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Latin Literature

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English (3,8, & 12), Dutch (incomplete


De Rerum Natura






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English (also provided here and here (Bk. I only)), German (I, 1-88), Dutch (selections)

Cicero (c. 106-43 B.C.)

Marcus Tullius Cicero was born on January 3, 106 BC and was murdered on December 7, 43 BC. His life coincided with the decline and fall of the Roman Republic, and he was an important actor in many of the significant political events of his time (and his writings are now a valuable source of information to us about those events). He was, among other things, an orator, lawyer, politician, and philosopher. Making sense of his writings and understanding his philosophy requires us to keep that in mind. He placed politics above philosophical study; the latter was valuable in its own right but was even more valuable as the means to more effective political action. The only periods of his life in which he wrote philosophical works were the times he was forcibly prevented from taking part in politics

Table of Contents (Clicking on the links below will take you to that part of this article)

  • Cicero's life

  • Cicero's influence

  • Cicero's thought

  • Cicero and the Academic Skeptics

  • Cicero and Stoicism and Peripateticism

  • Cicero and Epicureanism

  • Cicero's writings

    • On Invention

    • On the Orator

    • On the Republic

    • On the Laws

    • Brutus

    • Stoic Paradoxes

    • The Orator

    • Consolation

    • Hortensius

    • Academics

    • On Ends

    • Tusculan Disputations

    • On the Nature of the Gods

    • On Divination

    • On Fate

    • On Old Age

    • On Friendship

    • Topics

    • On Duties

  • Further reading on Cicero's life

  • Further reading on Cicero's philosophy

    • Texts by Cicero

    • Texts about Cicero

 Author Information:

Edward Clayton

Central Michigan University

© 2001

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Tombstones and Dedications

Daily Life

Historical Texts

Roman Religion

The Roman Army

Officers and Military Careers

Career Soldiers

Centurion who died with Varus

The Cavalry Officer who Killed Decebalus

Soldier Inscriptions

The Army in the Field

Josephus on the Army 1

Josephus on the Army 2

Army Life

Letters of Abinnaeus

Military Diploma given to Auxiliary Troops on Discharge

Hadrian Visits the Army

Abuse by Soldiers

Privileges of Veterans

The Frontiers and Foreign Policy

Formula for Surrender

A Roman Triumph

The Parthian War

Hadrian's Wall

Treaties of Commodus

Barbarian Invasions

In the Later Empire

Severus and the Army

The Roman Legal System




Last Updated 02/06/2001

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Roman food

For the ordinary Roman, food was basic. The staple diet consisted mostly of a wheat-based porridge, seasoned with herbs or meat if available. However, as Sally Grainger's recipes show, on special occasions the table would be festooned with more luxurious fare.

Stuffed Kidneys
Serves 4

8 lambs kidneys

2 heaped tspn fennel seed (dry roasted in pan)
1 heaped tspn whole pepper corns
4 oz pine nuts
1 large handful fresh coriander
2 tbspn olive oil
2 tbspn fish sauce
4 oz pigs caul or large sausage skins

Skin the kidney, split in half and remove the fat and fibres. In a mortar, pound the fennel seed with the pepper to a coarse powder. Add this to a food processor with the pine nuts. Add the washed and chopped coriander and process to a uniform consistency. Divide the mixture into 8 and place in the centre of each kidney and close them up. If you have caul use it to wrap the kidneys up to prevent the stuffing coming out. Similarly stuff the kidney inside the sausage skin. Heat the oil and seal the kidneys in a frying pan. Transfer to an oven dish and add the fish sauce. Finish cooking in a medium oven.

Serve as a starter or light snack with crusty bread and a little of the juice.

Pear Patina
Serves 4

1½ lb firm pears

10fl oz red wine
2 oz raisins
4 oz honey
1 tspn ground cumin
1 tbspn olive oil
2 tbspn fish sauce
4 eggs
plenty of freshly ground black pepper

Peel and core the pears and cook in the wine, honey and raisins until tender. Strain and process the fruit and return to the cooking liquor. Add the cumin, oil and fish sauce and the eggs well beaten. Pour into a greased shallow dish and bake in a preheated oven (375º F) for 20 mins or until set. Let the custard stand for 10 mins before serving warm.

