In Japanese culture, the butterfly is a very popular symbol having more meanings: eternity, womanhood and love.
The meaning of eternity which represented by the butterfly is due to the popular belief that spirits of the dead take the form of a butterfly on their journey to the other world and eternal life. Or spirits of the dead are guided by butterflies to the afterlife.
The cycle of transformations through which a butterfly passes in his life, is often associated with the transformations through which a girl passes on her way of becoming a young woman. In Japanese culture, the butterfly is associated with femininity, also, because of its grace and beauty.
In Japanese symbolism, the butterfly is a sign of good luck in love and finding your soul mate. It is a symbol of a happy marriage, and is used as a decorative element for weddings.
An old Chinese legend, adopted by most East Asian countries, tells the story of two lovers who turn into butterflies after committing suicide together. This story is often known as the Romeo and Juliet of Asia, and expresses the eternal love of those two.
Also there is the butterfly knot used to tie the women's obi.
The butterfly in arts
Throughout history, the butterfly was a common motif on paintings, paper panels, fans and more.
In the Edo period, the butterflies have been a very popular subject among ukiyo-e artists, being painted by artists like Utagawa (Ando) Hiroshige, Kudo Shunman, Yanagawa Shiganobu, Totoya Hokkei, Utagawa Toyokuni, Yanagawa Shigenobu, Kitao Masayoshi, and Shirobe Fujie.
The butterfly was often used as a symbol for the blazons of the samurai clans. One of the first clans who used butterfly was Taira clan, one of the most powerful clans in the Heian period. This clan was one of the first and most powerful clans of samurai in Japanese history.
The butterfly is the first form of origami that was ever made, and it was inspired by a poem by Ihara Saikaku in 1680, in which he describes a dream about paper butterflies. Ihara describes two butterflies called Ocho and Mecho. Now there is a tradition in which two paper butterflies are placed on sake bottles used at weddings.
Anime and Manga
In the modern culture of Japan, anime and manga plays an important role, and the butterfly is present in both. In the anime series Bleach, butterflies are present as the traditional form of guides for the spirits of the dead. In Sailor Moon, the butterfly is the symbol of Princess Kakyuu. And in the manga Little Butterfly, it is a symbol of freedom and hope for the two young lovers who want to escape to be together.