The Role of Visual Aids in Corporate Annual Reports in Drawing Wider Audience Internally Mochammad Surjo Koentjoro 1


The Stakeholders of an Organization



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4.3. The Stakeholders of an Organization
Table 2. An Organization’s Key Stakeholders and the Nature of Claims Stakeholder Groups Nature of Claims
1 Stockholders Dividends, Capital Appreciation.
2 Employees Wages, Benefits, Safe Working Environment, Job Security.
3 Supplies Payment on Time, Assurance of Continued Relationship.
4 Creditors Payment of Interest, Repayment of Principal.
5 Customers Values, Warranties.
6 Government Taxes, Compliance with Regulations Communities Good Citizenship Behaviour, Corporate Social Responsibility.
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Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research (AEBMR), volume 41

According to Dess, et. al., (2010) in table 2 above, employees is among the stakeholders who have some claims on the company. In the book A Theory of Human Motivation, Abraham
Maslow (1943) wrote about the hierarchy of needs.
(10) For an employee of a company, those claims of benefits, wages, safe working environment and job security are his or her needs of safety. Attempts to seek safety and stability in the world are seen in the very common preference for familiar rather than unfamiliar things, or for the known rather than the unknown as is the casein the workplace. Berger and Calabrese (1957) proposed the Uncertainty Reduction Theory, which stated that social life is filled with ambiguity, and individuals use communication to minimize their doubts. According to the Uncertainty Reduction Theory, there are three strategies an individual can seek ways to reduce uncertainty, the passive strategy, the active strategy, and the inter-
active strategy.
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In the passive strategy, an individual (an employee) waits and pays attention until a relevant information comes his or her way. In an active strategy he or she seeks information from what resources available for him or her. This should include the latest edition of the Corporate Annual Report in which he or she could learn about the company’s performance in terms of Finance or Management. He or she could learn more about the Vision and Mission of the company, the goals and objective of the company, the plans made by the management. All those information could help reducing his or her uncertainty, thus help fulfilling his or her needs of safety. And it should be noted that all important messages of Annual Reports are presented prominently and aesthetically designed to ensure the visibility of the message.
Figure 1. Introduction page from the PT. Semen Gresik, Tbk.’s 2016 Annual Report In the sample above, the company is states what it considers its most important achievement which is Winning the Domestic Market Competition written as the title of the page followed by more detailed description. The tone of optimism of the whole message should give an employee of the company a measure of safety. In the interactive strategy, an employee would directly pose questions to the members of the management.
Non-verbally, the use of a particular style, design, corporate colour palette, and logo on the Annual Report, which the employees can also see on their uniforms, business stationer- ies, buildings and vehicles, can also strengthen the sense of belonging. These visual aids can increase audience (readers) comprehension and retention. Visuals reinforce and help communicate the speakers (senders) message, enabling receiver to understand what words alone cannot transmit.
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