Serves 2

10 oz ricotta cheese

1 egg
2½ oz plain flour
Runny honey

Beat the cheese with the egg and add the sieved flour very slowly and gently. Flour your hands and pat mixture into a ball and place it on a bay leaf on a baking tray. Place in moderate oven (400ºF) until set and slightly risen. Place cake on serving plate and score the top with a cross. our plenty of runny honey over the cross and serve immediately.

Sally Grainger is co-author of The Classical Cookbook, published by British Museum Press

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Things they got absolutely right:

1. Marcus Aurelius’ daughter Lucilla had once been married to Lucius Verus. What isn’t mentioned in the film is that Verus was Marcus’ co-emperor at the beginning of his reign.

2. It was indeed not unusual for former gladiators like Proximo to operate training lycea. And a wooden sword was the symbol of a gladiator’s freedom. However, most gladiators were not permanent slaves. The usual term for a gladiator, if he survived, was five years.

3. Yes, noble women did become gladiator groupies. When the gladiator barracks at Pompeii were excavated, the skeleton of a wealthy older woman wearing gold jewelry was found there.

4. Although Richard Harris is too old to portray Marcus Aurelius, his character seems to be spot-on.

5. Maximus quotes from Marcus Aurelius’ Mediations (“Death smiles at us all...”).

6. The uniforms worn by the soldiers are quite accurate. Close examination shows that the archers were foreign auxiliaries, which is also accurate. The legion name, however, was fictitious; there was no Felix Legion in the Roman Army. The legions in upper Germany at the time of the film were the VIII Augusta and the XXII Primigenia, while the legions in lower Germany were the I Minerva and probably the VI Victrix.

7. Senator Gracchus is quite right when he says that no Roman army has entered the capitol in a hundred years. The last time was during the “Year of Four Emperors,” 69 A.D, just over 110 years before the setting of the film.

8. It’s no surprise that Maximus is from Spain. Spain was an important province of the Roman Empire (Gibbon points out that Spain flourished as a province and declined as a kingdom, which is absolutely true). The Emperor Trajan was from Spain. Also, Maximus’ home could well have been “in the hills above Trujillo.” Trujillo was indeed a town in Roman times, though it seems odd Maximus does not use its Roman name.

9. Lucilla really did conspire against Commodus. In real life, however, she was exiled and later executed for it.

Things they got wrong:

1. When Juba tosses Maximus a sword during the first battle in the Coliseum, he yells, to get his attention, “Maximus!” But there’s no evidence anyone among the gladiators knew his name until he tells the Emperor at the end of the same scene.

2. During the opening battle scene, the Roman infantry neglect to throw their pili, the javelins they carry. The usual Roman tactic was to throw the pilum when within a few yards of the enemy, then draw the gladius and move into close combat. The Roman infantry also would have held its line much better when the barbarian horde charges them. Other than this, this is a magnificent scene.

3. The Emperor Commodus was left-handed. Joaquin Phoenix plays him right-handed.

4. Commodus theorizes that Marcus Aurelius has called him to Germania to announce that he will be his heir. In fact, Commodus was already co-emperor with his father by this time and had been for four years.

5. Marcus Aurelius was only 59 when he died; Richard Harris is too old. Also, Marcus died of plague. He was not murdered by Commodus.

6. Commodus not only loved the games, he actually participated as a gladiator.

7. Commodus actually reigned for 12 years and was far more monstrous than portrayed.

8. Rome is majestic, but I question how much of the Rome we see was based on actual maps of the city. The area around the Coliseum seems too built up. Nowhere do we see the giant statue of Nero the Coliseum got its name from, nor the nearby Baths of Trajan. Aqueducts were a very prominent part of Roman civic architecture that we hardly see.

9. I don’t believe that the Coliseum was known by that name at the time depicted in the film. Its proper name is the Flavian Ampitheatre, named for the Flavian emperors Vespasian and Titus who built it.

10. Lucilla did not have a son by Lucius Verus, and it’s doubtful that Maximus would have mourned his death, as he had a very poor reputation even during his lifetime.

11. The history is fictitious and probably not even possible, sadly. It remains a mystery why Marcus would permit a man as evil as his son to succeed him, but he would never even have considered a return to the Republic. What Commodus says is basically right: an empire needs an emperor, and the Roman Republic was barely workable at the best of times.

