The triumphs & travails of jeffersonian democracy, 1800-1812, Chapter 11

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1800-1812, Chapter 11

I. Federalist and Republican Mudslingers

A. Split in Fed, Ham criticized Adams

1. Adams wouldn’t fight France, despite war preparations

2. navy build-up, D-R criticism for heavy govt spending and taxes

B. Rumor of Jeff’s slave mistress, & “atheism”

II. Jefferson’s “Revolution of 1800”

A. Jeff won 73 elect votes, but so did Burr (helped carry NY)

1. no majority in electoral college, so House of Rep’s elected pres

2. lame-duck Fed’s in majority of House, finally gave in

B. Revolution? Yes, a change of party by peaceful means

1. no violence, transfer accepted by all

2. American democracy growing and maturing

III. Federalist Finale

A. Adams last Fed pres.

1. elite leaders with brains and talent

2. strong eco and political foundation, peace, conservatism

B. Fed’s did not look west, but most Americans did

1. no appeal to common people

2. lack of understanding of the future of America

IV. Responsibility Breed Moderation

A. Jeff inaugurated in Washington 1801

1. walked to Capitol from boardinghouse

2. “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists”

3. no entangling alliances

B. D-R’s rule w/frugality, simplicity

1. Jeff a widower, not formal in hosting visitors, etc.

2. sent written messages to Congress, was not a powerful speaker

C. Governed as a practical politician, different from his bookish theories

1. conciliatory, moderate, retained some Fed office-holders

2. personally charming, did not rely on his party

V. Restraint helps to Further the “Revolution”

A. Alien/Sedition acts had expired; Jeff pardoned some still in jail

1. shortened naturalization time to 5 yrs.

2. persuaded Congress to repeal excise tax

B. apptd Albert Gallatin as sec of treasury

1. reduced debt, balanced budget, kept most of Ham’s policies

2. did not attack Bank or tariff

3. absorbed major Fed programs, showing restraint and bipartisanship

VI. The Dead Clutch of the Judiciary

A. Adams signed commissions for “midnight judges”

1. Fed’s tried to pack the court system before leaving office

2. new D-R Congress repealed Judiciary Act of 1801

B. Adams had apptd John Marshall as chief justice of SC

1. made many Federalist decisions, though D-R’s were in power

2. Marbury sued Madison to have his commission delivered

3. Marshall ruled that Marbury could not get his job, since the Judiciary

Act of 1789 was unconstitutional

a. Marbury vs Madison in one sense a Federalist defeat, but

b. in the long run, it gave the SC power to declare some acts

of Congress unconstitutional

VII. Jefferson threatens Supremacy of SC

A. tired of anti-DR harangues by Fed. judges, Jeff urged House to impeach

justice Samuel Chase (1804)

1. “high crimes and misdemeanors”? no, just bad manners, partisanship

2. no conviction in Senate, Chase kept job

B. last attempt to remake the court by impeachment

1. independent judiciary victorious

2. separation of powers reinforced

VIII. The Pacifist Jefferson Turns Warrior

A. Reduced military to 2500 men, small navy

1. low taxes, did not care to protect Federalist shippers

2. but N. African pirates demanded tribute

B. Pasha of Tripoli cut down flag on American consulate

1. treaty 1805 cost US only $60,000, ransom for captured Americans

2. some fighting by small US gunboats, aka “mosquito fleet”

3. 200 boats built in small shipyards, had one gun, unsafe and flimsy

4. US unprepared for war of 1812

IX. Louisiana Godsend

A. Secret Fr-Sp pact sent LA back to Fr, 1800

1. Sp w/drew right of deposit for Amer farmers, guaranteed in 1795

2. talk of war by Amer farmers

B. Jeff did not want to have a war w/Sp and Fr; would have to ally w/Br

1. sent J. Monroe to Paris to meet R. Livingston, buy N.O.

2. Napoleon decided to sell all Louisiana

3. loss of St. Domingo to slaves led by Toussaint L’Ouverture

4. yellow fever had killed thousands of troops

5. needed $ to fight Britain; US might someday balance Br power

C. Livingston negotiated, bought all of LA including NO for $15 million

X. Out-Federalizing the Federalists

A. US had bought a wilderness to acquire a city, doubling size of US

1. strict or loose construction of Constitution?

2. authorization to acquire land? amendment needed?

B. Senate approved treaties (828,000 sq miles)

1. Fed’s argued it was unconstitutional, and a useless desert

2. new states would come from this territory, outnumbering the

orig 13, esp NE

3. greatest achievement of Jefferson’s presidency

4. led to downfall of Fed’s

XI. Louisiana in the Long View

A. western half of richest river valley in world

1. Valley of Democracy—Jefferson’s ideal of an agrarian republic

B. Jeff sent Lewis and Clark to explore the northern part

1. St. Louis, MO R., Rocky Mtns, Columbia R. to Pacific

2. took 2.5 years, many maps, artifacts, scientific observations,

notebooks and journals, knowledge of Indians, wilderness advent.

