Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleiman I) – Ottoman Empire 2) Peter the Great – Russia • LIMITED (CONSTITUTIONAL) MONARCHY
(THE DEVELOPMENT OF PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY)
The Magna Carta (1215)
The Petition of Right (1628)
The Habeas Corpus Act (1670)
The Glorious Revolution (1688)
The English Bill of Rights (1689) THE AGE OF ABSOLUTISM (DIVINE MONARCHS) (divided into 2 parts) PART 1:
Louis XIV (the fourteenth) – France
Phillip II – Spain
Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleiman I) – Ottoman Empire • Many European monarchs of the 1600s maintained that they should have absolute power to rule because they had been given their power to govern from God. This theory justifying a monarch’s rule by God’s authority is called the theory of DIVINE RIGHT. • From the 15th to the 18th centuries, absolute monarchs of Europe and Asia sought to CENTRALIZE their political power.
(During the Age of Absolutism [1600s and 1700s], European monarchs
tried to centralize political power within their nations.) • Absolute monarchs determined government policies without the consent of their people • The Global Regents Exam frequently quotes Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet’s writings in support of DIVINE RIGHT. Bossuet’s writing describes the power held by Louis XIV. • Divine Right (Absolute) Monarchs who have been cited on the Global
Regents Exam: King Louis XIV – France
LOUIS XIV is credited with saying “L état, cest moi” (I am the state).
Louis XIV promoted culture by supporting the arts.
He drained France’s treasury by building the palace at Versailles and involving France in costly wars.
Phillip II – Spain
Phillip II gained much wealth from Spain’s overseas empire in the Americas.
He waged war against the Protestants and lost.
Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleiman I) – Ottoman Empire
Suleiman held complete religious and political power.
A common goal of Philip II of Spain and Louis XIV of France was to maintain absolute power. One similarity in the rule of Peter the Great, Suleiman I, and Louis XIV is
that each leader expanded his territory. Niccolò Machiavelli in The Prince and Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan both advocated that a ruler should employ absolute power to maintainorder in the areas under their rule.
1. A common goal of Philip II of Spain and Louis XIV of France was to
(1) spread Calvinism
(2) promote political revolutions
(3) maintain absolute power
(4) isolate their nations
2. From the 15th to the 18th centuries, absolute monarchs of Europe and Asia sought to
3. Which person is credited with saying “L’état, c’est moi” (I am the state)?
(1) Louis XIV
(2) John Locke
(3) Karl Marx
(4) Queen Isabella
Base your answers to the following two questions on the passage below and on your
knowledge of social studies.
. . . The power of God can be felt in a moment from one end of the world to the other: the
royal power acts simultaneously throughout the kingdom. It holds the whole kingdom in
position just as God holds the whole world. If God were to withdraw his hand, the entire
world would return to nothing: if authority ceases in the kingdom, all lapses into
confusion. . . . — Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet
4. This passage describes the idea of
(1) divine right rule
(2) parliamentary democracy
5. Which historical era is most closely associated with this passage?
(1) Industrial Revolution
(2) Agricultural Revolution
(3) Age of Imperialism
(4) Age of Absolutism
Base your answers to the following three questions on the speakers’ statements below
and on your knowledge of social studies. Speaker A: Although I spread serfdom in my country, I tried to modernize our society by incorporating western technology.
Speaker B: I promoted culture with my support of the arts. Unfortunately, I drained my country’s treasury by building my palace at Versailles and involving my country in costly wars.
Speaker C: I gained much wealth from my overseas empire in the Americas. I waged war against the Protestants and lost.
Speaker D: I inherited the throne and imprisoned my foes without a trial. I dissolved Parliament because I did not want to consult with them when I increased taxes.
6. Which speaker represents the view of King Louis XIV of France?
7. Which nation was most likely governed by Speaker D?
8. Which type of government is most closely associated with all these speakers?
(4) constitutional democracy
Base your answer to the following question on the quotation below and on your knowledge of social studies. . . . Finally, gather together all that we have said, so great and so august [important],
about royal authority. You have seen a great nation united under one man: you have seen
his sacred power, paternal and absolute: you have seen that secret reason which directs
the body politic, enclosed in one head: you have seen the image of God in kings, and you
will have the idea of majesty of kingship. God is holiness itself, goodness itself, power
itself, reason itself. In these things consists the divine majesty. In their reflection consists
the majesty of the prince. . . .— Jacques-Benigne Bossuet
9. Which philosophy of government is expressed by this quotation?
(4) divine right
10. The theory justifying a monarch’s rule by God’s
authority is called
(1) laissez faire
(4) divine right
11. One similarity in the rule of Peter the Great, Suleiman I, and Louis XIV is that each
12. Many European monarchs of the 1600s maintained that they should have absolute power to
rule because they
(1) needed to defend their nations against threats from the Western Hemisphere
(2) thought that all people should have the right to a good ruler
(3) had been given their power to govern from God
(4) thought that communism was the superior political system
13. King Louis XIV of France, Peter the Great of Russia, and Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire were all considered absolute rulers because they
(1) broke from the Roman Catholic Church
(2) helped feudal lords build secure castles
(3) instituted programs that provided more power to their parliaments
(4) determined government policies without the consent of their people
14. During the Age of Absolutism (1600s and 1700s), European monarchs tried to
(1) increase individual rights for their citizens
(2) develop stronger relations with Islamic rulers
(3) encourage the growth of collective farms
(4) centralize political power within their nations
Base your answer to the following question on the statements below and on your
knowledge of social studies. Speaker A: “The state of monarchy is supreme on earth: for kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon earth and sit upon God’s throne, but even by God himself they are called gods.”