12. Thumbs up, thumbs down…who knows? Evidently the gesture thumbs down was meant as the signal to permit the fallen gladiator to live, the gesture meaning for his rival to down his weapon. The gesture for death is more controversial; some say thumbs up, others say the thumb held to the throat in a throat-cutting gesture. One thing is certain, however; right or wrong the filmmakers had no choice but to use the gestures as they did because to do otherwise would have confused the audience.

13. What happened to the dog?! Seriously, the producers say that the dog got forgotten as the script changed. Evidently in an earlier version of the script Maximus rejoined his army, and his pet dog.

14. Commodus probably would have worn a toga more often than his uncomfortable military garb.

15. Men and women did not sit together in the Coliseum. Women were restricted to the uppermost rows. The film does correctly portray the special seating section for the Vestal Virgins, however.

16. It’s not likely that Maximus could have achieved the command of a Roman army without ever having been to Rome. Officers in the legions did not have strictly military careers; it was usual to have a career that alternated between military postings and civilian governmental jobs. Sometime in his career, Maximus would surely have been to Rome, and probably lived there for a time.

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... They also commanded the Roman army (both had two ... two consuls had to belong to the
Patriciate, the Roman ... men like Julius Caesar and Octavian had similar careers ... - 8k - Cached - Similar pages

[Really good descriptions and definitions of all the career levels.]

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CALS/HIST 4081/5081: The Roman Republic
... We have also seen that most successful Roman politicians built their political careers ... Thus,
not only do they offer first-hand information about the Roman army ... - 9k - Cached - Similar pages

CLAS/HIST 4081/5081: The Roman Republic

Reading Handout 10. Caesar Imperator

Reading for Thursday, Nov. 16


-WHY 198-206

-LR # 108; 110; 113

-Caesar The Gallic Wars trans. M. Hadas (in Reading Packet) Bk. 1 chapters 1-54 (pp. 5-39); Bk. 4 chapters 1-15 (pp. 74-81); Bk. 6 chapters 11-28 (pp. 133-142)

also at: http://classics.


We have begun to see that C. Iulius Caesar (100 - 44 BC) was among the most effective politicians of his day. We have also seen that most successful Roman politicians built their political careers around military achievements, and that Caesar was no exception. Today we will read Caesar’s own account of his greatest foreign campaigns, undertaken primarily against the Celtic peoples who inhabited most of what we now call France, but also against the neighboring Germanic tribes to the east and the Britains to the north-west. Most of the histories we have read thus far were written well after the events they describe. However, commanders often kept records of their military exploits, records which they called commentarii (commentaries, raw records of their exploits). Unfortunately, none of these survive with the exception of Julius Caesar’s account of his Gallic campaigns between 58 and 50 BC. Caesar’s Commentarii de bello gallico (“Commentaries on the Gallic War”) are thus an extremely important source precisely because they were written contemporaneously with the events they describe. Thus, not only do they offer first-hand information about the Roman army on campaign, but they deliver this information in an unvarnished report which brings to life Roman attitudes (or at least the attitudes of a Roman commander) towards the peoples against whom Rome fought.


As we read Caesar’s Commentarii, we should ask ourselves:


-What are Caesar’s views of the Gauls and Germans?

-How does Caesar engineer situations where Roman military intervention is both possible and “necessary”?

-What justifications does Caesar give for using military force?

-How did Caesar use Gallic and Germanic social structures to military and political advantage?

-Why does Caesar spend nine years (1/6th of his entire life; one third of his life as a senator) on military campaigns in Gaul and Germany?

-How reliable is his account? What sorts of cautions should we apply in reading it?

-In the end, were Caesar’s Gallic campaign’s good for Caesar’s career or not? Were they or were they not good for Rome?


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The Roman Army

... Becoming a Soldier Becoming a Soldier Maximus. The Army Career. Roman society
was governed by class and so in effect there was three separate army careers ... - 101k - Cached - Similar pages
[ More results from ]

[This is really good for all parts of the army.]


