The sun never set on the British Empire

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Chapter 16 Imperialism

“The sun never set on the British Empire.” What did that mean?

It meant that the sun was always shining on the British Empire somewhere in the world.

What is an empire?

What is an emperor?

What is imperialism? The act of ….

What do they have in common?

Europeans in Africa

The U.S. gained the Philippines, Guam, Cuba, and Puerto Rico in which war?

What was White Man's Burden?

White Man's Burden was a poem by Englishman Rudyard Kipling in 1899.

The poem conveys the view that colonial powers (Great Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, Holland, Denmark, Germany, Sweden, Russia, Italy and the United States), had a duty to civilize the barbaric world.

The poem begins by describing the colonized Filipinos as “half devil and half child".

Imperialists had an obligation to "civilize" the peoples of third world countries.

What does the native look like? Why?

European powers divided Africa at the Berlin Conference in 1884.

Only Liberia (settled by former African-American slaves); and Ethiopia, which resisted Italy, remained independent.

The Europeans conquered Africa with :

Machine gun Telephone Steam boats Railroads African tribal wars, and Africans spoke hundreds of languages which made it difficult to communicate with each other

The Suez Canal was Built by the French in 1869. It Connected the Red and Med. Seas.

Strategic location because ….

Cecil Rhodes established the British colonies of Zambia and Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), and made millions with De Beers Diamond Company.

De Beers is a cartel of companies that dominate the diamond, diamond mining, diamond shops, and diamond trading.

De Beers is active in every category of industrial diamond mining: open-pit, underground, large-scale alluvial, coastal and deep sea.

Mining takes place in Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Canada.

The Rhodes Scholarship at Oxford University, Oxford, England is the world's most prestigious scholarship

Bill Clinton is a Rhodes Scholar

King Leopold II was a Belgium king who ruled the Congo.

Millions were killed on rubber tree plantations.

The Second Congo War, beginning in1998, devastated the country and is sometimes referred to as the "African World War" because it involved nine African nations.

The prevalence of rape and other sexual violence has been described as the worst in the world.

The war is the world's deadliest conflict since the Chinese Civil War (1949).

More than 90% were not killed in combat, dying instead from malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, pneumonia and malnutrition.

Bad Effects of the Europeans in Africa

Loss of traditional cultures

Continued conflict among tribes

The Good Effects from the Europeans

Educational System

Roads and Bridges



The British in India

In 1757 the British East India Company defeated Indian forces and ruled India for 100 years.

Sepoy Mutiny

In 1857, Indian soldiers known as sepoys rebelled against the British East India Company.

The British military crushed the revolt.

Britain then ruled India for the next 90 years.

The Good British Legacy in India

Government Railroads Telegraph and later telephone Bridges, Dams, Irrigation, Sewers Public schools, and Local warfare decreased.

The Bad Legacy of the British in India

Destroyed India’s handicraft industries by importing machine made products of Britain

India could only trade with Britain

Profits went back to Britain

Forced cash crop agriculture - which led to famines

Famines in India during British occupation (1765–1947)

Great Bengal Famine 1769 10,000,000

Chalisa famine 1791 11,000,000

Doji bara famine 1789–1795 11,000,000

Agra famine of 1837 800,000

Eastern Rajputana 1860 2,000,000

Famines Continued

Orissa famine of 1866 1,000,000

Rajputana famine of 1869 1,500,000

Great Famine of 1876–78 1876–1878 10,300,000

Orissa, Bihar 1888–1889 150,000

Indian famine of 1896–97 1896–1897 5,000,000

Indian famine of 189 1,000,000

Bombay Presidency 1905 230,000

Bengal famine of 1943 5,000,000

India’s Independence from the British came in 1948.

India was sectioned into many countries because of religious and cultural differences.

In China, the Europeans did not control the government.

They were concerned with trade.

This is called informal imperialism.

The Opium Wars in China

The British pushed opium to reduce their trade deficit.

In 1839 the Chinese lost the war to the British to stop the sale of opium.

The use of opium finally ended in the 1950s with summarily executions.

The Poppy Plant

Opium comes from poppy plants of Asia, and mostly from Burma (Myanmar).

Heroin, Morphine, and Codeine are forms of processed opium.

Opium comes from poppy plants of Asia, and mostly from Burma (Myanmar).

Opium output in 1996 was 430 tons of heroin.

Half of all heroin goes to the United States.

The Spheres of Influence –were the East Asian territories controlled by the Europeans

The Taiping Rebellion 1850 - 1864

A civil war killed 20 million people

rebels wanted the Europeans out and opium trading to stop, and also sharing of property, and equal rights for women

The Qing government eventually crushed the rebellion with the aid of French and British forces.

The Boxer Rebellion

“Boxer” comes from martial arts practiced by the rebels. Some Chinese rebelled against the Christian missionaries, opium traders, and foreigners

Open Door Policy

The U.S. wanted to trade with China, but the Europeans said no.

In 1858 the U.S. Navy with steel ships sailed into Tokyo Harbor.

The intimidated Japanese they opened their ports for coal, food and water.

Emperor Meiji sent scholars to the West to learn their technologies and customs.

Japan soon became industrialized and powerful.

Latin America

By the 1830s, most Latin American countries were ruled by caudillos (dictators), and the people were poor, illiterate, laborers. Debt was passed on to the children.

The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 stated that America will stay out or Europe’s affairs, and Europe should stay out of America’s affairs.

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