C. overland trail to Pacific, later used by missionaries and settlers

1. Zebulon Pike explored southern part of purchase in 1806-7

2. good for Jeff’s foreign policy

D. friendly relations w/France, no need for alliance w/Br

1. Fed’s now a sectional party, weak

2. Burr schemed for secession of NE and NY, failed, led to

duel w/Hamilton, best Fed leader

3. purchase good for national unity; westerners loved Jefferson

E. Burr plotted to detach west, arrested for treason 1806

1. acquitted since no 2 witnesses could testify

2. West did not support Burr, but were loyal to US

XII. America: a Nutcrackered Neutral

A. Jeff reelected 1804, had adopted some Federalist programs

1. France at war w/Britain again, Br ruled sea, Fr ruled land

2. Orders in Council closed ports under Fr control to all shipping

B. Nap ordered seizure of foreign ships that entered Br ports

1. US trade prospered

2. greater the risk, greater the profit

XIII. British Man-Stealing

A. impressment of US sailors into Br navy (6000 during 1808-1811)

1. US encouraged Br sailors to desert Br navy (harsh conditions)

2. fraudulent naturalization papers

B. Br captured US frigate Chesapeake 1807

1. demanded 4 deserters, US captain declined

2. Br fired on ship, took deserters, ship barely made it back to port

3. Us outraged, but Jeff did not want war

4. reparation paid 5 yrs later; no promise to quit impressments

XIV. Jefferson’s Embargo

A. navy still weak, Jeff wanted to use US trade as leverage

1. Congress passed his Embargo Act, cutting off exports of US to Europe

2. regulation of commerce became strangulation

B. loss of business, trade, no jobs

1. Jeff hurt NE and the South

2. southern farmers could not sell cotton, grain, tobacco

3. smuggling ensued

C. much anger at Jeff, punitive enforcement laws

1. Congress finally repealed Embargo in 1809

2. reopened trade w/every country except Br and Fr

XV. Wooden-Gun Embargo: a Successful Failure

A. Br were able to endure loss of American goods

1. Jeff realized that the embargo cost 3 times as much as war

2. building navy would have been better

B. hurt Fed shipping, but gave Fed party a grievance vs Jeff

1. prosperity from reopening old factories

2. some Br were hurt by embargo, pressured Parliament to suspend

Orders in Council

XVI. the Living Jefferson

A. Jeff popular, though embargo was not

1. refused 3rd term per Washington’s example

2. lived 18 more years at Monticello

B. favored Madison as his successor

1. had kept country out of war, still believed in democracy

2. began correspondence w/John Adams, his old friend and antagonist

3. both died on July 4, 1826

XVII. Madison: dupe of Napoleon

A. Problems as president: poor leadership, factions in cabinet

1. Non-Intercourse Act of 1809, a limited embargo vs Br and Fr

2. Macon’s Bill #2: tried to play Br vs Fr, offering trade w/one

B. Napoleon announced end to restrictions on US trade

1. Madison said Fr had complied w/Macon’s Bill, and US would

resume non-importation w/Br

2. Br was angered

XVIII. War Whoops arouse the War Hawks

A. “the boys” in Congress were hot for war, aka “hawks”, led by Henry Clay

1. wanted to drive Indians out of west, esp Kentucky

2. Tecumseh and the Prophet welded confederacy of tribes

3. gave up textile clothes and firewater, opposed “ownership” of land

B. WHH advanced on Tippecanoe on Nov 1811, burned it down

1. Tecumseh killed at Battle of Thames 1813

2. A. Jackson def. Creeks at Battle of Horseshoe Bend 1814

C. War Hawks wanted troops to wipe out Indian base in Canada

1. Southerners wanted to take Sp Florida

2. “Free Trade and Sailors’ Rights” slogan, opposed Br Orders in Council

3. America must fight to protect itself

D. Declaration of War June 1812 (79-49 House, 19-13 Senate)

1. ironically, most coastal easterners voted against the war

2. one objective of the war would be freedom of the seas

XIX. Mr. Madison’s War

A. Fr also hurting Amer shipping, but sentiment was to fight Br

1. Canada seemed ripe for the taking

2. NE was still making money from trade w/Br, willing to put up w/


B. Federalists hated Napoleon, opposed takeover of Canada

1. Canada was agrarian, would support Jeffersonian politics

2. bitterly called it “Mr Madison’s War”, lent $ to Br

3. NE sent food and supplies to Br in Canada

4. NE governors refused to send militia outside their states

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