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... Chapter, Late Republic Late Republic Gallery Portrait Gallery, Roman ... He used his
wealth to raise his own army and ... And so his money helped build the careers of ... - 8k - Cached - Similar pages

Marcus Licinius Crassus
(d. 53 BC)

Crassus grew up as the son of a consul and distinguished general.
His career to fame and phenomenal wealth began as he started purchasing the houses of Sulla's victims. Had Sulla confiscated all their belongings he sold them off cheap. And Crassus bought and made sensational profits when selling them on.
Using his wealth he also kept a troop of 500 slaves, all skilled builders, on stand-by. He would then simply wait for one of Rome's frequent fires to break out and would then offer to buy the burning properties, as well as the endangered neighbouring buildings. Using his team of builders he would then rebuild the area and keep it to draw income from rent, or sell it on with a large profit. At one point Crassus was said even to own most of the city of Rome. There was no doubt some who wondered, if some of the fires started in Rome might not actually have been his doing.

But Crassus was not a man to be content with being extremely rich. Power was just as desirable to him as money. He used his wealth to raise his own army and supported Sulla on his return from the east.

His money bought him the favour among many political friends and he therefore enjoyed great influence in the senate.
But Crassus would not merely sponsor and entertain well established politicians. So, too, would he be granting funds to promising young firebrands who might just get lucky. And so his money helped build the careers of both Julius Caesar as well as Cataline.

Crassus; problem however was that some of his contemporaries possessed true genius. Cicero was an outstanding public speaker whilst Pompey and Caesar bathed in the glory of the marvellous military achievements. Crassus was a decent both as a speaker and as a commander, but he struggled and failed to live up to comparison with these exceptional individuals. His talent lay in making money, which might have bought him political influence but couldn't buy him true popularity with the voters.

His money though did open many doors. For his wealth allowed him to raise and maintain an army, at a time when Rome felt its resources stretched. This army was raised, with him as commander in the rank of praetor, to take on the terrifying menace of the the slave revolt of Spartacus in 72 BC. Two specific acts regarding this war made him truly infamous. When his deputy met the enemy and suffered a disastrous defeat, he chose to revive the ancient and gruesome punishment of 'decimation'. Of the five hundred men, whose unit were deemed most guilty for bringing about defeat, he had every tenth man killed in front of the entire army.
Then, after defeating Spartacus in battle, the 6000 survivor's of the slave army were crucified along the road from Rome to Capua, where the revolt had first arise.

Despite his evident jealousy towards Pompey he held the consulship with him in 70 BC, the two of them using their term in office to restore the rights of the Tribunes of the People. In 59 BC the two were then joined by Julius Caesar in waht was to become known as the First Triumvirate, a period which saw the three of them cover all bases of Roman power so effectively that they ruled virtually unopposed. In 55 BC he once more shared the consulship with Pompey.

Thereafter he managed to gain for himself the governorship of the province of Syria.
Syria held two promises for its governor-to-be. The prospect of further riches (it was one of the wealthiest provinces of the entire empire) and the possibility of military glory against the Parthians. Had Crassus always jealously looked upon the military achievements of Pompey and Caesar. Now, alas, he sought to equal them. He charged headlong into a war, embarking on a campaign, whilst ignoring advice offered him on how to proceed.
Finally he found himself stranded with little to no cavalry on the plains of Carrhae in Mesopotamia where the Parthian mounted archers shot his armies to pieces (53 BC).

Crassus was killed and it is said that his head as severed and molten gold was poured into his mouth as a mark of his infamous greed.


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Cutout Card Legionary Helmet
Imperial 'Gallic' helmet
as worn by Roman legionaries of 1st/2nd century AD

Here is the result of one of my latest little projects; a cutout card Roman legionary helmet !
Useable as a toy, shelf decoration or even a theatre prop for school or church plays.

The price of a helmet is
US$9.99 / UK£6.50
& postage and packaging.

To purchase via Credit Card, click on the 'Paypal' button below.

Printed on strong, thick, medium glossy paper, the helmet consists of 19 parts, on four A4 sheets, which need cutting out, folding and glueing together. With an inside circumference of ca. 63 cm (24.8 inches) it should be large enough for even most adult heads. For children using cotton wool, or other material as wadding should help with the fitting of the helmet to the smaller head.

The four card sheets come with an A4 assembly instruction sheet. Assembly may be tricky for some. Parental help may well be required for some children. - For glueing I would advise a 'Pritt-stick'.

The 300 gsm paper makes for a pretty sturdy model helmet. Its printed surface shows details such as mouldings, bronze studs and bronze edging. Also deflection areas on the cheek-protectors have been incorporated into the design. Naturally there is also an angled neck guard and, just as in the real thing, the ear guards stand out at 90 degrees. Notice also the little vizor which, on the real helmets, would prevent rainwater from running down into the soldier's face.

