Sociology is the scientific study of
human activity in society.
From a sociological point of view, a ________ is the day-to-day activities from birth to death that make up a person’s life.
Emile Durkheim defined social facts as
having the remarkable property of existing outside the individual.
things we know to be true.
Only when people _________________ do they come to know the power of social facts.
rebel against the established ways of doing things
Durkheim wrote that he was not forced to speak French or to use the legal currency, but it was impossible for him to do otherwise. Durkheim was writing about
Durkheim wrote, “Even when, in fact, I can struggle free from these rules and successfully break them, it is never without being forced to fight against them.” This statement is a reference to
“Because I refuse to shave under my arms, I have to pay a price. On a personal level, this price was my mother’s hostility. On a public level, the price is dealing with the stares of strangers.” This statement illustrates
the power of social facts.
the idea of double consciousness.
A woman writes, “I can’t be anything but what my skin color tells people I am. I am black because I look black. It does not matter that my family has a complicated biological heritage.” She is writing about the power of
the sociological imagination.
An American traveling to Ghana, Africa, on business notices that the “men, including the men I was with, hold hands. One day one of the men I was with took my hand as we walked. In order not to offend him, I took his hand in mine.” The American is responding to a(n)
In examining patterns of courtship and marriage, sociologists would emphasize which of the following in shaping a couple’s decision to marry?
the personalities of the couples
the importance of love
social considerations such as age, sex, race, income, etc.
Peter L. Berger equates the sociologist with
a curious observer who, walking down the neighborhood streets of a large city, is fascinated with what he or she cannot see taking place behind the building walls.
an Internal Revenue Service auditor.
a judge giving instructions to a jury.
a talk show host interviewing guests.
Peter Berger argues that the logic of sociology presupposes a measure of suspicion about the way in which human events are officially interpreted by authorities. This suspicion speaks to __________, which defines the sociological consciousness.
“The fascination of sociology lies in the fact that its perspective makes us see in a new light the very world in which we have lived all our lives.” This vision of sociology can be attributed to
C. Wright Mills.
The number of mobile phones per 1,000 people in the U.S. has increased steadily each year since the introduction of the mobile phone in 1985. A sociologist studying these rates would
agree that mobile phones are necessary.
think about the forces behind this increase in mobile phone use.
contemplate the individual reasons for owning a mobile phone.
wonder how cell phone manufacturers keep up with demand.
Currents of opinion are broadly reflected in
rates summarizing various behaviors.
Suicide rates represent one example of what Durkheim would call
currents of opinion.
The quality of mind that enables us to connect seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces to the most basic incidents of an individual’s life is
the sociological imagination.
the structure of opportunities.
The payoff for those who possess _____________ is that they can understand their inner life in terms of institutional arrangements and larger historical forces.
the sociological imagination
Unemployment is a(n) __________ when it results from corporate downsizing.
Which of the following explanations would someone use to explain an issue?
“She had the opportunity but didn’t take it.”
“He is lazy.”
“There is a flaw or breakdown in an institutional arrangement.”
“She didn’t try very hard in school.”
When in a nation of 50 million employees, 15 million are unemployed, that is
a series of private troubles.
a result of basic character flaws.
The high school dropout rate in the United States is greater than 25 percent. C. Wright Mills would classify this situation as
a social fact.
The obesity rate in the United States is greater than 30 percent. According to Mills, the key to resolving this issue involves focusing on
the character flaws of the 92 million plus Americans who are obese.
ways to increase the motivation of obese Americans.
understanding the underlying social forces that contributed to the current obesity rate.
greater awareness of nutritional guidelines.
The resolution of an issue involves changing
The sociologist __________ is associated with the concepts “troubles” and “issues.”
The Industrial Revolution transformed the nature of work in which one of the following ways?
Machine production was replaced by hand production.
People now could say, “I made this; this is a unique product of my labor.”
Products became standardized, and workers performed specific tasks in the production process.
The workers’ power over the production process increased dramatically.
“Within a few decades, a social order that had existed for centuries vanished, and a new one, familiar in its outline to us in the twentieth century, appeared.” This assessment applies to which historical event?
The early sociologists spent most of their professional life attempting to understand the consequences of which one of the following events?
World War I
World War II
the Industrial Revolution
The name sociology and the corresponding academic discipline was born during the
Who invented the term sociology?
In addition to the Industrial Revolution, which one of the following helps to explain the emergence of sociology as a discipline?
the widespread acceptance of the scientific method
the Age of Imperialism
Auguste Comte defined sociology as the scientific study of the collective and cumulative results of the human intellect. The words collective and cumulative suggest that sociology involves the study of
people and history.
social and psychological forces.
social interactions across cultures and throughout time.
the mind and body.
The Communist Manifesto is associated with
Marx’s legacy has been obscured by
his inability to accurately describe capitalism.
a personality disorder.
the failure of Communism.
the fact that he published in German (not English).
The Communist Manifesto begins with the line
“A specter is haunting Europe—the specter of Communism.”
“Workers of all countries, unite.”
“I am not a Marxist.”
“The global economy is restless, anxious, and competitive.”
Karl Marx described capitalism in all but which one of the following ways?
a boundless thirst
a werewolf-like hunger
With mechanization, the rise of two distinct classes emerged. The one that owns the means of production is called
According to Karl Marx, the character of class conflict is shaped directly and profoundly by
the means of production.
Land, tools, equipment, factories, modes of transportation, and labor are
owned by the proletariat.