invited to the wedding of Thetis and King Peleus

  • She threw an apple into the wedding labeled “to the fairest”

  • Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite all wanted to be called to the fairest

  • Zeus refused to answer and instead sent the goddesses to Paris

  • Paris was King Priam of Troy’s son.

  • It was said he would bring about the downfall of Troy so he was herding sheep instead of being with his father.

  • The three goddesses offered a bribe to Paris.

  • Athena-Troy would be victorious in war

  • Hera-Lord of Europe and Asia-land

  • Aphrodite-the hand of the most beautiful woman on earth (mortal)

  • Paris being weak chose Aphrodite’s bribe

  • ***This is the cause of the Trojan War

The Oath

  • Helen’s parents were Zeus and Leda

  • Her reputed father Tyndareus—he had to select a man from all of Helen’s suitors

  • He made them take an oath first

  • Protect whoever I choose as Helen’s husband and support him if anything happens to him or Helen

  • Tyndareus chooses Meneleus as Helen’s husband

  • Paris goes to Greece to visit Meneleus and Helen

  • Paris is treated with hospitality

  • Meneleus leaves for Crete and when he does Paris takes Helen back to Troy

Greeks are going to Troy to get Helen back

  • All men are ready except for Odysseus and Achilles

  • Odysseus doesn’t want to leave his wife and child for some “romantic adventure overseas”

  • He is cunning and shrewd and pretendS to be crazy

  • When the messenger comes he is plowing his field with salt instead of seed

  • The messenger places Odysseus’ son in front of the plow-if he runs him over then he must be crazy

  • Odysseus avoids his son and the messenger finds he is sane—Odysseus will fight in the war

  • Achilles’ mother sends him to the court of King Lycomedes dressed as a woman

  • Odysseus is sent to retrieve Achilles and brings with him a bag of things for the maidens—ornaments for a woman and weapons

  • Achilles goes to the weapons and is found out

  • With little encouragement he agrees to fight in the war

Greeks are ready to go

  • Meet at Aulis

  • The winds will not subside—1,000 ships waiting to go

  • The Greeks angered Artemis

  • Have to sacrifice Agamemnon’s daughter to appease Artemis

  • Rather than lose his position in the army or his reputation Agamemnon allows his daughter to be sacrificed

The War

  • The war lasts for 9 years

  • Apollo’s priest’s daughter, Chryseis was taken by Agamemnon as a war prize

  • Apollo becomes angry and many Greeks are dying

  • Achilles forces Agamemnon to give back Chryseis and he does

  • As a result, Agamemnon sent two men to Achilles to take his war prize Briseis

  • Achilles is angry and refused to fight

  • Thetis, Achilles’ mother agreed that Achilles should not fight and goes to Zeus to ask him to help the Trojans

  • Zeus sent a dream to Agamemnon encouraging him to fight without Achilles.

  • The Greeks attack and the war is going in the Trojans favor

  • Until Meneleus and Paris face off—Paris runs before Meneleus can kill him

  • A truce is declared

  • Pandarus, a Trojan breaks the truce-he shoots an arrow at Meneleus injuring him


  • The war goes back and forth for some time

  • Ajax tried to kill Hector but is unsuccessful


  • Finally, Achilles’s friend Patroclus goes to him and asks for his armor

  • If you are not going to fight let me lead your men, the Myrmidons into battle

  • This will help energize the army

  • Achilles agrees; he is still not fighting

  • Hector and Patroclus face off and Hector kills Patroclus and takes Achilles armor

  • “I who did not help my comrade in his sore need. I will kill the destroyer of him I love; then I will accept death when it comes.”-Achilles

  • Thetis brings Achilles armor made by Hephaestus himself

  • Achilles faces Hector

  • Foreshadowing—Hector says let whoever is killed be returned to his people

  • Athena helps Achilles—kills Hector

  • Achilles strips him of his armor

  • Fastens Hector’s body to the back of a chariot and drags Hector’s body all around

  • King Priam goes to Achilles to ask for his son’s body back

  • Achilles felt grief at Priam’s request and had his men wash, anoint, and cover Hector’s body with a soft cloth to be returned to Priam

  • 9 days of mourning followed

Achilles death

  • Prince Memnon of Ethiopia came and Troy was winning-due to numbers

  • Achilles killed Memnon-this was Achilles last battle

  • Paris shot an arrow that Apollo guided into the heel of Achilles

  • Thetis had tried to make Achilles invincible by dipping him into the River Styx when he was an infant-she was careless and missed his heel

  • Ajax carried his body back while Odysseus held the Trojans back

  • Odysseus was granted Achilles armor—this was a great honor

  • Ajax lost the competition for the armor and was disgraced/dishonored

  • Ajax intended on killing Agamemnon and Meneleus but Athena sent him madness and he slaughtered animals instead

  • When he realized what he had done, he killed himself

  • Ajax could not be buried because of the suicide

Trojan Horse

  • Odysseus captured the prophet Helenus—she told him to fight with the bow and arrow of Hercules

  • Odysseus went to find Prince Philoctetes who they left on an island on their way to Troy

  • Odysseus pleaded with him to give him the bow and arrow and brought him back to Troy to be healed and fight

  • Philoctetes killed Paris

  • Odysseus and Diomedes took the image of Pallas Athena called Pallaldium from the Trojans—until this was taken the Trojans would continue to win

  • Odysseus came up with the idea of the wooden horse-hollow with men inside

  • Odysseus and men go inside the horse—other men sail off and hide at a nearby island

  • Sinon, a Greek, was left to tell the tale and make the Trojans take the horse into the city

  • Sinon pled with Priam and told him that Athena was angry and he was going to be sacrificed but escaped—Priam bought it

  • **False cunning won the war

  • Lacoon- “I fear the Greeks even when they bear gifts”—he didn’t want the horse

  • Poseidon intervened and sent two serpent to kill Lacoon

  • No one questioned the horse now

  • The wooden horse was brought inside the walls of Troy and overnight the Greek men came out—stormed the palace

  • Achilles’ son struck down Priam in front of his wife and daughters

  • Aphrodite helped her son Aeneas escape and got Helen to Meneleus

  • Hector’s wife Andromache was forced to hand over his son to be killed

  • This was Troy’s last sacrifice


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