Below on the right; one of the many prototypes required in the development of this model.


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Richard P. Saller
... & Rome ns 27 (1980), 69-83; "Promotion and patronage in equestrian careers ... Historical
Review 89 (1984), 740-41; L. Keppie, The Making of the Roman Army from ... People/Faculty/sallercv.html - 19k - Cached - Similar pages
{Lots of different articles about marriage, family, etc.]

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Outline of important points about Emperors from Vespasian to Marcus Aurelius


Vespasian (71-79)   
A sign of the new men, from Italy and the provinces, who would fill imperial administration, especially via army. 

As Censor appointed new men of ability to Senate, which became representative of empire. Made extensive grants of citizenship. 
Used senators as his administrators, and consulted Senate as a courtesy. The administrators of the departments created by Claudius gave stability as emperors came and went, but V. made these administrators equestrians (knights) rather than freedmen.
Concerned with rebuilding treasury, raised money by various ingenious methods.
Seriously cut down on corruption and lavish gifts to supporters. Put down various provincial revolts, as well as the so-called ‘Stoic opposition’ - exiled stoic philosophers. 
Made sure that his sons would be emperors, and made Titus virtually co-ruler. 
  New wide-scale building program, such as the Colosseum, a new imperial palace and new festivals.
  A plain man with a good sense of humor. Made a god when he died. 

Titus (79-81)

   Much loved. 
Was more lavish than his father in gifts and promises, but died before doing damage. Gave lavish aid after various natural disasters and a fire at Rome. Pompeii and Herculaneum were destroyed during his reign. 
Under his command the final phase of the first Jewish war occurred. The temple at Jerusalem was destroyed and not rebuilt - the end of Temple based Judaism. 
Titus was also made a god

Domitian (81-96)
Another Bad Emperor Somewhat like Tiberius; ill-tempered, his wait for power embittered him, made him demand extravagant honors (call me Master and God!), and punished harshly any insults. Treated Senate as his servant. 
  Made important advances in Britain and in the Rhine; there the great defensive line, the limes, was begun. Camps become more permanent -- often grow into small towns. Under Flavians there was more reorganization of army. D. raised military pay by 30%, causing financial problems.
When a serious conspiracy was uncovered (89), he became more despotic; the informers, trials and confiscation’s increased, leading to his assassination. When he was killed, his very memory was damned by Senate. Damnatio Memoriae

The Five Good Emperors: The Zenith of the Cosmopolitan Empire

Nerva (96-98)
Part of conspiracy against Domitian, picked by Senate, avoided mistake of Galba, adopted the great general Trajan for safety. The adoption of an able heir was a good way to ensure a better emperor, and it worked -- until Marcus Aurelius. 

Trajan (98-117) 
A Spaniard (not in the modern sense, but he did come from Spain), the first princeps from the provinces, one of the greatest emperors. 
A great conqueror -- got as far as Babylon. Added Dacia, Arabia and Armenia to Empire.
Gave more authority to Senate, but appointed men to Senate from provinces.

Like Vespasian he wanted efficiency. Sent caretakers (curatores) to cities and provinces whose finances were in trouble. 
Trajan and especially Hadrian made additions to imperial bureaucracy, but excluded freedmen.
Vast building program - Forum of Trajan, enlarged port at Ostia. Increased welfare programs began by Nerva. Lavish games, public donations.
Adopted Hadrian, became a god 

Hadrian (117-138)

Restless, curious artist. Initially he executed various senators, and various points of his career were marred by executions of rivals and enemies. 
While he withdrew from many of Vespasian’s gains, he worked hard to maintain military discipline, created vast defensive line - Hadrian’s Wall in Britian. 
A clear distinction now appears between civil service and the military careers, (widening gap between soldier and civilian), and the ranks of knights now have various grades: vir egregius, vir perfectissimus, vir eminentissimus, vir clarissimus.
Because of his desire to make all parts of empire important, Italy was more and more treated like another province.
Spent much of his career visiting the provinces, out of curiosity as well as to settle problems. A confirmed lover of all things Greek, he did major rebuilding in Athens and created a federation of Greek cities. 

