The spread of civilization in east and southeast asia

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Although the Mongol leader Genghis Khan was unable to conquer all of China, his grandson Kublai Khan was successful. As first emperor of the Yuan, or Mongol, dynasty, Kublai Khan created a prosperous and unified empire, in which Mongols enjoyed certain privileges. However, to help him rule his great empire, he adopted some Chinese methods of government and encouraged Chinese traditions. * As you read, think about how Kublai Khan's policies may have been viewed by the Chinese. Then, on a separate sheet of paper, answer the questions that follow.

Kublai Khan (1215-1294)

Before he became emperor, Kublai Khan aided his brother, Mongol emperor Mongke, in the conquest of southern China. Kublai Khan was given full military and civil respon­sibility for the affairs of the region. He actively sought the opinions and advice of the Chinese. Learned advisers taught Kublai Khan Confucian principles of govern­ment and methods for administra­tive and economic reform.

Kublai Khan

After Mongke's death in 1259, Kublai Khan succeeded him as emperor. In 1279, he completed the Mongol conquest of Song China. All of China fell under his rule.

Unifying China was his greatest achieve­ment. Kublai Khan embraced Chinese culture, traditions, and politics and chose a Chinese name—Yuan—for his dynasty. He reorganized the government to gain greater political con­trol and restored traditional Chinese features of government, such as Confucian rites and the calendar. Kublai Khan also encouraged the advancement of literature and the arts.

A Buddhist, Kublai Khan supported reli­gious tolerance in China. Under his rule, cler-

ics and their communities were exempt from taxation. Buddhist temples were given dona­tions of land and peasants to work the land. Under Kublai Khan, the people were

divided into four social classes. At the top were the Mongols, who were exempt from taxation and were served by Chinese peasants. Next were the central Asians, who also held a privileged status and paid no taxes. The third and fourth classes were the largest groups. They were made up of the northern Chinese and southern Chinese who had been part of the Song dynasty. These two lower classes paid taxes and served the privileged, upper classes.

During his reign, Kublai Khan's economic policies and trade expansion helped mainly the privileged classes. The lower classes became progressively poorer. His adoption of some of China's political traditions drove some Mongols away from leadership posi­tions. Years after Kublai Khan's death, the Yuan dynasty fell in 1368. Mongols never again played a significant role in China.

Questions to Think About

  1. What were the four social classes Kublai
    Khan created during the Yuan dynasty?
    What rights did each have?

  2. What did Kublai Khan learn from the Chinese
    advisers he consulted?

3. Draw Inferences How do you think the north­ern and southern Chinese viewed Kublai Khan and the Mongols during his reign? Explain your answer.

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