Speaker B: “If government fails to fulfill the end for which it was established—the preservation of the individual’s right to life, liberty, and property—the people have a right to dissolve the government.”
Speaker C: “But what if the compact between the ruler and ruled is violated by the ruler?
He thus becomes a tyrant, a criminal who forfeits his rights to the obedience of his subjects, who may now exercise their right to rebel and form a new compact.”
Speaker D: “The ruling authority in the state, the sovereign, must have supreme power,
or society will collapse and the anarchy of the state of nature will return.”
15. Which two speakers would support absolutism?
(1) A and D
(2) B and C
(3) C and D
(4) A and B
16. Which quotation was most likely made by an absolute monarch?
(1) “The government that governs best, governs least.”
(2) “I am the state.”
(3) “The government must be based on a sound constitution.”
(4) “It is the parliament that must make the laws.”
17. In the partial outline below, which heading belongs after Roman numeral I?
A. Louis XIV
B. Phillip II
C. Henry VIII
(1) Divine Right Monarchs
(2) Supporters of Democracy
(3) Religious Reformers
(4) Leaders of the Crusades
18. Niccolò Machiavelli in The Prince and Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan both advocated that
a ruler should
(1) obtain power from a social contract with the governed
(2) place the needs of subjects first
(3) apply Christian teachings to all decisions
(4) employ absolute power to maintain order in the areas under their rule
19. The primary goal of most of Europe’s absolute monarchs was to
(1) support political freedom for the new middle classes
(2) prevent contact with areas beyond Europe’s borders
(3) centralize their political control over their nations
(4) maintain peaceful relations with neighboring nations
knowledge of social studies. “. . .The person of the King is sacred, and to attack him in any way is an attack on religion itself. Kings represent the divine majesty and have been appointed by Him to carry out His purposes. Serving God and respecting kings are bound together.”
—Bishop Jacques Bossuet
20. This statement describes the philosophy that existed during the
(2) Age of Absolutism
(4) Industrial Revolution
21. Which person would most agree with this statement?
(1) John Locke
(2) Karl Marx
(3) Elizabeth II
(4) Louis XIV
•Suleiman held complete religious and political power.
PART 2: Peter the Great • Peter the Great SPREAD (EXPANDED) SERFDOM in Russia. • Peter the Great WESTERNIZED RUSSIA (He tried to modernize [westernize] Russian society by incorporating western technology.) He forced the Russian nobility to adopt Western culture. He demanded that boyars (Russian nobles) shave their beards and replace their old-fashioned robes with Western-style clothes. • One similarity between the rule of Peter the Great of Russia and that of
Akbar the Great of India was that both leaders modernized and
expanded their empires using ideas from other cultures. • The topography and climate of Russia have caused Russian rulers
(Peter the Great, Catherine the Great) to seek access to WARM-WATER PORTS. Peter the Great established the warm-water port of St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea. • One similarity in the rule of Peter the Great, Suleiman I, and Louis XIV is
that each leader expanded his territory.
23. The topography and climate of Russia have caused Russia to
(4) bow to pressures from the Ottoman Empire
Base your answers to the following two questions on the poem below and on your knowledge of social studies. “. . . Here a new city shall be wrought [built]. . . .
Shall break a window to the West. . .
Here flags of foreign nations all
By waters new to them will call. . . .”
— Alexander Pushkin, The Bronze Horseman
29. Which Russian ruler’s goals are described in the poem?
(1) Ivan the Terrible
(2) Peter the Great
(3) Catherine the Great
(4) Nicholas II
30. Which policy was developed to implement the plans described in the poem?
(4) balance of power politics
31. One similarity between the rule of Peter the Great of Russia and that of Akbar the Great of India was that both leaders
(1) implemented strict religious codes of conduct within their nations
(2) modernized and expanded their empires using ideas from other cultures
(3) relied on peaceful resolutions of conflicts with neighboring peoples
(4) introduced democratic ideas into their political systems
32. •The Ottoman Empire disrupted overland trade between Europe and Asia.
•Peter the Great established St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea.
•Mesoamericans relied on terrace farming. These statements illustrate the
(1) impact of geography on human activity
(2) failure of people to adjust to their environment
(3) effect of geographic isolation on different societies
(4) movement from a traditional to a command economy
•Suleiman held complete religious and political power.
•Charles I stormed the English Parliament.
•Peter the Great expanded serfdom in Russia. 33. The actions of these leaders reflect the concept of
(1) scientific theory
(2) natural rights
LIMITED (CONSTITUTIONAL) MONARCHY
AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY IN ENGLAND • A limited (constitutional) monarchy is a government headed by a monarch, but the monarch’s power is defined and limited by law.
• The Magna Carta - (a list of feudal rights that limited the power of King John during the Middle Ages) – 1215
• The Petition of Right - (prohibited Charles I from raising taxes without Parliament’s consent or jailing anyone without legal justification) – 1628
• The Habeas Corpus Act - (Habeas corpus is the principle that no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime. The Habeas Corpus Act was passed during the rule of Charles II.) – 1670
• The Glorious Revolution - (the bloodless overthrow of James II [who had inherited the throne from his brother, Charles II] and the installation of William and Mary as monarchs) – 1688
• The English Bill of Rights
ALL of these documents / events LIMITED THE POWER of the English
monarchy. (They strengthened the principles of limited government.)
31. • Parliament offered the throne to King William and Queen Mary.
• Catholic King James II fled England for France.
• Parliament agreed to joint rule with the monarch.
These events are most closely associated with the
(2) French Revolution
(3) Glorious Revolution
32. Which document limited the power of the English monarchy during the Middle Ages?