Due to his attempt to make the Jews like Greeks and Romans (he forbade circumcision) there occurred the Bar Kokhba revolt (131-4) which ended in mass extermination (over a million died), with Jews forbidden to live in Jerusalem. The beginning of the Diaspora. 
Had great interest in art, poetry, and architecture; responsible for buildings like the Pantheon, temple of Rome and Venus and his vast villa at Tivoli (more about that later) 
  Made his lover Antinoos, who drowned in Egypt, a god with a widespread cult. CLICK HERE FOR PICTURE OF STATUE OF ANTINOOS.

Antoninus Pius (138-161)

Placeholder for Marcus Aurelius, but ruled longer than Hadrian had expected. Multiethnic, he traveled little, the empire was at peace, his relations with Senate cordial. He did advance the Roman borders some. But raids on the borders suggest the coming crises. 

Marcus Aurelius. (161-180)

Philosopher by temperament, fortified by his Stoic beliefs, detailed in his Greek Meditations. And he needed them. For a while he was co-emperor under Lucius Verus, his less able adoptive brother, and under him the Empire suffered various terrible troubles. 
In 161 Parthians attacked the eastern frontiers. Roman armies under Lucius Verus and Avidius Cassius eventually defeated them and gained land in Western Mesopotamia -- but soldiers brought back with them a plague that decimated the empire. 
Under Marcus came first major barbarian invasions, the Marcomanni and Quadi along the Danube, who penetrated as far as Aquileia in N. Italy. To pay for expenses M. sold off imperial property and devalued the currency. He commanded the army in person and gained victory in 175, then was distracted by revolt of Avidius Cassius in Egypt; By 178 he was on the attack, and would have added new lands, but he died. 
By now that the Roman army, both its regular legions and its auxiliary units, were largely composed of non-Italians, who would have different views about the importance of Rome and Italy. With the hardening of the defensive line, legions tended to be stationed in one fortified place, and most military duties were more like those of police and guard duty. The increasing pressure of the barbarian nations on the borders of empire will eventually lead Emperors to recruit near-barbarians and then whole barbarian tribes to help them fight other barbarians. "Romanized" culture will likewise diminish. 
Further, under him the class stucture of Roman life hardens, with a clear legal distinction being made between honestiores (the better people) and the humiliores (the lower classes), who get harsher punishments.
Marcus’ huge mistake was to allow his degenerate son Commodus, to become emperor -- another very bad emperor (he liked to think of himself as Hercules), whose assasination will get off another round of civil wars. More to come!

Outline of Emperors from Vespasian to Marcus Aurelius
... A clear distinction now appears between civil service and the military careers,
(widening gap between soldier and civilian ... By now that the Roman army ... Jeanstuff/EMPOVERHEAD.HTML - 14k - Cached - Similar pages


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The Glory That Was Rome - Main Page: Tactics Armor Arms ...
... they were from the Equestrian class and only served in the legion to further their
political careers ... Witnessing the crushing defeat of a large Roman army ... - 36k - Cached - Similar pages

[This has a great deal of information, drawings, and charts for the army and weapons.]


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Classical Medicine

... not equaled until well into the 19th century--and surgery was very important to
the Roman ... Army surgeons were far more proficient than the Greek physicians. ... - 9k - Cached - Similar pages


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PDF] luxury, and that the 100 million sesterces involved did not put ...
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
... Taking all its forces together, the Roman army ... of peace as well as men of war, they
regarded military activi- ties as a temporary episode in their careers ... - Similar pages
[this book will be good for lots of little bits of information]

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Ancient Physicians

... the 17th century. While a surgeon in the Roman army, he collected plant
specimens all over the known world. Empedocles of Agrigentum ... - 23k - Cached - Similar pages

[List of physicians and their “discoveries”.]


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Ancient Rome - Julius Caesar

... of the Roman nobility for office and the spoils ... under Roman rule throughout the Roman
[ More results from ]

[This has info on the methods to riches primarily using Caesar as the main example.]


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Ancient Rome - Julius Caesar

... of the Roman nobility for office and the spoils ... under Roman rule throughout the Roman
[ More results from ]






ARCHITECTURE ~ SACRED SITES Colosseum, Circus Maximus, Hippodrome













ROMAN EMPIRE The Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire
















EMPORERS ~ Agustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Galba,

Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Nerva, Trajan


























VOLCANOES Complete List & Links

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